How to Carry Out a Requirements Analysis

If you begin a new project without gathering project requirements from sponsors and end users, you're setting yourself up for failure. Projects are successful when they deliver positive outcomes and satisfy stakeholders' expectations. If your project does not meet project and user expectations , it has failed no matter how fast you completed or kept it within budget. 

Say, for example, you’re leading a project to create a new mobile app. You gather project requirements and put together a team of developers, product managers, and creatives. After the launch, however, users complain about the app's interface. They are unable to navigate the app to get anything done. 

It turns out that your team had been so focused on satisfying every project requirement gathered from project sponsors that they ignored one crucial user requirement for software projects: keep it simple!  

Your team delivered a functioning app but failed to meet users' expectations. Luckily, you can avoid such outcomes by identifying, analyzing, and validating stakeholders' requirements before beginning new projects. This is where requirements analysis comes in. 

What is a requirements analysis?

Requirements analysis involves defining, analyzing, validating, and aligning stakeholders' expectations for new projects while considering all possible conflicts. 

It’s a process of identifying, analyzing, and managing project requirements to determine what the project should accomplish and eliminate any ambiguities or conflicting requirements in your project plan . 

As you conduct the requirements analysis process, remember that any accepted requirements must be:

When is a requirements analysis carried out?

Typically, you carry out the requirements analysis process before you begin project planning . Additionally, in project management , you conduct requirements analysis when:

Who carries out a requirements analysis?

Project managers carry out project requirements analysis before beginning new projects. The requirement analysis document collects, organizes, and tracks the project requirements from key stakeholders. It guides project planning and ensures you complete your projects aligned with stakeholder and business goals. 

Requirements analysis in software engineering 

While requirements analysis is beneficial to any project, it is most common in software engineering. In software engineering, requirements analysis, known as requirement engineering, defines expectations for new software being built or modified. 

Requirements analysis in software engineering empowers project managers and leaders to maintain clear direction, keep users' needs front-and-center, and develop comprehensive documentation of the development process. Requirements analysis in software engineering is usually an iterative, continuous process throughout a project’s duration, not a one-and-done task . 

How do you find out project requirements?

Unearthing the project requirements is the crux of requirements analysis. It starts with identifying and getting input from the most important stakeholders. After identifying these stakeholders, record their project requirements for research and validation before work begins.

There are three main stages in conducting a thorough requirements analysis: 

Important stakeholders to consult in the requirements analysis process include clients, end users, team members, and project sponsors. These are usually the stakeholders most impacted by the project, and their needs combine to define the ideal project outcome. 

Requirements analysis techniques you need to know

Requirements analysis techniques help you determine the stakeholder expectations that make it through requirements analysis. They also allow you to clarify stakeholders’ expectations in simple, visual language to ensure you are on the same page. Once you have gathered the requirements, write them down in a requirement analysis document and share them with your stakeholders for approval. 

If you make changes to this requirement analysis document during the project, record it through a change control procedure and submit it again for approval from the relevant stakeholders. 

Requirements analysis techniques for discovering business needs

The following requirement analysis techniques help to discover business needs:

Requirements analysis techniques for identifying software requirements

The following requirement analysis techniques help to identify software requirement needs:

What are the benefits of a requirements analysis?

The return on investment for a good quality requirements gathering and analysis almost always outweighs the cost . Giving due time and effort into the process means you can deliver a superior product with much fewer roadblocks taking up your time. Some of the benefits of a good requirements analysis include:

What are the challenges of identifying project requirements?

However, when identifying project requirements, there are some common challenges to expect. Some of these are:

1. Stakeholders don't know what they want

The biggest challenge of requirements analysis is that customers often have a vague idea of what they want. Some clients may know but struggle with communicating it, so it’s up to you to ask the right questions to capture their needs. 

2. Requirements are often dynamic 

Another challenge of requirements analysis is the evolving nature of requirements. Expectations defined at the start of the project may change as the project progresses. Business trends may impact initial conditions, necessitating an entirely new solution. Have backup plans and change management processes in place to tackle unexpected changes. 

3. Poor communication between teams 

Due to the difference in technical expertise between project managers, engineers, and users, these stakeholders may not always see eye to eye. It's your job as the project manager to be a mediator and communicator between all involved sides. 

4. The development team is oblivious to the organization's politics

Development teams are often oblivious to organizational politics, particularly in large companies with cross-functional teams . Unchecked, this may cause misunderstanding, misalignment of goals, and project failure. 

What is the requirements analysis process?

The five-step process below is vital in discovering a project's requirements. 

1. Carry out a stakeholder analysis 

To discover project requirements, list the key stakeholders involved, from the project sponsor to the end users to the project team. 

Having a clear picture of who has a say in the project sets you on the right path to gathering and organizing their expectations before the actual requirements analysis. Once you identify key stakeholders, you can group them by the level of influence and interest they have in your project's success or failure.  

2. Note each stakeholder's requirements 

After you have identified and categorized the project stakeholders, ask each of them for their expectations. What do they want from this product? What is their expected outcome?

When speaking with stakeholders, maintain transparency , clarify the project scope and any potential scope gaps , and contextualize discussions. If you don't do so, stakeholders may set unrealistic project requirements, which will lead to disappointment if you fail to implement their desired functionalities in the project deliverable . 

It’s essential to understand each stakeholder’s distinct perspective to create and communicate a clearer picture of your project’s goals. Here are some requirements analysis techniques that will help note stakeholders' requirements:

3. Group requirements

After identifying requirements, group them into any of these four categories:

4. Clarify and record requirements 

Now, it's time to determine each requirement's feasibility and how the project can deliver them. To achieve this, you must:

5. Get a signed agreement 

It's not enough to verbally agree on requirements. Get them in writing and have the document signed by key stakeholder groups affirming that the presented requirements accurately reflect their needs. This requirement analysis document, known in software engineering as Software Requirements Specifications (SRS), prevents the likelihood of scope creep issues.

Requirement analysis document example 

Your requirement analysis document (RAD) can include text and visual diagrams. It can serve as a contractual agreement between you and your clients and should be written in language stakeholders can understand. Important sections of a requirements analysis document include:

Here’s a requirement analysis document example from Florida State University to inspire yours.

Why use Wrike as a requirement analysis tool?

A successful project meets all stakeholder expectations. Powerful project management tools like Wrike make it easy to gather requirements from key stakeholders, offer visibility into the requirements analysis and project planning process, and analyze project requirements in a centralized location and workspace. 

Are you ready to achieve project goals in time and on budget while fulfilling stakeholder expectations? Start with a free two-week trial of Wrike's project management software.

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Library Management System Capstone Project Document

The target of this project is to develop a utility that may automate the entire process of a library. The software program that may be developed ought to have services like Add / Delete Members, Add / Delete Books, Difficulty & Return. The application should be secured, in addition to with restricted entry.

The main requirement of the project would be the ease of use, moreover being probably the most environmentally friendly and efficient device for the aim. The application should be user-friendly. It ought to be sturdy and scalable.

An automatic solution can be very helpful to the group, as it will deliver construction to the entire course in order that it may be traced for any type of question. Additionally, an automated solution will result in optimum utilization of the available resources, lowering duplication of effort, growing effectivity and minimizing time-delays.

Following are the main objectives of computerization:

For Library Staff

Problems With The Current System

The benefits of the proposed software are as follow:


The application would efficiently store all the information related to the various processes in the system and output the relevant information.


The appliance could be available to all the staff of the organizations with an authorized entry to the workstations and people who are subject to the authorization permissions.

The system would have ample safety checking by means of the authentication of the users. The reports would solely be available to the staff of the library as per their particular requirements.

Cost Reduction

It can be achieved by minimizing the use of the stationary for reports. Soft copy of all the reports. Soft copy of all the reports can be viewed and hence reducing the need for the hard copy.

Project Management System

Project management involves the planning, monitoring, and control of the people, process, and events that occur as software evolves from a preliminary concept to an operational implementation. Effective software project management focuses on the four principles: people, product, process, and project.

Software engineering institute has developed a people management capability maturity model (PM-CMM). The people management maturity model defines the key practice areas for software people like recruiting, selection, performance management, training, compensation, carrier development, organization, and work design, and team/culture development.

The product

Before a project can be planned, product objectives and scope should be established, alternative solutions should be considered and technical and management constraints should be identified. Scope identifies the primary data, functions, and behaviors that characterize the product.

The process

A software process provides the framework from which a comprehensive plan for   Software development can be established.

Framework activities –  are populated with tasks, milestones, work products, and Quality assurance points. These activities characterize the software product and the project team.

Umbrella activities –  i.e. software quality assurance, software configuration management, and measurement overlay the process model.

The project

Planned and controlled software projects are conducted to manage complexity. To avoid project failure, the project manager must avoid a set of common warning signs, understand critical success factors and develop a common sense approach for planning, monitoring and controlling the project.

Software Process Model

A process model for software engineering is chosen based upon:-

The process model, we have chosen to develop this software is a Linear Sequential Model

Linear Sequential Model suggests a systematic, sequential approach to software development that begins at the system level and progresses through analysis, design, coding, testing, and support.

Linear Sequential Model approach has the following phases:-

Software requirements analysis

In this, software engineer understands the nature of a program to be built, he must understand the information domain for the software as well as the required function, behavior, performance and interface. Requirements for both the system and the software are documented and reviewed with the customer.

It has four distinct attributes of a program: data structure, software architecture, interface representations, and procedural detail. It is documented and becomes part of the software.

Code generation

The design must be translated into a machine-readable form which is done by code generation.

It focuses on the logical internals of the software, ensuring that all the statements have been tested, and on the functional externals; that is conducting a test to uncover errors and ensure that defined input will produce actual results.

The Software model used is LINEAR SEQUENTIAL MODEL because of the following reasons:-

This is a phase when software will undoubtedly undergo changes after it is delivered to the customer. The change will occur because errors have been encountered because the software must be adapted to accommodate changes in its external environment, or because the customer requires functional or performance enhancements. Software support/maintenance reapplies each of the preceding phases to an existing program rather than a new one.


Team Structure

The “best” team structure depends on:-

The three generic team organizations are:

Democratic decentralized (DD)

This software engineering team has no permanent leader. Process coordinators are appointed for a brief period after which changed by others who might coordinate completely different duties. Communication amongst team members is horizontal.

Controlled decentralized (CD)

This software engineering team has a defined leader who coordinates specific tasks and secondary leaders that have responsibility for subtasks. Problem-solving stays a group activity. Communication amongst subgroups and individual is horizontal.

  Controlled centralized (CC)

Top- level problem solving and internal team coordination is managed by a team leader. Communication between the leader and team members is vertical .

The team structure used in our project is DEMOCRATIC DECENTRALISED . The team comprises of two members:-

Decentralized teams generate better options and have a larger probability of success when engaged in completely different issues. DD team construction is greatest applies to applications with low modularity.

Based on the difficulty of the problem to be solved relatively low modularity of the project and high volume of the communication required a democratic decentralized team structure is proposed. This software engineering team has no permanent leader. Rather, “activity coordinators are appointed for a brief period after which changed by others who might coordinate completely different duties.” Problem-solving is a group activity. Communication among team members is horizontal. The decentralized team generates more and better solutions than individuals. Therefore such teams have a greater probability of success when working on difficult problems.

A decentralized structure can be applied to both simple and difficult problems, but it is best applied in case of difficult problems. These team structures result in high morale, therefore good for teams that will be together for a long time. The decentralized team structure is best applied to the problem with relatively low modularity because of the higher volume of communication needed. These teams require more time to complete a project and at the same time be best when high sociability is required. In these teams, team members have trust in each other, distribution of skills must be appropriate to the problem and they share a common goal.

Software Project Scheduling


Software program Scheduling is an activity that distributes estimated effort throughout the deliberate mission by allocating the trouble to a particular software program engineering duties.

If you develop a schedule, compartmentalize the work, characterize the duty interdependencies, allocate time and effort to every job, defined duties for the work to be achieved, and defined outcomes and milestones.


With a view to constructing a fancy system, many software program engineering duties happen in parallel, and the results of work carried out throughout one job could have a profound impact on work to be performed in one other job. These interdependencies are very obscure without a schedule. It’s additionally just about inconceivable to progress on an average or giant software program mission without a detailed schedule.

Timeline Chart


When creating a software project schedule, the planner begins with a set of tasks. If automated tools are used, the work breakdown is input as a task network or task outline. Effort, duration and start date are then input for each task outline. In addition, tasks may be assigned to specific individuals.

As a consequence of this input, a Timeline Chart is generated. It enables you to determine what tasks will be conducted at a given point in time.

Risk Analysis & Management

Risk analysis and management are a series of steps that help a software team to understand and manage uncertainty. Many issues can plague a software project, a danger is a possible downside which may occur or may not.

Risk Identification

This is the first step for recognizing what can go wrong.

Next, every risk is analyzed to find out the probability that it’ll happen and the harm that it’ll do if it does happen. As soon as this data is established, risks are ranked by their chance and impression. Lastly, a plan is developed to handle these risks with excessive chance and impression.

It’s Work Product

Risk mitigation, monitoring, and management (RMMM) plan or a set of risk information sheets are produced.

Categories Of Risk

Project Risks

They threaten the project plan. They establish potential budgetary, schedule, personnel, useful resource, customized potential, and necessities drawback and there influence on a software program project. They could end in a delay in project schedule and cost.

Technical Risks

They establish potential design, implementation, interface verification, and maintenance. They threaten the standard and timeliness of software program.

Business Risks

They often jeopardize the project or the product & include market risk, strategic risk, management risk, and budget risk.

Risk Mitigation Plan

All risk analysis activities presented to this point have a single goal to assist the project team in developing a strategy for dealing with risk.

Steps taken are:

Risk Strategies

A Reactive Strategy monitors the risk project for likely risk and set aside resources to deal with them, should they become actual problems. Software team does nothing about risks until something goes wrong.

The proactive strategy begins long before technical work is initiated. Potential risks are identified, their probability impact is assessed, and they are ranked by importance.

Complexity Table

Input Screen

Output Screen

Query Screen

FPA Calculation

Unadjusted Functional Point Calculation

Function Point Calculation

FP= UFP * ( 0.65 + 0.01 * å F i )

= 82 * ( 0.65 + 0.01 * 42)

= 82 * 1.07

Requirement Analysis & Management

This is the process of deriving system requirements through observation of the existing system, discussions with potential users, task analysis and so on. This may involve the development of one or more different system model. These help the analyst to understand the system to be more specific.

Requirement Analysis

Requirement analysis is a software engineering task that bridges the gap between system level requirements engineering and software design.

Requirement analysis

The software requirements analysis may be divided into five areas of efforts :-

Problem recognition

Recognition of basic problem elements as perceived by the users.

Evaluation and synthesis

Define all data objects, evaluate the flow and content of information, define and elaborate all functions, understand software behavior and establish interface characteristics.

Functional models represent the information that software transforms, functions enabling the transformation, and behavior of the system during transformation.


States the goals and objectives of the software, describing it in context of the

Computer-based system.

Changes to the specification may be recommended.

Analysis Principles

Non-Functional Requirements

(1) The server must have enough disk space so as to store a large amount of data.

(2) The system should provide data security. Unauthorized users should not be allowed to access the system so that the integrity and secrecy of each client must be maintained.

(3) A network operating system that can support the software.

Functional Requirements

(1) The system must be easy to learn and easy to use so that it is readily accepted by its prospective users. It must provide easy and convenient means of communication between different clients.

(2) It should synchronize the access of channels to clients. No two clients should be allowed to transmit data simultaneously.

(3) It must detect collisions and recover lost messages.

(4) The client should not be allowed to run while the server is not running.

(5) It must handle exceptional conditions appropriately and efficiently.

(6) Appropriate error messages should be generated in case some exception has occurred.

(7) It must support client-to-client communication as well as broadcasting.

(8) The system must be fault tolerant i.e. it can continue in operation even after some system failure has occurred.

Data Dictionary

Entity Relationship and Data Flow Diagram


Design Concepts & Principles

The design is a meaningful engineering representation of something that is to be built. It can be traced to customer’s requirements and at the same time assessed for good quality against a set of predefined criteria for a “Good Design”.

Software Design is applied regardless of the software process model that is used. Once software requirements have been analyzed and specified, software design is the first of three technical activities – design, code generation, and test – that are required to build and verify the software.

The design focuses on four major areas of concern: data, architecture, interfaces, and components.

Component Level Design

It transforms structural elements of software architecture into a procedural description of software components.

Interface Design

It describes how the software communicates within itself, with systems that interoperate with it, and with the users who use it.

Architectural Design  

It defines the relationship between major structural elements of the software.

Data Design        

It transforms the information domain model created during analysis into the data structures that will be required to implement the software.

Design Model

Design Model

Database Design

Issue / Return

Member’s Record

Library Staff

Pseudo Code

Login Screen

This screen takes the unique login-id & password of the library staff member allowing him/her to use the system at his/her level of interference.

Menu Screen

This screen asks the library staff member to input the choice of tasks he/she wants to perform. Choices include- Add/Delete a member, Add/Delete a book, Search for a member/book, Check the details of a particular member/book, Issue/Return a book etc.

Add a new member

This screen takes the details of the new member to be added from the library staff & then accepts the new member as a part of the library unless & until some fields are not left empty or are given invalid inputs. Details include- Name, Father’s name, Mother’s name, Sex, Address, Phone No., College code, Year of joining/Admission, Status in the college (whether Student or Teacher), Course etc.

Delete a member

This screen takes the member’s id of the member to be deleted as the input from the library staff & then deletes the member from the library records unless an invalid member id is not entered by the staff member.

Add a new book

This screen takes the details of the new book to be added from the library staff & then makes the new book available for Issue/Return unless & until some fields are not left empty or are given invalid inputs. Details include- Name, Author’s name, Publisher’s name, Edition, No. of copies, Price per copy, Acc. No., Subject etc.

Delete a book

This screen takes the Acc. No. of the book to be deleted as the input from the library staff & then deletes the book from the library records unless an invalid Acc. No. is not entered by the staff member. The book deleted no longer remains available for Issue/return purposes.

Search for a member

This screen takes some description about the member to be searched according to the method of searching chosen by the library staff member. The methods of searching include- Search by name, by course, by member id etc. The records found are displayed on the same screen (if they really exist). This screen also allows the staff member to select a name from the records found & then check the details of the member directly from here.

Check member details

This screen takes the member id as the input from the library staff member & then searches for the member among a list of members and then displays the full details of the member searched if a valid member id is provided as the input. This screen also allows the library staff to issue this member a book directly from this screen as the staff member doesn’t need to enter the member id while issuing the book. The book is issued unless the member’s account is not full (max. of 5 books is taken as an assumption) or an invalid Acc. No. is not added.

Search for a book

This screen takes some description about the book to be searched according to the method of searching chosen by the library staff member. The methods of searching include- Search by name, by subject, by author etc. The records found are displayed on the same screen (if they really exist). This screen also allows the staff member to select a book from the records found & then check the details of the book directly from here.

Checkbook detail

This screen takes the Acc. No. as the input from the library staff member & then searches for the book among a list of books and then displays the full details of the book searched if a valid Acc. No. is provided as the input. This screen also allows the library staff to issue this book directly to a member from this screen as the staff member doesn’t need to enter the Acc. No. while issuing the book. The book is issued unless the member’s account is not full (max. of 5 books is taken as an assumption) or an invalid member id is not added.

This screen takes member id, Acc. No., Date of issue, Date of return from the library staff & then issues the selected book the member unless an invalid member id or Acc. No. is not entered by the staff member or the member’s account is not full (max. of 5books is taken as an assumption) or else the book is not already issued to some other member.

This screen takes the member id, Acc. No. as the input from the library staff & then displays the details of the book. The details include- Date of issue, Date of return. Date of actual return is entered by the staff member & the fine is calculated if the Actual date of return is later than the Date of return specified to the member. The book is then deleted from the member’s account when all dues are cleared and it is again available for issue/return purposes.

Architectural Design

Architectural Design

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Capstone Project

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System Design and Specification, Capstone Project Example

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Our industries, factories, organizations, SME’s are revolutionized significantly with the aid of information technology. The manual procedures which were conducted by physical interaction are now integrated in to computerized software programs and networks. The automation processes are now only a few mouse clicks away. These systems enabled the organizations to get accurate and efficient information almost instantly. Information technology is penetrated in almost every sector, every industry, corporate organizations, small businesses, online businesses, cell phones, home computers, fax machines, emails, Internet, and our day to day activities. Hence, Information technology is a part of our lives, culture and society.

On the other hand, the robust revolution of information technology advancements has enabled itself almost essential for every organization. The adaptation of information systems enables the business to automate the manual processes, productivity, reliability and efficiency. The objective is to automate organizational processes and decisions with the help of information systems. The objectives are to optimize the throughput and productivity at lowest cost. Evaluating information systems is listed in one of the most crucial aspects of this industry. Computer scientist showed the propensity to concentrate their efforts in terms of developing methods for evaluating the performance of information systems. The values which they consider as parameters to evaluate information systems are; the total throughput of the system, CPU utilization and processing a given job at lowest cost (Oxford Journals).

Today, information systems equipped with latest technology are mandatory to be incorporated in every corporate organization. However, gaining benefits from the new systems need an extensive consideration on various factors related to the success or failure of these systems. Similarly, a network design was constructed for Stush Inc. The specific product is a proposed network design addressing issues highlighted in requirement analysis. As the requirement analysis highlighted an absence of mechanism for capturing internal market of garment buyers and suppliers. Similarly, no administrative and technical controls are available. Moreover, no standardized practices are followed for business operations and no communication infrastructure available for connecting branches located at different locations. For addressing all these issues, a proposed network design was constructed. The design incorporates physical assets such as workstations, servers and network devices. For capturing international buyers, an infrastructure capable of hosting a secure website is implemented. For deploying administrative controls, network policy is drafted for designating ownerships and responsibilities for enforcement of policy. Moreover, technical controls are addressed by configuring VPN, CHAP, MD5 and PPTP along with Microsoft Internet and Acceleration server that will also work as a proxy server for Stush Inc. furthermore, for addressing scalability for the future, virtualization solutions are also implemented such as the Microsoft Hyper V (Stidley, 2008).

As far as training is concerned, information technology is evolving at a rapid pace. Organizations are keen to align with current trends in the industry. As we are currently on the initial stage of our training phase, users must be trained for using workstations and accessing data sources on the network. Moreover, they must be well versed for acceptable use policies that may include do’s and don’ts for the Stush network services and resources. Training is not a single phase activity; it is a periodic process that initiates on different phases of the network. For instance, network development training incorporates users to contribute in the development process, network migration training incorporates business continuity planning, and network maintenance incorporates support training for the support staff. As per the current scenario, on- going training is recommended, as the system behavior will change during network implementation. Users must be trained for accessing data sources within the internal as well as external networks i.e. remote offices. Moreover, users must be trained for establishing VPN connectivity if lost for some reason. Furthermore, updating anti-virus, defragmenting and scanning hard drive for efficiency and known viruses is also incorporated in an ongoing training of the staff.

Description of Products

The product of the design demonstrates a connectivity of two offices via a Virtual private network connection. The VPN connection is subscribed from an Internet Service Provider. Each remote office comprises of a firewall that accepts or denies data packets as per defined rules. After the firewall, a router is installed. The backbone router that is located at the hub branch is more secure, as it received request for connections from all other remote offices i.e. spokes. Secure encryption protocols, algorithms and hashing techniques are configured. Furthermore, the router is than connected to a switch connecting to internal network or local area network within the hub branch. However, the spoke branch incorporates a configuration of only MD5 at the router and the rest is similar to hub branch. The hub branch also incorporates Domain environment i.e. Microsoft Active Directory server, Microsoft Internet and Acceleration Server and RADIUS server. The Microsoft Active Directory server will ensure integrity and security of directory services and maintain them centrally (Brovick, Hauger, & Wade, 2000). The Microsoft Internet and Acceleration Server ensures added layer of security by dropping suspicious packets bypassing the firewall and granting, restricting Internet access to specific employees, as per business requirements. Moreover, ISA server is also configured for filtering traffic (Dooley, 2002), maintain a domain name service and dynamic host configuration protocol. Similar to a hub branch, all the spoke branches acquire a domain controller that will be synchronized with the primary domain controller located at the hub branch. Infrastructures for both hub branch and spoke branch are illustrated below in Fig 1.1 and 1.2 respectively.

Figure 1.1

VPN connectivity is established by utilizing Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN). The connectivity is demonstrated in Fig 1.3 below

Figure 1.3

As per fig 1.2, one of the branches is hub branch and other one is the spoke branch (Remote office). As hub branch is the backbone for connecting all the branches, spoke branches must require an Internet connection and a VPN dialer (Roland & Newcomb,) with credentials. In order to establishing connectivity with the hub branch, spoke branch will dial in from a ‘VPN dialer’ with correct credentials for authentication and connecting successfully with the Stush Network. Cisco network devices and security appliances are preferred. However, if cost is the issue than the alternative will be to configure software based firewalls. Likewise, Microsoft ISA server is a firewall that also RADIUS, DHCP and VPN is a suitable options for an SME such as Stush. Moreover, for hosting web server, total cost of ownership will be increased significantly, as the web server requires periodic maintenance, redundant Internet links and alternate power supplies. Hosting to a third party will be a feasible option, as administrative access will be provided to modify or add dynamic web pages with updated contents.

Brovick, E., Hauger, D., & Wade, W. (2000). Windows 2000 active directory . Indianapolis, Ind.: New Riders Pub.

Dooley, K. (2002). Building large-scale LANs . Beijing: O’Reilly.

Roland, J., & Newcomb, M. J. CCSP cisco secure VPN exam certification guide (CCSP self-study) Cisco Press.

Stidley, J. (2008). MCTS: Windows server 2008 applications infrastructure configuration study guide (exam 70-643) . Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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PART 2 – Consulting U: The Rundown On IT Consulting

8 Chapter 8: Analysis Phase

WHAT Analysis means

In the Analysis phase, your team is earnestly working to understand the current state of things. You’ll be outlining the as-is both within the company and in the markets outside of the company.

WHEN Analysis Happens

The Analysis phase will always happen after you’ve defined the problem. Quite often you will start this phase in the first few weeks of the 90A semester. Remember, problem identification is an iterative process, as mentioned previously, the capstone project is an agile project which entails multiple iterations of problem identification and solutioning. However, as the project moves along, the problems/issues should be clearer and the focus will be more on the forming a solution.

WHO Analysis Involves

Involved in this phase will be your team, of course, and any stakeholder who will be able to provide you with client related data. You will also be indirectly interacting with third parties external to your client while doing research (ex- Industry, market, news research, etc.).

WHY The Analysis Phase Is Important

Capstone students and working professionals alike, often try to jump to a solution before they’ve understood all of the variables. We’ve all been there before, a best friend groans about a problem they’re having and we silently (or sometimes verbally) run through an easy fix to the issue even before they’re finished explaining the whole story.

Solutions to a business or even a personal problem is rarely an easy fix. Rushing through a solution just to close the gap (or quiet a friend) may bring quick benefits, but most likely these are just band-aid solutions that don’t have staying power. Why? Because you didn’t understand all of the factors at play. Knowing what’s currently happening and why can have huge implications on the solution you choose.

HOW to Navigate Through Analysis

Let the following guide you throughout the analysis phase. You will have already answered the first two questions by this point, but remind yourself that the focus of your project is not just on finding a problem, but the critical work is to search for WHY the problem is happening.


What is the problem or need?

Who has the problem or need?

Why is it important to solve?

[Who] need(s) [what] because [why] [1]

The analysis phase may be the largest aspect of your Capstone project (along with solution phase). The objective of it is to conduct adequate research, bring all of your data together, and analyze the findings so that you can begin working towards a suitable solution.

As part of this phase, your team will perform all preliminary research activities and leverage resources available (ex. textbooks and library/online resources, case studies, etc.). Get insights on both direct and indirect competitors using strategies and techniques you’ve learned throughout the BTM program. Get a clear understanding of the industry, the trends, and where your client falls within the market.

Examples of assessments your team might find helpful are:

To gain further insights and data, several approaches can be used such as:

Leverage the relationship you’ve built with your client and know that at this stage, you’ll have loads of interaction with them. It’s important to, as early as possible, determine the individuals you’ll need information from, the people you’ll need to interview, the types of data you’ll need in order to do a proper analysis. Essentially, you’ll need to have a clear understanding almost right away of the what (types of information) and the who (the people who can get you that information).

During the Analysis phase, it’s critical to keep focused and deep-dive into the problem and keep strong boundaries to stay within scope during the eight month course. Don’t be surprised or intimidated if you have to go back to the client on several occasions to truly understand their organization and business problems.

It’s important to be thorough with your analysis since it is the foundation to the solution, but don’t get bogged down in analysis paralysis. Pick the right areas to explore and be cautious of your client’s time (typically a consulting project is an addition to their day-to-day activities). Determine what data is relevant and what isn’t. Keep the client informed (see Chapters 15-17 for ways to do this) of your progress and your general findings, this will build that relationship and trust, and better prepare you and them for the solution and presentation discussions.

ITM Capstone Survival Guide by Quest Atkinson and Dr. Lin Dong is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.


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