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How to write an executive summary, with examples
The best way to do that is with an executive summary. If you’ve never written an executive summary, this article has all you need to know to plan, write, and share them with your team.
What is an executive summary?
An executive summary is an overview of a document. The length and scope of your executive summary will differ depending on the document it’s summarizing, but in general an executive summary can be anywhere from one to two pages long. In the document, you’ll want to share all of the information your readers and important stakeholders need to know.
Imagine it this way: if your high-level stakeholders were to only read your executive summary, would they have all of the information they need to succeed? If so, your summary has done its job.
You’ll often find executive summaries of:
In general, there are four parts to any executive summary:
Start with the problem or need the document is solving.
Outline the recommended solution.
Explain the solution’s value.
Wrap up with a conclusion about the importance of the work.
What is an executive summary in project management?
In project management, an executive summary is a way to bring clarity to cross-functional collaborators, team leadership, and project stakeholders . Think of it like a project’s “ elevator pitch ” for team members who don’t have the time or the need to dive into all of the project’s details.
The main difference between an executive summary in project management and a more traditional executive summary in a business plan is that the former should be created at the beginning of your project—whereas the latter should be created after you’ve written your business plan. For example, to write an executive summary of an environmental study, you would compile a report on the results and findings once your study was over. But for an executive summary in project management, you want to cover what the project is aiming to achieve and why those goals matter.
The same four parts apply to an executive summary in project management:
Start with the problem or need the project is solving. Why is this project happening? What insight, customer feedback, product plan, or other need caused it to come to life?
Outline the recommended solution, or the project’s objectives. How is the project going to solve the problem you established in the first part? What are the project goals and objectives?
Explain the solution’s value. Once you’ve finished your project, what will happen? How will this improve and solve the problem you established in the first part?
Wrap up with a conclusion about the importance of the work. This is another opportunity to reiterate why the problem is important, and why the project matters. It can also be helpful to reference your audience and how your solution will solve their problem. Finally, include any relevant next steps.
If you’ve never written an executive summary before, you might be curious about where it fits into other project management elements. Here’s how executive summaries stack up:
Executive summary vs. project plan
A project plan is a blueprint of the key elements your project will accomplish in order to hit your project goals and objectives. Project plans will include your goals, success metrics, stakeholders and roles, budget, milestones and deliverables, timeline and schedule, and communication plan .
An executive summary is a summary of the most important information in your project plan. Think of the absolutely crucial things your management team needs to know when they land in your project, before they even have a chance to look at the project plan—that’s your executive summary.
Executive summary vs. project overview
Project overviews and executive summaries often have similar elements—they both contain a summary of important project information. However, your project overview should be directly attached to your project. There should be a direct line of sight between your project and your project overview.
While you can include your executive summary in your project depending on what type of project management tool you use, it may also be a stand-alone document.
Executive summary vs. project objectives
Your executive summary should contain and expand upon your project objectives in the second part ( Outline the recommended solution, or the project’s objectives ). In addition to including your project objectives, your executive summary should also include why achieving your project objectives will add value, as well as provide details about how you’re going to get there.
The benefits of an executive summary
You may be asking: why should I write an executive summary for my project? Isn’t the project plan enough?
Well, like we mentioned earlier, not everyone has the time or need to dive into your project and see, from a glance, what the goals are and why they matter. Work management tools like Asana help you capture a lot of crucial information about a project, so you and your team have clarity on who’s doing what by when. Your executive summary is designed less for team members who are actively working on the project and more for stakeholders outside of the project who want quick insight and answers about why your project matters.
An effective executive summary gives stakeholders a big-picture view of the entire project and its important points—without requiring them to dive into all the details. Then, if they want more information, they can access the project plan or navigate through tasks in your work management tool.
How to write a great executive summary, with examples
Every executive summary has four parts. In order to write a great executive summary, follow this template. Then once you’ve written your executive summary, read it again to make sure it includes all of the key information your stakeholders need to know.
1. Start with the problem or need the project is solving
At the beginning of your executive summary, start by explaining why this document (and the project it represents) matter. Take some time to outline what the problem is, including any research or customer feedback you’ve gotten . Clarify how this problem is important and relevant to your customers, and why solving it matters.
For example, let’s imagine you work for a watch manufacturing company. Your project is to devise a simpler, cheaper watch that still appeals to luxury buyers while also targeting a new bracket of customers.
Example executive summary:
In recent customer feedback sessions, 52% of customers have expressed a need for a simpler and cheaper version of our product. In surveys of customers who have chosen competitor watches, price is mentioned 87% of the time. To best serve our existing customers, and to branch into new markets, we need to develop a series of watches that we can sell at an appropriate price point for this market.
2. Outline the recommended solution, or the project’s objectives
Now that you’ve outlined the problem, explain what your solution is. Unlike an abstract or outline, you should be prescriptive in your solution—that is to say, you should work to convince your readers that your solution is the right one. This is less of a brainstorming section and more of a place to support your recommended solution.
Because you’re creating your executive summary at the beginning of your project, it’s ok if you don’t have all of your deliverables and milestones mapped out. But this is your chance to describe, in broad strokes, what will happen during the project. If you need help formulating a high-level overview of your project’s main deliverables and timeline, consider creating a project roadmap before diving into your executive summary.
Continuing our example executive summary:
Our new watch series will begin at 20% cheaper than our current cheapest option, with the potential for 40%+ cheaper options depending on material and movement. In order to offer these prices, we will do the following:
Offer watches in new materials, including potentially silicone or wood
Use high-quality quartz movement instead of in-house automatic movement
Introduce customizable band options, with a focus on choice and flexibility over traditional luxury
Note that every watch will still be rigorously quality controlled in order to maintain the same world-class speed and precision of our current offerings.
3. Explain the solution’s value
At this point, you begin to get into more details about how your solution will impact and improve upon the problem you outlined in the beginning. What, if any, results do you expect? This is the section to include any relevant financial information, project risks, or potential benefits. You should also relate this project back to your company goals or OKRs . How does this work map to your company objectives?
With new offerings that are between 20% and 40% cheaper than our current cheapest option, we expect to be able to break into the casual watch market, while still supporting our luxury brand. That will help us hit FY22’s Objective 3: Expanding the brand. These new offerings have the potential to bring in upwards of three million dollars in profits annually, which will help us hit FY22’s Objective 1: 7 million dollars in annual profit.
Early customer feedback sessions indicate that cheaper options will not impact the value or prestige of the luxury brand, though this is a risk that should be factored in during design. In order to mitigate that risk, the product marketing team will begin working on their go-to-market strategy six months before the launch.
4. Wrap up with a conclusion about the importance of the work
Now that you’ve shared all of this important information with executive stakeholders, this final section is your chance to guide their understanding of the impact and importance of this work on the organization. What, if anything, should they take away from your executive summary?
To round out our example executive summary:
Cheaper and varied offerings not only allow us to break into a new market—it will also expand our brand in a positive way. With the attention from these new offerings, plus the anticipated demand for cheaper watches, we expect to increase market share by 2% annually. For more information, read our go-to-market strategy and customer feedback documentation .
Example of an executive summary
When you put it all together, this is what your executive summary might look like:
Common mistakes people make when writing executive summaries
You’re not going to become an executive summary-writing pro overnight, and that’s ok. As you get started, use the four-part template provided in this article as a guide. Then, as you continue to hone your executive summary writing skills, here are a few common pitfalls to avoid:
Avoid using jargon
Your executive summary is a document that anyone, from project contributors to executive stakeholders, should be able to read and understand. Remember that you’re much closer to the daily work and individual tasks than your stakeholders will be, so read your executive summary once over to make sure there’s no unnecessary jargon. Where you can, explain the jargon, or skip it all together.
Remember: this isn’t a full report
Your executive summary is just that—a summary. If you find yourself getting into the details of specific tasks, due dates, and attachments, try taking a step back and asking yourself if that information really belongs in your executive summary. Some details are important—you want your summary to be actionable and engaging. But keep in mind that the wealth of information in your project will be captured in your work management tool , not your executive summary.
Make sure the summary can stand alone
You know this project inside and out, but your stakeholders won’t. Once you’ve written your executive summary, take a second look to make sure the summary can stand on its own. Is there any context your stakeholders need in order to understand the summary? If so, weave it into your executive summary, or consider linking out to it as additional information.
Your executive summary is a living document, and if you miss a typo you can always go back in and fix it. But it never hurts to proofread or send to a colleague for a fresh set of eyes.
In summary: an executive summary is a must-have
Executive summaries are a great way to get everyone up to date and on the same page about your project. If you have a lot of project stakeholders who need quick insight into what the project is solving and why it matters, an executive summary is the perfect way to give them the information they need.
For more tips about how to connect high-level strategy and plans to daily execution, read our article about strategic planning .
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Sample Capstone Project Proposal
Getting started .
Open annually between August through November, the HCDE online capstone proposal form is where you submit a project proposal. CAP members may submit more than one project idea, but please think about how many teams you will be able to support in total. The project description should be a straightforward, one-paragraph summary of the design brief or project challenge.
Before submitting your project, read the Capstone project guidelines .
Submit a Capstone Proposal
Example Project Proposals
- Sponsor: ABC User Experience Consultants
- Title: Designing Mobile Technologies for Environmental Sustainability
- Contact(s): Jane Doe, [email protected]
- Description: Design an object, interface, system, or service intended to support the idea of utilizing or consuming local resources rather than global resources, in a sustainable and environmentally efficient manner. Use methods of ethnography and contextual research to understand the problem space, and design a mobile phone application that supports, assists, enhances or otherwise benefits people interested in sustainability.
- Target User Group: Seattle residents
Example Usability-Focused Project
- Sponsor: Usability R’ Us
- Title: Evaluate and Redesign Awesome Airlines Website
- Contact(s): Bob Smith, [email protected]
- Description: Conduct an in-depth usability test of the current Awesome Airlines corporate website. Prepare a usability test plan, recruit 5-10 clients, and conduct the evaluation. Generate a list of recommended changes, and then provide design mock-ups for how those changes might be implemented into the existing website design to make it more usable.
- Target User Group: Awesome Airlines customers
Example User Research-Focused Project
- Sponsor: The User Research People
- Title: Determine Design Requirements for Home Sensing Project
- Contact(s): Alison Miller, [email protected]
- Description: The User Research People company is conducting user research for a client who is interested in building sensors for people to install in their home that will monitor appliance usage, record maintenance and repairs, and report any safety issues. Your task will be to conduct user research with homeowners to identify the design requirements and concerns with using such technology in their home and the provide mock-ups and sketches for ideas for different sensing solutions.
- Target User Group: Homeowners
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Capstone Project: Definition, Types, Structure, and Examples
by Antony W
September 5, 2021
If you're reading this, chances are that you're in your final year of school and the words "capstone project" have come up somewhere in your first or second semester.
You're probably looking for a quick score on the topic - what it's about, a project template, or even a sample. If so, you're in the right place.
Before we get into it, you' need to know that you're in the hands of consummate capstone project experts.
Help for Assessment is composed of scholars at all levels of academic achievement including Masters and Ph.D., all inspired and motivated to help students like you achieve their academic goals. The expertise and experience we have spans years. Even better, this combined academic expertise is placed at your disposal. If your capstone research project is already giving you goosebumps, we will do it for you from scratch including the project proposal, research, write up, and final review before submission.
Remember, you can trust Help for Assessment to complete your capstone project successfully and earn you top grades. All you have to do is order the service here on our service page.
In the meantime, let us explore the definition of the capstone project, types of projects for students, and a sample capstone project.
What Is a Capstone Project?
A capstone project in college is a final independent project undertaken in a program of study designed to assess the skills, knowledge, and expertise acquired by the student.
As the name suggests, it is the capstone or crowning achievement of academic life and the last class taken before graduation. It gives you the final credits required to pass the course, which is why every student must take the project.
Since it is designed to assess knowledge and skills gained in a particular discipline, capstone projects vary from school to school and discipline to discipline.
Such a project might involve something as simple as research on a topic, an evaluation of a new technique or method, development of a health program, research into a historical figure or event, or even composing a skit or theatre presentation.
No matter what kind of project you choose to undertake, the result is the same. You get to showcase your understanding of the coursework material learned and display your readiness to enter the professional world to start your career. It is a rewarding experience if done right, but can mess up your final year and possibly your graduation if you manage to mess it up.
Do you know that a successful capstone project also helps to land you lucrative jobs? That’s right, capstone projects are one of the ways potential employers find out just how learned, resourceful, and talented you are. Think of it as a kind of thesis.
Capstone projects are also called culminating projects, experience, senior exhibition, or other similar names. The project is usually self-directed, and most students find it a challenge to even come up with the right capstone project topic.
Capstone Project Vs. Thesis
A capstone project and a thesis are both very similar in that they represent a final effort from the student just before graduation.
They are done in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the course being undertaken. The comprehensive approach and assessment involved are very similar, and sometimes the structure and methodology might overlap.
Both also have to be reviewed and approved by the institution and will remain in the public domain after publishing.
However, there are some important differences.
- A thesis is purely academic while a capstone project focuses more on the practical preparation of the student for the real world/job market.
- A thesis is guided by a research question resulting in the addition of new knowledge to the field, while a capstone project is guided by the practical importance of the project to the field.
- A thesis involves academic research and analysis, while a capstone project can be anything including a dance or film.
- A thesis is expected to be original and authentic, while a capstone project will have more loose requirements. You can borrow another person’s capstone project ideas , so long as you demonstrate your own advancement in the field.
- A capstone project will usually only have a brief write-up or report, while a thesis generates a detailed, extensive writeup.
- The final presentation of a thesis, called a defense, is meant to prove and show that you have mastered the subject. You are supposed to be a mini-expert in the field. A capstone project presentation comes off as a kind of exhibition where you showcase your project without having to defend it.
Types of Capstone Projects
Capstone projects vary not just in the type of project, also in the level at which they are done.
There are projects for juniors and seniors in college as well as for postgraduate students.
Here are some examples of the forms of projects depending on the academic level.
- In-depth research projects.
- Developing the concept of a product, tool, or service.
Capstone projects can be conducted either individually or in a group.
However, the key thing is to make sure that the project proposal has been reviewed and approved by the instructor/panel/institution in charge before proceeding.
Senior Capstone Project
Senior projects are so called because they are done by high school students in their senior year.
Just like other projects, they represent a culmination of the coursework with an interdisciplinary application of knowledge and skills gained so far.
The project usually takes the better part of the final academic year and will have different parts to it, depending on the type of project chosen.
It will also require a presentation where the student(s) explain and describe the project to an audience, including their classmates.
Sample Capstone Project Outline
The write up for a project consists of several parts. However, even before starting the write-up, you need to do a few things:
- Come up with an idea for your project. What will be your subject matter, topic, or premise?
- Find sources for the project and review them beforehand to ensure that they will be of help to you.
- Come up with a step-by-step methodology for your project.
Using this information, you will then write a capstone project proposal for your project. It informs your instructor or review panel exactly what you intend to present so that they can approve or reject it.
Once approved, you can go on to the next stage. The final write-up has the following parts.
- A title page.
- Project outline.
- A description/abstract.
- Rationale/relevance/reason for doing the project.
- Objectives of the project.
- Research and analysis.
- Evaluation of results and findings.
- Conclusion and future work/suggestions.
- Bibliography/works cited/reference list.
Note that the project is carried out in stages. Once approved, you will need to be submitting weekly or monthly status reports to your supervisor. After the project report is submitted, you will also have to make a presentation about the whole project.
This brief outline is only meant to be a rough guide. We have a much more detailed article detailing how you can do your capstone project, including a project template.
Capstone Project Examples
Help for Assessment has extensive experience when it comes to capstone projects of all kinds.
Whether it’s a high school project, a college capstone, or a senior capstone project, you can trust us to carry it out successfully for you.
As proof, you can check out various capstone project samples here . (hyperlink to be inserted.)
Get Help With Your Capstone Project
Capstone projects in every level of school are a make or break it deal. Given that they complete the graduation credits required, it makes sense to leave this important part of your coursework to experts.
We are proud to offer you a guide on how to write a capstone project here . If you need help, you can take advantage of our capstone project writing service at affordable, student-friendly rates with amazing discounts.
Check it out here and make your order to experience excellence, peace of mind, and success thanks to our stellar services.
About the author
Antony W is a professional writer and coach at Help for Assessment. He spends countless hours every day researching and writing great content filled with expert advice on how to write engaging essays, research papers, and assignments.
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Useful Information About Capstone Project Sample
How to Perfectly Use a Capstone Project Sample
You might have one of the best sample projects with you but fail to capitalize on this simply because you do not know how to use it. One of the main reasons for using a sample project is so that you can have an idea of what is needed in your project. So the first thing you need to learn from the sample you have is the writing format used to create that sample. Each project has its own designated format and failure to follow the appropriate format may result in submitting a poor quality project which is something you want to avoid by all means. You should, therefore, use the sample to learn on the format you use and make sure to follow that format when writing your project.
Capstone Project Sample
Vitamin B12 is also referred to as cobalamin and it identifies a water-soluble vitamin utilized within the normal neurological function together with the development of the red blood cells. B12 is also identified as a cofactor within two metabolic pathways as it is utilized within the conversion of homocysteine together with methionine and within the conversion of methylmalonic acid (MMA) to succinyl-CoA (Alemras et al. 2007). The main sources of B12 include animal products such as meat, poultry, fish, and milk; fortified foods including breakfast cereal together with B12 supplements. The recommended allowance does not incorporate a tolerable upper intake limit, as there is limited research on the toxicity capacity and limited data supporting the stipulation of an upper limit. Vitamin B12 is vital as it comprises an important element in DNA synthesis and individual neurological functioning. This necessitates the continuous intake of the vitamin to enhance the prevention of possible hematologic and neuropsychiatric disorders upon lack of continued intake of the vitamin.
Through the analysis of the American and European intake of the vitamin, the intake levels identified to meet the stipulated recommended daily allowance. However, keenness has to be observed regarding the absorption levels to ensure that individuals meet the required levels. This is particularly vital for vegetarians, as they do not consume animal products, which create the bulk of Vitamin B12 sources. In addition, individuals under any form of medication, gastrointestinal patients, individuals over 50 years of age and anyone experiencing poor bouts of health remain at risk of having low levels of Vitamin B12 within their systems. Lack of vitamin B12 is influenced by poor adherence of the dietary stipulations leads to the identification of vitamin B12 deficiency among individuals.
Vitamin D is regarded as a unique hormone as it may be produced within the skin through increased exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D is identified in two main forms: D2 and D3. Vitamin D2 is obtained through the UV irradiation of the yeast sterol ergosterol, which is naturally identified within sun-exposed mushrooms. Vitamin D3 synthesis process occurs within the skin and is identified within several oil-rich fish including salmon, mackerel, and herring. It is also available in synthesized form from the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is identified within the skin and may be obtained from lanolin. Vitamin D2 and D3 are utilized in the food fortification process and also within vitamin D supplements. The ingested vitamin D is integrated within chylomicrons that are consequently absorbed within the lymphatic system through the blood. Vitamin D ingested through the skin or diet remains biologically inert, which necessitates hydroxylation within the liver through the use of the vitamin D-25-hydroxylase to 25 (OH) D (3, 8). This necessitates further hydroxylation of 25 (OH) D within the kidneys through the use of 25 (OH)-1-OHase (CYP27B1) to develop a biologically active form of vitamin D 1, 25 (OH)2 D. This enhances the interaction processes with vitamin D nuclear receptor in existence within the small intestine, kidneys together with other tissues within the body. 1, 25 (OH) 2 D influences the absorption of intestinal calcium. This identifies vitamin D as a vital element in the absorption of calcium and phosphorous as a lack of the vitamin would identify 10 to 15% absorption of dietary calcium and 60% absorption of phosphorus. This identifies that vitamin D sufficiency influences calcium and phosphorous absorption by up to 30-40% and 80% respectively. Through increased interactions between 1, 25 (OH) 2 D and the vitamin B receptor within the osteoblast enhance the stimulation of the expression of receptor activator of a nuclear factor-kB ligand. This enhances the interaction with the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB aimed at inducing immature monocytes to develop into mature osteoclasts that influence the dissolution of the matrix leading to increased production of calcium together with other minerals from the skeleton. The above identifies that the vitamin D receptor remains present within the majority of the tissues and cells within the body thus providing 1, 25 (OH) 2 D with a myriad of biological functions including the inhibition of cellular proliferation and the inducing of terminal differentiation, the inhibition of renin production and the stimulation of macrophage cathelicidin production. The above seeks to identify that vitamin D is vital within the body as it enhances the regulation of cell growth, bone formation, immune function, increased muscle strength, hair growth, fighting off infections and the reduction of risk of autoimmune diseases.
Background and Significance of the Problem
Vitamin B12 deficiency can influence the identification of numerous hematologic and neuropsychiatric disorders, which may, however, be reversed upon the identification of early diagnosis and immediate treatment. However, the exact prevalence levels of vitamin B12 within the general population remain unknown. However, the incidence is identified as increasing with age. A study conducted by Packer et al. (2007) identified that 15% of adults who were older than 65 years projected high deficiencies of vitamin B12. Continued ubiquitous utilization of gastric acid-blocking agents influences the identified decreased levels of vitamin B12, which influence the increased levels of vitamin B12 deficiency realized. Through the analysis of the increasing use of the gents coupled with an increasingly aging population among the developed nations, the actual prevalence of vitamin B12 may be identified higher in comparison to the provided statistics. The common symptoms of B12 deficiency include neuropathic (paresthesia, numbness, and weakness), myelopathic (abnormal gait), cerebral (dementia, depression, memory loss) and in dire cases, the deficiency is identified as hematologic whereby the patient suffers from severe anemia. In addition, vitamin B12 deficiency has been linked to indirect cardiovascular effects. Vitamin B12 deficiency may enhance the production of hyperhomocysteinemia, which identifies a risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. Folic acid supplementation is provided to influence the reduction of homocysteine levels as an avenue utilized in the prevention of coronary artery disease. However, there has been limited emphasis on the role of vitamin B12 deficiency in the development of cardiovascular disease. This possibility is increasingly vital in the consideration of vitamin replacement therapy as folic acid supplementation may hide a growing vitamin B12 deficiency, which will influence the progression of the experienced neurologic disease. This necessitates the determination of vitamin B12 deficiency prior to the initiation of folic acid therapy.
In the human body system, two enzyme reactions remain dependent upon vitamin B12. The first reaction involves the conversion of methylmalonic acid into succinyl-CoA through the utilization of B12 as a cofactor. This identifies that vitamin B12 deficiency may influence the identification of increased levels of serum methylmalonic acid. The second reaction involves the conversion of homocysteine to methionine through the utilization of vitamin B12 together with folic acid as the cofactors. In this reaction, the identification of a deficiency in vitamin B12 or folic acid may influence the identification of increased levels of homocysteine. This necessitates the development of an intricate understanding of vitamin B12’s absorption cycle to provide a better analysis of the potential causes of deficiency. The existence of the acidic environment within the stomach influences the breakdown of B12 identified within the food. Through the release of the intrinsic factor by the parietal cells within the stomach, vitamin B12 remains bound to the duodenum. The intrinsic factor influences the absorption of vitamin B12 within the terminal ileum. There also exists an alternate system of vitamin B12 absorption that does not require the intrinsic factor as influences the binding of vitamin B12 upon absorption to transcobalamin II, which is consequently transported throughout the body. Therefore, interruption of either step places an individual at a high risk of developing a deficiency.
Vitamin D deficiency is characterized by the identification of inadequate provision of minerals to the skeleton. In children, vitamin D deficiency influences the development of rickets, which involves the widening at the end of the long bones, rachitic rosary together with other deformations within the skeleton including outward and inward deformities of the lower limbs leading to the identification of bowed legs and knocked-knees. Among adults, vitamin D deficiency leads to the identification of a mineralization defect within the skeleton leading to the development of osteomalacia. In addition, vitamin D deficiency among adults initiates the mobilization of calcium from the skeleton leading to the development of porotic bone. The identification of a change within the production of vitamin D3 may influence the identification of a vitamin D deficient state. Additionally, the identification of any alterations within the 1, 25 (OH) 2 D within its receptor may influence the identification of vitamin D3 deficiency, which is characterized by metabolic bone disease together with the manifestation of a myriad of biochemical abnormalities. As previously identified vitamin D deficiency influences the identification of a decrease in the levels of ionized calcium within the blood, which influences the identification of an increase in the production and secretion capacity of PTH. PTH influences the mobilization of calcium the skeleton, which enhances the conservation of renal loss of calcium leading to the identification of an increase in the renal excretion of phosphorus. This leads to the identification of normal fasting serum calcium with low-normal serum phosphorous.
Statement of the Problem
Increased deficiency levels of vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 levels within the body necessitate the integration of further research and analysis regarding the importance of conducting regular check up on the existent levels among individuals.
Statement of the Purpose
This study seeks to provide a conclusive analysis regarding the importance of checking the levels of vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 levels within the body. This will be enhanced through the integration of a conclusive analysis of the deficiency levels identified through the analysis of the healthy and unhealthy levels required within the body. This study will incorporate analysis from previous research conducted by several authors within the field, who have provided an analysis of the diagnosis, causes of deficiency and the most preferred follow-up procedure that may be incorporated. The study will incorporate a literature review section, which will provide an analysis of the importance of checking vitamin B12 and vitamin D3 as conducted by other researchers within the field. This is vital for the study as it will enhance the provision of a wide array of data that will provide conclusive analysis from the past, present and future efforts that may be integrated to limit the levels of deficiency experienced. The study will also incorporate a methodology section, which will outline the data collection methods to be utilized within the study, which provide great relevance and enhance the achievement of the study objectives. This will be followed through the integration of the findings and discussion section, which will provide an analysis of the study and enhance the development of the study recommendations and conclusion.
Review of Literature
The diagnosis of B12 has over time developed its basis upon the analysis of low serum vitamin B12 levels, which are identified at less than 200pg per mL together with the analysis of the available clinical evidence pertaining to the disease. However, the majority of studies identify that older patients present more of neuropsychiatric disease in the absence of hematologic findings. In addition, the provision of measurements of metabolites including methylmalonic acid and homocysteine are identified more sensitive to the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency in comparison to the individual measurement of serum B12 levels. A recent study conducted on 406 patients with vitamin B12 deficiency indicated that 98.4% had elevated serum methylmalonic acid levels with 95.9% identified as having elevated serum homocysteine levels. Only one patient from the 406 had indicated normal levels of both metabolites, which raised the sensitivity level to 99.8% at the period when the methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels are utilized during the diagnosis. Twenty-eight percent of the patients within the study exhibited normal hematocrit levels with 17% identifying normal mean corpuscular volumes. In a study conducted by Lin et al. (2011) regarding patients with known pernicious anemia who had not been provided with the necessary maintenance levels of vitamin B12 injections for a period spanning several months to years, they exhibited an increase in methylmalonic acid together with decreased levels of hematocrit. The findings from the study identify that methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels may be utilized as early markers for tissue vitamin B12 prior to the identification of hematologic indications.
Continued utilization of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine levels within the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency has enhanced the provision of varied results. In the event that increased homocysteine or methylmalonic acid levels or through the normalization of the metabolites in response to replacement therapy, they are utilized as diagnostic criteria for vitamin B12 deficiency. The majority of the patients subjected to the process accounting for 50% have identified high levels of serum vitamin B12. This espouses that the utilization of a low serum vitamin B12 level as the main diagnosis may eliminate half of the patients with actual tissue B12 deficiency.
Causes of Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Factors influencing the identification of vitamin B12 deficiency are incorporated into three main categories: nutritional deficiency, malabsorption syndromes together with other gastrointestinal causes.
The main dietary sources for vitamin B12 include meat and dairy products. In a typical diet, an individual derives 5 to 15 mcg of vitamin B12 on a daily basis, which is identified higher than the recommended daily dosage stipulated at 2 mcg. This identifies that the majority of individuals maintain a high vitamin B12 reserve, which has the capability of lasting two to five years. However, nutritional deficiency may be identified within certain populations. For instance, elderly patients who regularly take up tea and toast diets and consume high levels of alcohol are identified as having a higher risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. In addition, the dietary stipulations followed by strict vegetarians place them at high risk of experiencing stipulated deficiency levels.
The main disorder identified within this category is the pernicious anemia, which refers to an autoimmune disease that affects the gastric parietal cells. Therefore, any form of destruction identified among these cells limits the effective production of intrinsic factor, which limits the absorption levels identified regarding vitamin B12. Laboratory evidence incorporated regarding parietal cell antibodies is identified at 85% to 90% sensitive regarding the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. However, the majority of tests identify that the presence of parietal cell antibodies remains nonspecific and occurring within other autoimmune states. The intrinsic factor antibody is identified as being 50% sensitive but is identified as being highly specific for the diagnosis of pernicious anemia. In addition, a Schilling test may be utilized in the development of a distinction among intrinsic factor-related malabsorption in the diagnosis process of pernicious anemia. Schilling test results have been used over time to enhance the determination process regarding whether the patient requires parenteral or oral vitamin B12 supplementation. However, the development of this distinction is rendered unnecessary as the majority of the recent evidence espouses towards the utilization of a B12 absorption pathway that remains independent of intrinsic factors. In addition, several studies have identified that oral replacement is identified equal in efficacy to intramuscular therapy. However, several studies espouse that successful treatment may also be realized through the utilization of oral replacement therapy. This has enhanced the development of several questions regarding the utility of the Schilling test as it is regarded as complicated to perform. This has rendered the identification of vitamin B12 difficult together with increased complexities within the results interpretation process for patients suffering from renal insufficiency. The process of food-bound malabsorption is identified when vitamin B12 bound to protein within food is incapable of being cleaved and released. This is influenced by the integration of any process that provides some level of interference with gastric acid production that may lead to the identification of certain levels of impairment. Atrophic gastritis together with hypochlorhydria is regarded as a major cause among the elderly. In addition, subtotal gastrectomy may influence the identification of vitamin B12 deficiency. Widespread and prolonged use of histamine H2-receptor blockers together with proton pump inhibitors for ulcer disease influence irregular breakdown of vitamin B12 from food leading to increased malabsorption and consequent depletion of B12 levels within the body.
Recent studies espouse that long-term utilization of omeprazole may influence the identification of decreased levels of serum vitamin B12 levels. However, more studies require to be incorporated to enhance the identification of the incidence and prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency through increased screening for subclinical BB12 deficiency should be enhanced among patients who have experienced long-term acid-suppression therapy.
Patients who have exhibited vitamin B12 deficiency together with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms including dyspepsia, recurrent peptic ulcers or diarrhea necessitate the integration of an evaluation process regarding several factions including Whipple’s disease, which refers to a bacterial infection that limits the absorption levels identified within the body. In addition, the patient may be tested for Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, which influences the development of peptic ulcers and diarrhea. In addition, patients who have had a history of intestinal surgery, strictures or blind lops may identify high levels of bacterial overgrowth, which may limit the provision of the necessary amounts of vitamin B12 within the small bowel together with increased manifestation of tapeworms and other intestinal parasites. In addition, congenital transport-protein deficiency may influence the lack of vitamin B12 leading to the identification of increased deficiency levels.
Vitamin D deficiency
Vitamin D deficiency among adults is described as being endemic. There has been an increasing number in children and adolescents who are identified as being vitamin D deficient. Historically, vitamin D deficiency has been defined as a 25 (OH)D of less than 20 ng/ml. Therefore, vitamin D insufficiency is defined as 25(OH) of 21-29 ng/ml. Through the analysis of the provided definitions, several estimates identify that 20-100% of the American and European elderly men and women within the community exhibit high vitamin D deficiency levels. Vitamin deficiency is identified commonly in Australia, the Middle East, India, Africa, and South America. The deficiency levels are also identified high in the United States as 50% of the Hispanic and African-American adolescents together with 8% of white preadolescent girls exhibited 25 (OH)D below 20 ng/ml. Additionally, 42% of African-American girls and women within the ages of 15 and 49 years identified a blood level of 25 (OH) D below 15 ng/ml. Pregnant and lactating women consuming prenatal vitamins together with calcium supplements with vitamin D are identified as being at high risk for vitamin D deficiency.
Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency
The main source of vitamin D for children and adults remains as increased exposure to sunlight. This is vital as limited foods contain vitamin D. This identifies the main cause for vitamin D deficiency as limited exposure to sunlight. In addition, wearing sunscreen with sun protection limits the level of vitamin D synthesis on the skin by up to 95%. This identifies that individuals with a darker skin tone are provided with natural sun protection hence, they require three to five times longer identifying the same levels of vitamin D as individuals with white skin tone.
There exists an inverse correlation between serum 25 (OH) D and the body mass index (BMI) greater than 20k/m2, which identifies that obese individuals experience vitamin D deficiency. Patients identifying one of the fat malabsorption syndromes together with bariatric patients are identified as challenged in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamin D together with patients with nephrotic syndrome lose 25 (OH) D and remain bound to vitamin D-binding protein within the urine. In addition, patients administering a wide range of medication including anticonvulsant together with antiviral drugs are identified at higher risk as the drugs influence the catabolism of 25 (OH)D and 1,25 (OH)2D. Patients with chronic granuloma-forming disorders including some lymphomas and primary hyperparathyroidism identify high levels of a metabolism at 25 (OH) D to 1, 25 (OH) 2 D are identified at high risk of vitamin D deficiency.
References Almeras, L., Eyles, D., Benech, P. (2007). Developmental vitamin D deficiency alters brain protein expression in the adult rat: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders. Proteomics,7(5):769-80. Andres, E., Loukili, N., Noel, E., (2004). Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in elderly patients. Can Med Assoc J, 171(3):251-259. Andres, E., Vidal-Alaball, J., Federici, L. (2007).Clinical aspects of cobalamin deficiency in elderly patients. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestations, and treatment with a special focus on oral cobalamin therapy. Eur J Intern Med, 18:456-462. Bodnar, M., Simhan, N., Powers, W. (2007). High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates. J Nutr, 137(2):447-52. Duerksen, R., Fallows, G., Bernstein, N. (2006). Vitamin B12 malabsorption in patients with limited ileal resection. Nutrition, 22:1210-1213. Féron, F., Burne, H., Brown, J. (2005). Developmental vitamin D3 deficiency alters the adult rat brain. Brain Res Bull, 65(2):141-8. Hvas, M., Nexo, E. (2005). Holotranscobalamin – a first choice assay for diagnosing early vitamin B deficiency? J Intern Med, 2005; 257(3):287-298. Headstrom, D., Rulyak, J., & Lee, SD. (2008). Prevalence of and risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with Crohn’s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis, 14(2):217-223. Kwong, C., Carr, D., & Dhalla, A. (2005). Oral vitamin B12 therapy in the primary care setting: a qualitative and quantitative study of patient perspectives. BMC Fam Pract, 6 (8). Ladhani S, Srinivasan L, Buchanan C, Allgrove J. (2004). Presentation of vitamin D deficiency. Arch Dis Child, 89(8):781-4. Pajecki, D., Dalcanalle, L., & Souza de Oliveira. (2007). Follow-up of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients at 5 or more years postoperatively. Obesity Surgery, 17:601-607. Rucker D, Allan JA, Fick GH, Hanley DA. (2002). Vitamin D insufficiency in a population of healthy western Canadians. CMAJ, 166(12):1517-24. Roth De, Martz P, Yeo R. (2005). Are national vitamin D guidelines sufficient to maintain adequate blood levels in children? Can J Public Health, 96(6):443-9. Ting, Z, Szeto, C, & Chan, H. (2006). Risk factors of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients receiving metformin. Arch Intern Med, 166:1975-1979. Vidal-Alaball J, Butler CC, Cannings-John, R. (2005). Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 20;(3): CD004655.
What You Should Expect from a Capstone Project Example
Once you have acquired a capstone project example, you should certainly use it as your guide and not your source of information. The example is supposed to act as a blueprint and so you should use in that way. Now there are those who just duplicate the content in the project example and expect to be awarded good grades for their projects. That cannot happen especially so if the professor responsible for marking your projects knows your writing standards, he will certainly recognize that the project you submitted is not actually yours. You should, therefore, learn how to plan your content in the project by using the example and not use it the data in the example.
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The Advantages of a Capstone Paper Sample
The Advantages of Getting Help of Capstone Writing Services
To ensure that your project is unique and original, you should never copy the content in the sample paper. Stick to the tips highlighted above here and you will certainly be in a position to submit a project that is of high quality by simply using the available project samples. Another option for writing a great capstone project is capstone writing services. The benefits of using professional capstone writing services are that you will get 100% unique and error-free paper. So if you want to get a paper that out of ordinary and fully customized expert writing assistance is what you need. We have a team of highly qualified and talented writers who have been working in this industry for years and they ready to provide you with help at the highest standards! The following are some of the advantages of using our capstone writing services:
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What Is A Capstone Project?
03 Mar 2022
- What is a Capstone Project?
- Capstone Project Definition
Common Development of a Capstone Project
- Importance And Goals Of A Capstone Project
Goals Of A Capstone Paper
Getting proper education is not an easy task. Particularly with modern curriculums placing more burdens on students to perform. You may be comfortable writing essays and navigating the library, but you may run into an overwhelming task you may not be ready for. One such project college students dread is the capstone project and for good reason.
These assignments take significant planning to complete, let alone achieve a good grade. But fear not, we know how to help you weather the storm and put together a compelling paper that your teachers will highly praise. Follow these tips for your capstone research project and you are sure to avoid the many obstacles students have to overcome.
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What is the Capstone Project?
A common question any student has, especially in high school, is the definition capstone project. According to the University of Virginia, this task is a two-semester project where students must independently research a topic to obtain a deep understanding of the subject matter. UV gives many recommendations when preparing your assignment you can use. But here our professional writers will dig into detail about the purpose of this significant work as well as methods to overcome some hurdles. There are several sections that encompass a capstone project meaning, which we’ll detail below.
The main goal of this task is to challenge a student to carry out significant research over an extended period of time. Not everyone is up to the arduous journey this task demands. Therefore capstone project for sale for college is a common way to avoid failure. Leveraging the help of the pros, you get a set of guarantees to ensure a quality paper that is plagiarism-free and will get a good grade.
One of the most complex issues is a capstone paper. What makes it so difficult? To figure it out, we need to define the capstone project meaning first because there is no way you can handle an assignment without knowing what it requires from you.
Capstone Project Definition
What is the capstone definition? A capstone project is a culminating assignment, on which students usually work on during their final year in school or at the end of the academic program. It requires different intellectual activities. This project helps young people learn how to find and analyze information and how to work with it efficiently. It has a wide variety of forms. This means that a capstone program can be submitted in various forms including a multimedia presentation, film, performance, or paper. A capstone research project is very similar to a college thesis. No one can argue that this type of work is a bit more complicated as writing a capstone project involves a wider range of activities like critical thinking, deep analysis, and the ability to use different media.
What is a capstone project purpose? A capstone college course can help students demonstrate their knowledge and skills and it can also be used as an employment portfolio. At university, people get such tasks in the last class of a study program.
In most cases, while working on a nursing capstone project, a student can be asked to pick out a topic such as a profession, a social problem, or another topic in which he or she is interested. After that, the student finds information, analyzes it, and makes a portfolio or presentation based on the findings. During a presentation, a person demonstrates the project to the class and gives a short conclusion. The student usually gives an oral presentation apart from the main material, which can be in writing, film or a multimedia product.
Why do you have to write about it? Capstone projects were generally developed to encourage student's abilities of critical thinking, problem-solving, oral communication skills, research skills, and teamwork. Moreover, thanks to this project, students learn to connect with the community and analyze important issues, problems, and ideas. Some tasks include outside-of-school experiences, like interviews and scientific observations.
Colleges may present this task at any academic level. And you may be faced with this task in several areas from Political Science, Criminal Justice, Biology, Literature, etc. As a result, the requirements can differ significantly across courses, but often, your work will result in some type of presentation at the end. As a guideline, a capstone project will revolve around the following framework:
- Selecting a topic. Whether you are given a set of topics to choose or you can select your own, a good topic will make the process much easier. In short, you need to find a happy balance of a topic that has a wide enough scope to investigate but is not so narrow you won’t be able to find resources for your task.
- Do a literature review. Initially, this may seem like extra work. But the pros at our capstone writing services state a proper literature review will pay dividends when further down the road. If you’ve never done a lit review before, don’t get intimidated. Simply organize a section of your written work where you state the relevance of your sources, any background information they had provided, as well as any information gaps. This will create a road map of where to take your project. You’ll have a strong foundation to work off and can spot any areas to improve upon.
- Research your topic. Since these assignments often have a presentation at the end, you can be more creative with your fact-finding. You may conduct interviews with professionals, observe various events, and of course the classic dive into the library. Just be sure your research is on target with your outline and the resources are authorization.
- Presenting your findings. With your presentation, the first is to look at the content of your research and choose a means of delivery. You can present your work as a defense, where you lecture the class on your work and field questions related to your topic. Revise some tips for writing essays to include in your work. You may also incorporate graphical elements or an engaging onscreen presentation. Prior to presenting your work, be sure to practice. You can do this in the mirror or with friends. Note down the areas that flow nicely and improve areas where you stall or do not clearly deliver your point.
How to handle this task? Below are a few examples which illustrate the general forms of work and objectives found in capstone projects:
- Organizing scientific research, which could last several months or even a year to study ecological and environmental changes in a local habitat;
- Designing and producing a robot, or an app, which can deal, for example, with people who have special needs (such robots can support the disabled);
- Creation of an organization or an office to learn more about vital social problems such as hunger, poverty, effects of war, homelessness, or mortal diseases;
- Comprehensive research of an industry or market and creating an applicable business plan for a recommended company;
- Writing, directing, and filming an announcement that will be broadcasted on public television;
As you see, it has many different forms.
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Importance Of A Capstone Project
But why is it important work? There are many factors that explain its importance and one of the main factors is that it increases the austerity of academic studies of the senior year. How? You may ask. In many cases, students take simpler courses for their last or senior year, which can lead to learning failure or deficient preparation for their work in college. In this way, a capstone project can help increase preparation for college and work, reduce the loss of learning during the senior year and encourage efficient work and new interesting experiences in science or other disciplines.
Also, it increases individual motivation. Assignments like this require creative work on topics that are interesting to a person, which increases motivation significantly.
Capstone projects are a great way of demonstrating the proficiency of learning. This type of work can help young people determine their competence and readiness to demonstrate what they have learned through the course of their project.
How else can it be useful? Involving students in long-term projects which combine their ambitions and goals, motivate people to more deliberate future planning, understanding their main objectives, career exploration, and obtaining useful experience, which will help them in their future careers.
In addition, capstone projects can give students more confidence in their strengths and make their self-perception clearer which is always a good thing.
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Upon completing your project you’ll demonstrate that you can engage in serious research work. And if you get a good grade it’s a good reference for future academic work if asked about your academic achievements. You will find that you not only know how to investigate a subject but organize work to reach a deep understanding.
Another aspect is the presentation portion. Many students are great researchers and can write wonderful papers and get good grades. However, presentation is a necessary skill to apply in the real world. When you want to ask for a raise or get a proposal approved, often you’ll need to present factual data to back up your reasoning.
Don’t pass up this opportunity to showcase your skills to your university. With the right plan, you can develop a great project that can be a lot of fun. Try to devise a practical topic of interest and follow this guide to get the A you deserve. But as a long term project, you may need help with all or part of your assignment and think about buying a capstone project . When you’re burning the midnight oil sweating about a deadline, reach out to us at PapersOwl and we’ll come to your aid.
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Example Capstone Proposal Summary - Technology
Before we can determine the project scope and the upgrades necessary to support this endeavor, I will need to utilize a degree of project management principles in order to define a strategic flow from one step to another in an ordered manner. As per the Project Management Body of Knowledge Guide (PMBOK) I have already gained the necessary approval from the Marriot’s senior leadership members in order to approach local management and begin the planning phase of this project (Project Management Institute, 2008). I met with the Marriot’s regional vice president of operations, director of information technology management, local hotel manager – or for the purposes of this project, stakeholders - to determine current challenges, budgeting constraints, deadlines and the eventual acceptance of the project’s deliverables. As per site-management, the Melville Marriot has presently committed over $1300/month to an antiquated/basic satellite TV and shared bandwidth DSL internet services which is provided by local provider Broadview Networks. This service is delivered to 35 guest rooms, 4 suites and a visitor’s lounge. The stakeholders described their TV services as boringly basic with access to undesirable networks, the Internet as terribly slow with peak traffic speeds often below 1Mbit/second and described WI-FI accessibility as virtually non-existent. The stakeholders have confirmed that they’re prepared to allocate up to $15,000 for one-time equipment charges and mandatory network upgrade, as well as increase their total monthly budget to $1800/mo.
Based on their budget, timeline and current broadband infrastructure, I have chosen to partner with local telecom provider Lightpath to put together a total solution to meet these goals. The project will entail the rationale necessary to determine which configurations to use with Optical Transport Network (OTS) and Managed WI-FI services. The deliverables for this project will include high-speed, gigabit connection with transmission between 5GB-10GB, and a 10GB burst available on-demand during peak data hours. The aforementioned burst will be most beneficial to the client while their customer’s access video streaming as well as WI-FI services. The Marriot chains of hotels are among the first hotel chains to reach an agreement with Netflix to offer streaming video services to their guests. This Netflix package will allow for instant logon privileges on up to 50 television units and single-session logon to over 100 mobile devices.
For the purposes of this project, we will focus primarily on the infrastructure components required to achieve our project deliverables.
For Managed Wi-Fi, the Cisco Dual Gigabit WAN VPN Router (RV042G-NA) will be provided by Lightpath, but thankfully we will have the option of choosing either the Cisco WAP321 or Ubiquiti Networks UniFi access points. The amount of access points necessary will be decided later on.
Multimedia Streaming Video Access:
- We will decide whether to go with either the Roku or Apple TV multimedia streaming devices.
- By and large my main objective is to provide a comprehensive Internet/Streaming Video solution that will exceed expectations, provide scalability for future growth while remaining cost effective. I am fully prepared to give my opinion on all matters relative to the project, albeit unpopular, as long as the suggested solution makes sense in the long run. The Proof of Concept (POC) testing was completed on July 15th, 2015. The Marriot’s stakeholders were briefed on outcomes and recommendations on July 24th and all sides are in agreement with the recommendation to proceed with the project. The stakeholders have also requested a project completion date of October 1st, 2015.
Review of Other Work
At the recommendation of Lightpath, we will go with the Cisco RV042G-NA Gigabit Router. Although I would have preferred to go with a unit of my choosing, I was pleased to find that after extensive research, the selected RV unit comes highly regarded due to its secure VPN - which provides access to over 100 simultaneous connections and it includes world-class security features such as advanced encryption, and authentication, which will placate our stakeholders (Cisco). The fact that it is Managed Wi-Fi also offers the benefit of outsourcing the complexities and costs associated with a wireless data network without the expense of up-front capital, training and ongoing support, thus eliminating the risk of technology obsolescence.
Five strategically placed access points will complement the managed Wi-Fi solution. At the behest of the Marriot’s Director of IT, we will consider the Cisco WAP321 access point due to its guaranteed, direct compatibility with Lightpath’s selected router as well as the fact that Ligthpath has used this AP in a few of their previous projects. Although the Cisco unit offers less risk of compatibility issues, I have suggested that the stakeholders also consider the Ubiquiti Networks UniFi AP due to its affordability – at almost half the price of the Cisco unit with a total range of up to 400 feet.
The UniFi AP can be purchased for less than $100 each and it provides exceptional range and reliability. Perhaps most importantly for the Marriot is the fact that the UniFi AP has a much different design from that of the Cisco WAP321. The UniFI AP is a sleek AP that actually looks a lot like a smoke detector. Because of this, the device can be placed on any wall or ceiling in the hotel room and not arouse the slightest bit of suspicion from the guests. It is possible that even more of these access points could be placed throughout the hotel in an effort to make the signal even more reliable, since it is far more nondescript than a traditional device. A comparison of the two devices can be seen below:
- The Cisco WAP321
- The UniFi AP
Though there are several advantages to the UniFi AP as can be seen from the photos. But there is another, even more pertinent reason for the Marriot to consider using UniFi access points. In 2011 Gartner, a technology research firm, issued a report that condemned the use of single-vendor networks (Duffy, 2011). Gartner insisted that a multi-vendor approach could significantly reduce customer costs and simplify their operations, in direct contrast to the end-to-end architectural approach advocated by Cisco (Duffy, 2011). These cost savings can be significant for enterprise customers and the additional simplicity of design can make the system much easier to maintain over the long run.
Cisco, however, insists that their approach to networking with a strategic vendor relationship is more business critical (Duffy, 2011). Many companies apparently agree with the way Cisco approaches networking. Prior to engaging Cisco as their network provider, the Columbus Regional Airport Authority used equipment from both 3Com and HP (Duffy, 2011). With three airports and 350 employees this system proved to unmanageable for their team of twenty IT employees (Duffy, 2011). Additionally as they look to install passenger kiosks, high-definition cameras and video analytics for security, a single vendor makes more sense (Duffy, 2011).
Tesco, a company with 5,000 locations and over 500,000 employees has had a single vendor for their networking needs for several years (Duffy, 2011).. Tesco uses Cisco TelePresence for its intra-company collaboration and is currently seeking to outfit many of its stores with Wi-Fi so its customers will have in-store internet access (Duffy, 2011). None of this, they insist, would be possible with a multi-vendor network and, in fact, the current setup gives them a tremendous advantage over their competitors.
For simplicity sake it may be best to go with the Cisco WAP321 for the time being. This device has been proven reliable with Lightpath in the past and also works well with the system that is being installed. Management prefers to keep everything as simple as possible for future maintenance and upgrades. It is possible that a UniFi AP could be installed at some later date so that it could be monitored for performance and compatibility. If it proves to be a capable device in the system, it could become permanent.
One major concern of the stakeholders was that the available speeds may not be sufficient for multiple video streaming at one time. This could conceivably prove problematic in the evening when most of the guests are in their rooms and watching TV before going to sleep for the night. The issue could certainly be exacerbated on busy holidays or weekends when the hotel is fully booked. The staff was concerned that their already sluggish connections would be inundated with requests and everyone would experience only spotty results, at best, with their streaming connections. Another solution was required.
Netflix recommends that its users have at least 3Mbps available in order to view high definition video streams (Komando, 2014). While that is not a problem for one room watching one movie, it could present issues if ten rooms are all trying to stream a movie at once. In such a scenario, the usage would then increase to over 30 Mbps. Twenty rooms at once would take you up to 60 Mbps and so on. That’s fine as long as only one person in the room is using the connection, but often there are multiple devices in each room all connected simultaneously. It is easy to see the need for faster, more reliable connections in excess of 100 Mbps.
The only solution that appeared to consistently offer such speeds was an Optical Transport Network over fiber optic lines. Lightpath offered just such a service with speeds from 1 Gb to 10 Gb with 10 Gb bursts. This will provide more than adequate speed at all times for the multiple users to access the Internet at once, even if they are all streaming video at the same time. There should be no issues with video lag or other Internet-related problems due to the ISP.
Another potential bottleneck with the service is the wireless speed that the routers are capable of attaining. The Cisco 321WAP is rated for 802.11n Wi-Fi speeds. 802.11m is capable of achieving 300 Mbps for each device, though they rarely reach such lofty speeds. Even so, by positioning five of these devices throughout the hotel, the speeds achieved should be adequate In the event that the devices only reach about half their speed, it would still allow for about fifty streaming videos on each one at any given time.
Though several options were available for streaming services, it was felt that Netflix offered the best name recognition and most reliable services. It also has a well-known and extensive library of videos from which to choose. The cost of the service is also in line with other similar offerings. The decision to use Apple TV or Roku may simply come down to cost, as there seems to be little advantage to one over the other. The decision to go with Lightpath as ISP for the hotel was an easy choice, considering they offer the best plan for the money in regards to speed and they have an excellent reputation in their industry.
Systems Analysis and Methodology
In order to ensure that the design is suitable to the needs of the end-users, a proper design analysis method must be used. Since this is a Cisco-based system, it only makes sense to employ their PPDIOO method of analysis. The first part of this analysis is Prepare, which involves establishing organizational requirements and developing the strategy. Next is to Plan by identifying initial network requirements based on goals, facilities and user needs. From those steps the initial requirements drive the activity of Design. This is a comprehensive detailed design that meets current business and technical requirements. That allows the next step of Implementing the design to occur. Operation is the final test of the appropriateness of the design and it involve maintaining network health through day-to-day operations. Finally the system can be Optimized over time through proactive management of the network.
Currently there is a shared bandwidth DSL service that must be replaced by the Optical Transport network. This will not require a major renovation since the basic infrastructure for the new system is virtually unchanged. All that will be required is to install the new equipment.
Ideas for your nursing capstone project
Before becoming a nurse, every student has to go through a complicated and tough studying process. And nursing capstone project is an integral part of it. Health care requirements are not easy to fit and for that purpose, you should study hard and show various skills.
Your task will be to create a vast number of serious projects and a nursing capstone is one of them. Conducting research, providing evidence and collecting facts is exciting for nursing practice. But if you lack skills and knowledge in the field, it may become a real challenge for you. In this case, our nursing capstone project ideas will help you cope with that assignment.
What is a nursing capstone project?
A capstone project is something every student face sooner or later. And a nursing capstone project is required for an undergraduate degree, unlike a nursing thesis. Usually, you can choose between two graduate programs that include a practicum and internship.
When working on your capstone project for nursing, you should research a certain theme. As a rule, your nursing capstone paper will look like a paper. It doesn’t need you to introduce new information or ideas, just review the existing ones.
Capstone project topics for nursing
Nursing capstone project topics are not easy to pick up while your grade will largely depend on what you write about. We have gathered some interesting nursing capstone project ideas below so you could get inspired and come up with a brilliant topic for your own nursing capstone projects.
Emergency nursing capstone project topics
- Prevention of Alzheimer’s disease.
- Post-anesthesia care units and pain management in clinical practice.
- Nursing programs and clinical workload policy.
- Dimensional analysis for dosage calculations.
- Bedside shift report.
- Patients with congestive heart failure and the quality of their life.
- The benefits and drawbacks of the cardiac skills checklist for teenagers.
- Asthma and diabetes education in the hospital for African American populations.
- Diabetes prevention.
- Non-pharmacological methods for dementia patient treatment.
Nursing informatics capstone project ideas
- Simulation for incorporate caring competencies.
- Hospice nurses and their perception.
- The influence of the nursing capstone project on nursing skills.
- Emergency room nurses and the connection between caring behavior and emotional intelligence.
- The importance of inpatient medication education.
- The collaboration between nurses and physicians.
- Best practices of simulation design.
- Technology for teaching mindfulness meditation.
- The usage of the telephone follow-up aimed to reduce the readmission percentage in patients after gynecologic oncology surgery.
- How to protect patients with the help of technology.
Capstone project on nursing burnout
- Critical care nurses’ burnout.
- Burnout to boost productivity.
- Nursing barriers for primary care.
- Hemodialysis treatment regimen.
- Breastfeeding and mothers’ decisions about it.
- The preparation of nursing students to use high-fidelity simulation.
- The connection between intuition and large experience.
- Nurse management.
- Hospital orientation vs unit orientation.
- Workplace bullying and sabotage.
How to write a capstone project outline: steps and example
Nursing students often find it difficult to come up with a good capstone project because it requires lots of time, knowledge, skills, and patience. A nursing capstone project cannot be written within just a couple of hours, days, or nights. These research papers require lots of preparation beforehand and brook no delays.
If you manage to write a good outline for your nursing capstone paper, it will be half success. Just like all research papers , a nursing capstone project requires thorough research and collection of strong evidence. We recommend working on your main body first. Only after it, start working on your capstone project introduction and nursing capstone conclusion.
Nursing capstone format
As a rule, capstone projects are not for graduate nursing students but for your undergraduate program. Nursing students are often allowed to work on their capstone projects individually or in groups. A capstone paper is to be presented to a panel of faculty.
You can choose any format for your capstone projects, for example, write it in the form of a case study , research paper , or policy memo.
Presenting your nursing capstone
The nursing capstone presentation is usually supervised by a panel of two or three faculty. By the way, the public is allowed to observe the presentation of your capstone project. Using different tools, such as PowerPoint or others would be very helpful for your nursing capstone project.
It will help you to display different data from the appendix or show graphs, charts, etc. If you decided to work on your capstone project in the group, each of the members will need to make an oral presentation. It will make a good impression and show your role in the nursing capstone. Don’t forget to divide your introduction, body, and conclusion logically from each other. Every sentence needs to flow from one another. The overall capstone project has to be written in order and every sentence needs to follow the previous one not to confuse the listeners.
How is a nursing capstone graded?
Your nursing capstone grade depends on several factors. Your different skills need to be evaluated. Every student has to show his communication, literacy, and problem-solving skills in his nursing capstone paper.
This grade is very important for your future clinical practice. Don’t neglect to show your best writing skills and if you don’t have them yet, use nursing capstone project ideas. Working in one team or a group is also a big benefit for your capstone project.
Absolutely all of your efforts will be evaluated, so keep in mind that a nursing capstone paper is not the best reason for experiments. If you are not sure about your nursing capstone writing skills, better use MSN and DNP project ideas from professionals.
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Capstone project examples
Nursing capstone projects are a critical component of the nursing profession and provide invaluable hands-on experience for students. In completing such a project, students demonstrate their knowledge and application of theoretical concepts learned in the classroom. A successful nursing capstone project requires thoughtful planning, comprehensive research, and hard work. This article will provide an overview of completing a nursing capstone project from beginning to end. Capstone project examples:
What is a nursing capstone project?
A nursing capstone project is an educational exercise that allows students to demonstrate their knowledge and skills as they near the completion of their degree programs. It typically includes a significant research or design project that involves collecting, analyzing, and synthesizing data to identify a problem, develop an appropriate solution, and recommend strategies for implementation.
The purpose of the capstone is to provide students with hands-on experience that will prepare them for professional practice in nursing. The structure of a nursing capstone project can vary depending on the type and level of the degree program; however, common elements include reflective papers, group projects, peer reviews, independent study projects, and presentations at conferences or other venues.
What are the five parts of the capstone project?
A capstone project typically involves researching, presenting, and defending a new idea or concept. The five parts of a capstone project include the introduction, literature review, methodology, findings and analysis, and conclusion.
- The introduction
The introduction is where the student presents their purpose for completing the project. This should clearly define the problem they are trying to solve or answer while providing some background information on why it needs to be solved.
- The literature review
It provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of research on a specific topic and serves as the foundation for your project’s arguments and conclusions. Conducting a thorough literature review is critical for ensuring that your capstone project accurately reflects the latest developments in your chosen field.
- The methodology
The methodology section is one of the essential parts of a capstone project, as it outlines how the student intends to conduct their research. This involves selecting an appropriate research design, data collection methods and techniques, tools used for analysis, and other relevant information relating to how they will conduct their study.
It should also include any ethical considerations that need to be considered when handling sensitive data or topics. By explaining the methodologies used in detail within this section, readers can understand better and evaluate the outcomes presented by the final product
- Finding and analyzing
This step requires significant research into primary and secondary sources and careful data evaluation to draw meaningful conclusions. The primary purpose of this phase is to uncover new information about your chosen topic and use that knowledge to answer key questions related to your thesis.
The conclusion section should act as a bridge between all other parts of the capstone paper by connecting them and demonstrating how they are related. It should also include recommendations on what could be done in future research or projects related to this topic.
Finally, it should offer an overall summary of key points from each part of the paper without going into unnecessary details. This will help readers quickly grasp the main issues without reading through every page again.
How do you write a capstone project?
A capstone project is a major assignment, typically the culmination of an academic program. This project requires deep research, strong analytical skills, and advanced writing abilities. Writing a practical capstone project can be challenging, but you can take steps to make the process easier.
- Establish the purpose of your paper. This will help guide the rest of your work and ensure it is focused on developing key points for discussion
- Choose a topic that is relevant and interesting to you. Make sure it pertains to your field of study and has not been covered in previous classes or assignments
- Create an outline that will provide structure for the paper and help keep track of all your ideas
- Collect resources from reliable sources such as books, journals, and online databases for further research on the subject matter
- Summarize all pertinent information onto note cards so they can easily be referenced while writing the paper
- Each phase should involve thorough analysis and critical thinking so that you can make informed decisions about how best to present your ideas in an effective manner
- Begin your writing and edit and proofread before you submit your article for marking
Capstone project topics
It would be best to look at projects that address challenges or opportunities in the industry you’re interested in pursuing further after graduation. Once you’ve identified some potential areas of interest, take some time researching different topics within those areas to get an idea of what type of scope would fit into your timeframe and the resources available.
General nursing capstone project ideas
- Healthcare policy development
- The use of technology in healthcare
- Ethical issues surrounding nursing care practices and decision-making processes within healthcare settings
- Mental health care
- Public health issues related to nursing practice
- Exploring how telemedicine is impacting access to healthcare for rural communities
- Examining the effectiveness of public health initiatives in inducing chronic diseases in underserved populations
- Investigating the best practices for managing opioid addiction in hospitals and long-term care facilities
- Analyzing ways to optimize communication between nurses and physicians within the healthcare system
- Evaluating methods of improving medication safety protocols in hospitals and clinics
- Improving health outcomes through patient education
Medical surgery capstone project ideas
Medical surgery capstone projects are excellent for medical students to gain valuable experience and skills. Not only do these projects help hone the technical abilities of aspiring surgeons, but they also help them further develop their critical thinking and problem-solving soft skills.
- The effectiveness of the different surgical techniques
- Researching ways to reduce complications during surgery
- Study the development of robotic surgery technology over time
- Examine gender differences in surgical treatment approaches
- Modern surgical techniques used in complex operations
- A new type of suturing device
- Exploring cost analysis for various surgeries
- Develop an app or program that would allow medical professionals to access patient records and health information quickly and securely more easily
- How advanced technologies like artificial intelligence can be used in the diagnosis of surgical patients
- The impact of different types of anesthesia on surgical outcomes
Nursing leadership capstone project ideas
Nursing leadership is essential in providing quality healthcare for individuals, families, and communities. A capstone project is a culminating experience that allows nursing students to demonstrate their acquired knowledge and skills in nursing leadership .
- Researching a particular healthcare problem or issue and developing a solution-oriented plan
- Healthcare policy reform
- Patient advocacy initiatives
- Long-term care strategies
- An analysis of current nursing leadership trends
- An exploration of different models of management
- Organizational structure or staffing needs within a health system
- How technology is changing the practice of nursing leadership
- The impact of workplace culture on nurse leadership effectiveness
Women’s health capstone project ideas
There are many issues to consider regarding women’s health, such as reproductive health, mental health, and nutrition. As such, capstone projects that revolve around women’s health can be a great opportunity for students to explore this important area. Here are some ideas for potential women’s health capstone projects:
- The impact of public policies on sexual education availability in schools across regions or countries
- How socioeconomic status affects access to care among minority communities when it comes to reproductive healthcare services
- A comprehensive database of available mental health services specifically tailored for women in different parts of the world
- How existing healthcare laws affect women in terms of access and cost
- Create an interactive program that focuses on nutrition education for young mothers
- The impact of diet and exercise on female fertility outcomes
- How lifestyle changes can improve mental health outcomes among pregnant women and new mothers
- The effectiveness of alternative treatments for premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
- Ways to reduce gender disparities in healthcare access
- Interventions for different types of chronic illnesses
Emergency nursing capstone project ideas
- Emergency response in a particular area or setting
- Emergency preparedness or disaster management
- Best practices when it comes to emergency room care
- How technology can be used in emergency rooms
- Triage techniques in busy emergency rooms
- Improving communication between hospital staff when dealing with high-pressure situations
- Developing a comprehensive charting system for emergency room visit
- How changes in healthcare policies impact patient outcomes
- Researching new treatments or procedures used within emergency departments
- Designing an intervention program aimed at reducing opioid abuse among patients in the ED setting
- Improving communication between providers and patients
Capstone project examples can be incredibly useful for students, educators, and professionals. By providing a comprehensive overview of the project process and its various components, these examples can help people better understand the concept and purpose of capstone projects
They serve as inspiration for those who are looking to create their own capstone project. The best part is that they are freely available online and provide invaluable insight into what makes a successful project.
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Example Capstone Projects
Example project capstones from various osu programs.
Michael Patrick Kelley, "Multipartner Planning for Sustainability: The Pittsburgh Urban Forest"
Jamie Whitley, Laws, "Regulations and Action Plans for Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Found in Michigan Drinking Water Supplies"
Sydney Householder, "A Health Impact Assessment of Proposed Changes in Rental Housing Policy in Corvallis, Oregon"
Daniel Dusek, "Using Community Gardens To Help Solve the Hunger Crisis in San Diego County, CA"
Abigail Brown, "Empowerment and Gender Equality for Water and Sanitation in Rural India: Two Case Studies"
Alessandra Harewood, "The Social Construction of the Metallic Mining Industry: The Divergent Cases of the Mining Moratorium Bill (Wisconsin) and the Permit Streamlining Bill (Minnesota)"
Lisa Prendergast, "Developing a Strategic Conservation Project for the Oregon Coast Aquarium"
Keenan, Lindsey, "California Energy Policy and Perceptions in the 21st Century"
Taehyun Kwon, "A Study on Policy Change of Locating Radioactive Waste Depository Facilities in South Korea Using a Multiple Streams Perspective"
Boniface Chifamba, "California Higher Education - Are the California Promise Programs Contributing to Student Success and more Diverse Institutions?"
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1. Start with the problem or need the project is solving. At the beginning of your executive summary, start by explaining why this document (and the project it represents) matter. Take some time to outline what the problem is, including any research or customer feedback you've gotten.
Before submitting your project, read the Capstone project guidelines. Submit a Capstone Proposal Example Project Proposals Example Design-Focused Project Sponsor: ABC User Experience Consultants Title: Designing Mobile Technologies for Environmental Sustainability Contact (s): Jane Doe, [email protected]
Capstone projects vary not just in the type of project, also in the level at which they are done. There are projects for juniors and seniors in college as well as for postgraduate students. Here are some examples of the forms of projects depending on the academic level. In-depth research projects.
Example Of A Capstone Project Outline It's almost impossible to come up with an example or templates that would be useful for every student in every school. There are just too many elements to take note of simultaneously. However, we can do our best by including some of the most common factors that you would find in any paper.
This Capstone Project was approved by: Advisor: _____ _____ ... C. Summary 9 II. Review of the Literature 10 A. Use of SRS in a Mathematics Classroom 11 ... For example, checking for understanding on the homework will involve a few questions that students answer with the clickers during class. The results will
Psychology Capstone Project Ideas Society shows increasing attention to mental health. The range of issues that influence human psychology is vast, and the choice may be difficult. You'll find simple capstone project ideas to settle on in the following list. The Impact of Abortion on Mental Health
SAMPLE CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT Page 7 The design we proposed highlighted the use of Pulver'sPrepare,Plan,Design, Implement,Operate, andOptimize(PPDIOO) network life cycle methodology. It is widely considered the gold standard for network design practices. The completion of each phase ensured the successful execution and operation of the network.
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Capstone Project Examples and Topic Ideas CapstoneWriting / Capstone Project Examples All samples Level High School College University Masters Categories Design, Analysis, and Critical Evaluation of Research Academic level: College Discipline: Statistics Paper format: APA Pages: 3 Order Similar View Sample starting at just $14/page
Capstone projects were generally developed to encourage student's abilities of critical thinking, problem-solving, oral communication skills, research skills, and teamwork. Moreover, thanks to this project, students learn to connect with the community and analyze important issues, problems, and ideas.
End your review of literature with a well-written summary of your findings. Also, present a rationale for carrying out your capstone project, based on those findings. Theoretical Model The theoretical model section names and defines the conceptual or theoretical model that is foundational to your capstone proposal and future project.
Capstone Project - Example Summary (Technology) Example Capstone Proposal Summary - Technology As technology continues to evolve, companies both large and small are seeking opportunities to reduce spending while using technology to grow their respective businesses into efficient entities.
A capstone paper is to be presented to a panel of faculty. You can choose any format for your capstone projects, for example, write it in the form of a case study, research paper, or policy memo. Presenting your nursing capstone The nursing capstone presentation is usually supervised by a panel of two or three faculty.
example of a project because they are all different. Essentially, you will be responsible to lead a major project at an organization under the ... MSUM approved title page, table of contents, abstract, capstone project summary, project timeline, weekly progress reports, weekly student reflection journals, PowerPoint presentation, annotated ...
A capstone project typically involves researching, presenting, and defending a new idea or concept. The five parts of a capstone project include the introduction, literature review, methodology, findings and analysis, and conclusion. The introduction. The introduction is where the student presents their purpose for completing the project.
The Capstone Project is designed to demonstrate students' accumulated training in a project of their choice, subject to the instructor's approval and under the additional supervisi on of a faculty mentor. Although the most common way of completing a capstone project is to select from alternate projects
Example Project Capstones from Various OSU Programs. Michael Patrick Kelley, "Multipartner Planning for Sustainability: The Pittsburgh Urban Forest". Jamie Whitley, Laws, "Regulations and Action Plans for Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Found in Michigan Drinking Water Supplies". Sydney Householder, "A Health Impact Assessment of Proposed ...
Couldn't find the right Nursing capstone project example? Order now. Teamwork Capstone Project . Academic level: College Discipline: Nursing Paper format: APA Pages: 8 Order Similar. View Sample View Sample starting at just $14/page. Prophylactic antibiotic: Is it effective in preventing post-surgical infection? ...
Capstone Project: Requirements and Guidelines Students pursing the Master of Science in Information Quality may choose to complete the 33-hour program by either a 6-hour master's thesis or 6-hour capstone project. This document outlines the requirements and guidelines for students selecting the capstone project option. Table of Contents