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Chapter 4 Methodology of the Study This chapter presented the methods and procedures on how the research project is to be done. It includes discussion on research method and techniques, systems development methodology, requirements analysis, requirement documentation, design of software, development and testing, implementation plan and implementation results. Research Methods and Techniques Descriptive-Qualitative method is gathered from a variety of sources by using different method such as interviews and observations. This method often involves simply interviewing and observing to collect more data. Observation is a systematic data collection approach. The interview in this method is a conversation where questions are asked to get the information needed. Such study is especially useful for researchers wanting to know the who, what, and where of the events. The proponents conducted descriptive qualitative methods to collect as much data to capture all the procedures in the event. This method can gather all information’s that the researchers need to be inserted in the proposed system. It helps the researchers to know the processes and policies inside the library of Immaculate Conception I-College of Arts and Technology. Data Gathering Instruments The proponents used the following techniques in gathering data: Interview. During the requirements gathering stage, the proponents conduct face – to – face interview with the librarian and assistant librarian of Immaculate Conception ICollege of Arts and Technology who gave the resources about the flow of the existing system of the library. Observation. The proponents have some inspection regarding the existing system of the library to gather more ideas on how to develop the proposed system. From this observation, the proponents noted some problems being countered and this problem use to enhance the process of the library. Internet research. The proponents also conducted this to gather more data and topics that are related to the study. The data gather gives the proponents an idea for the topics they use. The library research. The proponents also used library materials like thesis documentation and books that are related to the study in gathering significant information and validation. Systems Development Process Adaptive Software Development is part of Agile Model that embodies the principle that continuous adaptation of the process to the work at hand. The proponents used Adaptive Software Development because it helps the proponents to have a better process for the development of the system. This model promotes continuous iteration of development and testing throughout the software development lifecycle of the project. Speculate Collaborate Learning Figure 1.Adaptive Software Development Speculate. This cycle uses project initiation information – the customer’s mission statement project constraints (e.g., delivery dates or user descriptions), and basic requirements – to define the set of release cycles that will be required for the project. The proponents involved with creating of plans to have a proper guide throughout the development of the system. This cycle helps the proponents to manage time, cost quality, and scope of developing the system. Collaborate. In this cycle, the proponents are referring the effort for balancing the work based on predictable parts of the environments (planning and guiding them) and adapting to the uncertain surrounding mix of changes caused by various factors, such as technology, requirements, stakeholders, and software vendors. This cycle helps the researcher to adapt the changes while developing the system. Learning. In this cycle, the system is created physically and the production system is installed. This system is based on short iterations with design, build and testing. During the deliver it is reviewed to ensure that the researchers met the goals in the project plan for a satisfactory result. In the same time, while designing, building and testing the system there is the problems that the proponents are encountered. The proponents used the problem to solved and careful to not happen again the said problem. That will be the lesson for the proponents to fixed and avoid the problem. Requirements Analysis The existing system of ICI Library is manually done. The proponents construct idea in developing new system based on the gathered data, problems that will find solution for the existing library system. The proponents reviewed well all the necessary requirements to meet the desired idea for the new system to be developing. Economic feasibility. The purpose of the economic feasibility assessment is to determine the positive economic benefits to the organization that the proposed system will provide. It includes quantification and identification. Operation cost. Operating costs are the expenses which are related to the operation of a business, or the operation of a device, component, and pieces of equipment or facility. They are the cost of resources used by an organization just to maintain its existence. Table 4. Operating Cost (Existing System) Item A. B. Annually Personnel (1) Librarian @15,000.00 (2) Assistant librarian @12,000.00 12,000.00 180,000.00 144,000.00 Total Personnel Cost 27,000.00 324,000.00 30.00 50.00 360.00 600.00 39.50 459.00 160.00 20.00 480.00 600.00 30.00 Supplies (1) Log book @ 30.00 (5) Ball pen @ 10.00 (2) Box paper clip @19.75 (2) Small box staple wire @ 20.00 (1) Ream bond paper @160.00 (4) Ruler @5.00 (5) Folder S @8.00 (5) Folder L @ 10.00 (1) Box fastener @30.00 Total Supplies Cost C. Monthly 15,000.00 40.00 40.00 50.00 210.00 2,748.50 Equipment (2)Medium Stapler @75.00 (1) Printer @6,525.00 Salvage value: 6,525.00*.2 = 1,305.00 Description value: 6,525.00 - 1,305.00 = 5,220.00/yr 5,220.00 Total Equipment Cost 5,370.00 150.00 Summary A. Personnel B. Supplies C. Equipment 324,000.00 2,748.50 5,370.00 Total Annual Cost (Existing System) 332,118.50 Table 5. Operating Cost (Proposed System) A. B. Item Personnel (1) Librarian @15,000.00 Monthly Annually 15,000.00 180,000.00 Total Personnel Cost 15,000.00 180,000.00 30.00 24.00 30.00 40.00 360.00 288.00 360.00 160.00 459.00 124.00 1,627.00 Supplies (3) Ball pen @10.00 (3) Folder S @8.00 (3) Folder L @ 10.00 (1)Ream bond paper @160.00 (2) two small box staple wire @ 20.00 Total Supplies Cost C. Equipment (1)Medium Stapler @75.00 (1)Printer @6,525.00 Salvage value: 6,525.00*.2 = 1,305.00 Description value: 6,525.00 – 1,305.00 = 5,220.00/yr (1)Router @ 1,290.00 Salvage value: 1,290.00*.2 = 258.00 Description value: 1,290.00 - 258.00 = 1,032.00/yr Total Equipment Cost 75.00 5,220.00 1,032.00 6, 327.00 Summary a. Personnel b. Supplies c. Equipment 180,000.00 1,627.00 6,327.00 Total Annual Cost (Proposed System) 187,954.00 Cost benefits analysis. Is a technique designed to determine the feasibility of a project by quantifying its cost and benefits. Table 6. Cost and Benefits Analysis Existing System Cost 332,118.50 Proposed System Cost 187,954.00 Annual Cost Saving 144,164.50 Development cost. Is the total of all costs incurred from initiations to implementation of a project, it includes the software, hardware requirements, labor cost, supplies cost, electric consumption, food and transportation cost. Table 7. Development Cost Item A. Hardware Cost (1)Computer set @17,000.00 AOC LED Monitor 12 inch 5,000.00 AVR 300.00 Del Keyboard 800.00 Del Mouse 600.00 Desktop 10,300.00 Desktop specs Hard Disk Sea Gate 500GB Kingston RAM 2x2GB MSI Motherboard A68HM-E33V2 Processor AMD A6 3.9Ghz Video card NVIDIA GT 730 2GB 128bit Window System Type = MS Windows 7 64-bit (1)Router @1,800.00 Total Hardware Cost B. C. Amount 17,000.00 1,800.00 18,800.00 Software Cost SMS Gateway @300.00(2 months) 600.00 Total Software Cost 600.00 Labor Cost (1) Programmer 15,000 per Month (5 months) Total Labor Cost 75,000.00 75,000.00 D. E. F. Supplies Cost (4) Ball pen @8.00 (1) DVD R @15.00 Xerox/print service fee Tarpaulin 32.00 15.00 2,000.00 180.00 Total Supplies Cost 2,227.00 Electric Consumption Cost Computer @1,527.40 Electric fan @327.30 Florescent @130.92 Router @196.00 1,527.40 327.30 130.92 196.00 Total Electric Consumption Cost 2,181.62 Food and Transportation Cost 2,000.00 Summary A. Hardware Cost B. Software Cost C. Labor Cost D. Supplies Cost E. Electric Consumption Cost F. Food and Transportation Cost Total Development Cost 18,800.00 600.00 75,000.00 2,227.00 2,181.62 2,000.00 100,808.62 Table 8. Systems Development Cost Proposed System Cost 187,954.00 Development Cost 100,808.62 Total Systems Development Cost 288,762.62 Operational feasibility. Is a measure of how well a proposed system solves the problems, and take advantage of the opportunities identified during scope definition and how it satisfied in the requirements analysis phase of system development. Fishbone diagram. Also called a cause and effect diagram or Ishikawa diagram, is a visualization tool for categorizing the potential causes of a problem in order to identify its root causes. The proponents show all the possible reasons of project failure while developing a system. Figure 2.Fishbone Diagram Schedule feasibility. Is defined as the probability of a project to be completed within its scheduled time limits, by a planned due date. Gantt chart. A Gantt chart is a graphical depiction of a project schedule. A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart that shows the start and finish dates of several elements of a project that include resources, milestones, tasks and dependencies. Henry Gantt, an American mechanical engineer, designed the Gantt chart. The proponents used Gant Chart to monitor the schedule of the project for the tasks that is given. This schedule helps the proponents in planning a project and defining the sequence of tasks that require completion. Oct-16 Activity Capstone Proposal Planning Planning for Software Deployment 1st Interview Chapter 1 Introduction Project Context Purpose and Description of the Project Descriptive of the Project Scope and Limitations Significance of the Study Prototype Revision of Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Theoretical Background Related Literature Related Studies System Development System Planning System Design Database Front end Design Code for Log-in Chapter 3 Technicality of the Project Details Technology to be used How the Project will work? Chapter 4 - 5 Environment Documentation Requirement Specification Operation Feasibility Schedule Feasibility Economic Feasibility Requirement Modeling Data and Process Modeling Object Modeling Data Design Development Figure 3.Gantt Chart of Activities 1 2 3 4 1 Nov-16 2 3 Dec-16 4 1 2 3 Jan-17 4 1 2 3 Feb-17 4 1 2 3 4 Requirements Documentation This section presents the initial design of the system by discussing its major components and their interaction. Data and process modeling. Systems analyst use many graphical techniques to describe an information system. A Data Flow Diagram (DFD) uses various symbols to show how the system transforms input data into useful information. Data flow diagram. Shows how data moves through an information system but does not show program logic or processing steps. It provides a logical model that shows what the system does, not how it does. Data flow diagram level 0 or context diagram.It’s a basic overview of the whole system or process being analyzed or modeled. Figure 4. Data Flow Diagram (Level 0 or Context Diagram) Data flow diagram level 1.Provides a more detailed breakout of pieces of the Context Level Diagram. You will highlight the main functions carried out by the system, as you break down the high-level process of the Context Diagram into its sub processes. Figure 5.Data Flow Diagram (Level 1) Data flow diagram level 2.Goes one step deeper into parts of Level 1. It may require more text to reach the necessary level of detail about the system’s functioning. Figure 6. Data Flow Diagram (Level 2) System flow chart. This diagrammatic representation illustrates a solution model to a given problem. Flowcharts are used in analyzing, designing, documenting or managing a process or program in various fields. Figure 7.Student System Flow Chart Figure 8.Student System Flow Chart (continuation) Figure9.Professor System Flow Chart Figure 10.Guest System Flow Chart Figure 11.Admininistrator System Flow Chart Figure 12. Administrator System Flow Chart (continuation) Figure 13. Administrator System Flow Chart (continuation) Object modeling. Approach for software modeling and designing. It is a method to develop object-oriented system and to support object-oriented programming. It was developed as an approach to software development. Use case diagram. Is a representation of a user's interaction with the system that shows the relationship between the user and the different use cases in which the user is involved. Figure 14.The System’s Use Case Diagram for Student Figure 14 illustrates and elaborated system flow of the user’s account. If the user’s account is logged on, the user homepage will prompt. The user can search, borrow, and reserved books through this system. The user can also check his/her profile if they have penalty or they have no slot for the reservation of the books they want to borrow. The user can free for feedback. Figure 15. The System’s Use Case Diagram for Guest Figure 15 illustrates an elaborated system flow for the guest account. This figure provides form options for available books, borrow books, and transact payment. The guest can only see the available books in the home of the website. They can reserve books by fill up the form for the outsider only. The guest can also transact payment to the library before they borrow the book they reserve online. They only used the books they borrow inside the library. They are not allowed to get the book outside the library. Figure 16.The System’s Use Case Diagram for Librarian Figure 16 illustrates an elaborated system flow for the librarian account. This figure provides form options to add, edit, or delete books, and accept or delete the reservation of the student. The librarian can view the list of the books, reservation, user, borrowed books, and transaction. If the librarian account is logged on, the user can see the number of request, books, and students. The form provides option on accessing the users, the items, the transactions, the requests, the reports, and sending message. The user form provides options to view the list of users, to create user and to view the profile of the admin. Changes will be updated to the list of the user when the librarian create new user. The items form provides options to view the books and other school items. Inside the book form are the lists of the books, archived book, the holder’s of the book, waiting to be claimed book, and add new book. Changes will be updated in the book form. The transaction form provides options to view the list of the transaction and the list of penalty payment. The librarian can take an action when the users pay the penalty. Changes will be updated in the list of the transaction and penalty payment. The request form provides options to view the list of the borrow request, cancelation request, book request, account request, and account update request. The action will take when the librarian confirm or reject the book request, the cancelation request, the account request, or the account update request. Changes will be updated to the account of the user. The message form provides option when the user will have to notify for the responsibility for the books. The librarian notify the user through SMS if the borrowed books are about to expire. The reports form provides options to book list report, borrowed books report, user list report, and transaction report. All the changes will be updated in the reports. Design of Software This section discusses the design and implementation of the data structures and algorithms used in the software. It included a discussion on the major issues and problems encountered, and the corresponding solutions and alternatives employed by proponent. Part of the design tools in the technical manual may be lifted as figures in this section. Data design. Is a process of producing a detailed data model of database. This data model contains all the needed logical and physical design choices and physical storage parameters needed to generate a design in a data definition language, which can then be used to create a database. Entity relationship diagram. Is a data modeling technique that graphically illustrates an information system’s entities and the relationships between those entities. Figure 17. Entity Relationship Diagram Data dictionary. Defines the structure of the database itself and is used in control and maintenance of large databases. It helps various users to know all the objects which exists in database. Table 9. Data Dictionary – tbl_accountupdate Column Type Comment Id int(11) Auto Increment Unique ID of the current table student_id varchar(255) ID number of the person which is displayed on a person's school ID Name varchar(255) Fullname of the person Privilege varchar(255) User level of the user Bday varchar(255) Date of birth of the person Email varchar(255) Email address of the person Address varchar(255) Current home address of the person Number varchar(255) Active mobile number of the person which will be used by the system for notification features Photo varchar(255) Actual image of the person for additional identification Newemail varchar(255) An Updated email address of the person Newaddress varchar(255) An updated home address of the person Newnumber varchar(255) A new mobile number of the person Newphoto varchar(255) An updated image of the person Table 10. Data Dictionary – tbl_adminaccount Column Type Comment admin_id int(10) unsigned Auto Increment Unique ID of admin account admin_name varchar(255) Fullname of the admin admin_uname varchar(255) Username of the admin for authentication admin_pass varchar(255) Password of the admin for authentication admin_email varchar(255) Email address of the admin admin_privilage varchar(255) User level of the admin Table 11. Data Dictionary – tbl_bookrequest Column Type Comment bookreq_id int(10) unsigned Auto Increment Unique ID of the current table Booktitle varchar(255) Title of the requested book Bookauthor varchar(255) Author of the requested book requester_name varchar(255) Fullname of the person that suggests the book student_id varchar(255) ID number of the requester which is displayed on a requester's school ID bookdescription Text Description of the requested book Reason varchar(255) Reason of the requester for suggesting the book Datetime Datetime The date and time of the sent request book_image varchar(255) The cover image of the requested book is_processed varchar(255) [no] is_rejected varchar(255) [undecided] Specifies the request if its processed by the admin or not Specifies the request if the admin rejected the request Table 12. Data Dictionary – tbl_books Column Type Comment book_id int(10) unsigned Auto Increment Unique ID of the Book book_cpressid int(10) unsigned Unique ID of the book that is compressed to store and count the quantity of the book with the same information book_callnumber varchar(255) Call number of the book book_isbn varchar(255) The ISBN of the book book_title varchar(255) Title of the book book_description Text Description of the book book_author varchar(255) Author of the book book_category varchar(255) Category of the book book_datepublishe varchar(255) d The year when the book is published book_image varchar(255) [images/books/empty_book.jpg] Cover image of the book book_status varchar(255) [Available] Status of the book is_trashed varchar(255) [No] Specify if the book is archived book_price decimal(10,0) Table 13. Data Dictionary – tbl_bookscompressed Column Id book_title book_description book_author book_callnumber book_isbn book_category book_datepublishe d book_quantity book_outside book_repair book_archive book_image is_trashed book_price Type int(11) Auto Increment varchar(255) Text varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) Comment Unique ID of the current table The title of the book Description of the book Author of the book Call Number of the book ISBN of the book Category of the book varchar(255) The year when the book is published Float float  float  float  varchar(255) [images/books/empty_book.jpg] varchar(255) [No] decimal(10,0) Quantity of the book Number of books currently borrowed Number of for repaired books Number of archived books Cover image of the book Specify if the book is archived Books_price Table 14. Data Dictionary – tbl_borrowedbooks Column Id bbook_id Callnumber bbook_author date_published book_isbn book_price Type int(11) Auto Increment int(10) unsigned varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) Course varchar(255) NULL Year Section bbook_title book_holder bh_studentid is_returned date_borrowed date_returned Deadline borrower_privilege varchar(255) NULL varchar(255) NULL varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) [no] Date Date date NULL varchar(255) [Student] Comment Unique ID of the current table Unique ID of the borrowed book Call number of the book Author of the book Book date published International Standard Book Number Price of the book Course of the student and school name if borrower is an outsider Year of the student Section of the student Title of the borrowed book Fullname of the borrower ID number of the borrower Specifies if the book is returned or not The date when the user borrowed the book The date when the user returned the book The deadline given by the system Level of the user Table 15. Data Dictionary – tbl_carousel Column Id img1 img2 img3 img4 Type int(11) Auto Increment varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) Comment Image ID Image number 1 for home carousel Image number 2 for home carousel Image number 3 for home carousel Image number 4 for home carousel Table 16. Data Dictionary – tbl_categories Column Id Category_name status Type int(11) Auto Increment varchar(255) varchar(255) [available] Comment ID number of category Type of the category Status of the Category Table 17. Data Dictionary – tbl_chat Column id message timedate sender Type int(10) unsigned Auto Increment varchar(255) Datetime varchar(255) Comment Unique ID of the chat Message content of the chat Time and Date of the sent message Fullname of the sender Table 18. Data Dictionary – tbl_course Column id course Type int(11) Auto Increment varchar(255) Comment ID number of the course Course of the user Table 19. Data Dictionary – tbl_libraryinfo Column Type Comment id int(11) Auto Increment Unique ID of Library Information title varchar(255) Specify title of content content Text Definition of specified title Table 20. Data Dictionary – tbl_outsider Column id user_id user_type name address Type int(11) Auto Increment varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) number varchar(255) course year section schoolname schooladdress usedbook bookinfo form_image varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) form_status varchar(255) [Unprocessed] Comment Unique ID of the current table Unique ID of the guest User Level of the user Fullname of the person Current home address of the person Active mobile number of the person which will be used by the system for notification features Current course of the user Current year of user Current section of the user Name of the user's school Address of the user's school Books A.N that is used by the outsider Book info that the user needs to research Image of the form Indicates if form is unprocessed, ready or has been used Table 21. Data Dictionary – tbl_professor Column id prof_id pwd name department address Type int(11) Auto Increment varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) number varchar(255) email varchar(255) bday varchar(255) varchar(255) [images/defaultimg.png] photo status varchar(255) [Not Validated] Comment Unique id of the table Unique ID of the professor Password of the Professor Full name of professor Depart of the professor Home address of the user Contact number of the user which will receive the sms notification of the system Email address of the user for future feature that acts as contact number when the user have no contact number Date of birth of the user A 2x2 image of the user for additional identity Status of the user which determine if the user is officially enrolled or not Table 22. Data Dictionary – tbl_reservation Column request_id request_bookid request_booktitle request_timesent request_sender request_senderid Type int(10) unsigned Auto Increment int(10) unsigned varchar(255) Datetime varchar(255) varchar(255) bookslot varchar(255) request_purpose varchar(255) is_processed varchar(255) [no] request_sendernu varchar(255) mber varchar(255) book_cover Comment Unique ID of reservation Unique ID of the selected book Title of the selected book Date and Time of the reservation Fullname of the person that sent the reservation ID number of the person that sent the reservation Indicates which slot is used to place the information of the selected book Indicates if the selected book is to be reserved or if the person wants to cancel his/her reservation Indicates if the admin has processed the reservation or not Mobile number of the borrower An image which display’s the cover of the book. Table 23. Data Dictionary – tbl_reservedbooks Column Type int(11) Auto Increment int(11) varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) id book_id book_title book_author book_category book_datepublish varchar(255) ed varchar(255) borrower_id borrower_name varchar(255) is_claimed varchar(255) [No] book_cover varchar(255) Comment Unique ID of the reserved books Unique ID of the reserved book Title of the reserved book Author of the reserved book Category of the reserved book Publication year of the reserved book ID number of the borrower Fullname of the borrower Indicates if the borrower has claimed the book or not An image which display’s the cover of the book. Table 24. Data Dictionary – tbl_textsetting Column id purpose Type int(11) Auto Increment varchar(255) content varchar(255) Comment Unique ID of the text settings Indicates the purpose of the sms Indicates the message of the sms which will be sent to the users Table 25. Data Dictionary – tbl_transactions Column receiptnumber name student_id money change totalpayment remaining_penalt y transaction_reaso n date time Type int(11) Auto Increment varchar(255) varchar(255) decimal(10,0) decimal(10,0) decimal(10,0) Comment Unique ID of the transaction Fullname of the transacting person ID number of the transacting person Given money of the transacting person Change of the transacting person Total payment of the transacting person decimal(10,0) Remaining Penalty of the transacting person varchar(255) [Did not meet deadline] Reason why the user had a transaction Date varchar(255) Date of transaction Time of transaction Table 26. Data Dictionary – tbl_users Column id Type int(10) unsigned Auto Increment student_id varchar(255) name bday pwd email address privilage penalty number b1id varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) NULL varchar(255) varchar(255) varchar(255) NULL [student] float NULL  varchar(255) varchar(255) NULL  b1idcpress varchar(255) NULL pending1 varchar(255) NULL borrowed1 varchar(255) NULL [none] varchar(255) NULL [images/books/empty_book.jpg] date NULL date NULL b1img borroweddate1 deadline1 day_unreturned1 float NULL  Comment Unique ID of the users ID number of the user which can be found on their school ID Fullname of the user Date of birth of the user Password of the user Email address of the user Current home address of the user User level of the user Total Penalty of the user Mobile number of the user Unique ID of the borrowed book for slot1 Unique ID of the borrowed book but in the tbl_bookscompressed for slot1 Indicates the status of the book if its unprocessed by the admin, reserved for the user or if the book is claimed by the user for slot1 The title of the borrowed book for slot1 Cover image of the borrowed book for slot1 Indicates the date of borrowing for slot1 Indicates the deadline given by the system for slot1 Counts the days if the book exceeds the given deadline for slot1 Indicates the date today and this is used to increase the penalty of the user for slot1 raw_date1 date NULL b2id varchar(255) NULL  Unique ID of the borrowed book for slot2 b2idcpress varchar(255) NULL Unique ID of the borrowed book but in the tbl_bookscompressed for slot2 pending2 varchar(255) NULL Indicates the status of the book if its unprocessed by the admin, reserved for the user or if the book is claimed by the user for slot2 borrowed2 varchar(255) NULL [none] The title of the borrowed book for slot2 b2img varchar(255) NULL [images/books/empty_book.jpg] Cover image of the borrowed book for slot2 borroweddate2 date NULL Indicates the date of borrowing for slot2 deadline2 date NULL Indicates the deadline given by the system for slot2 day_unreturned2 float NULL  Counts the days if the book exceeds the given deadline for slot2 Continuation of table 26 Column Type Comment raw_date2 date NULL Indicates the date today and this is used to increase the penalty of the user for slot2 b3id varchar(255) NULL  Unique ID of the borrowed book for slot3 b3idcpress varchar(255) NULL Unique ID of the borrowed book but in the tbl_bookscompressed for slot3 pending3 varchar(255) NULL Indicates the status of the book if its unprocessed by the admin, reserved for the user or if the book is claimed by the user for slot3 borrowed3 varchar(255) NULL [none] The title of the borrowed book for slot3 b3img varchar(255) NULL [images/books/empty_book.jpg] Cover image of the borrowed book for slot3 borroweddate3 date NULL Indicates the date of borrowing for slot3 deadline3 date NULL Indicates the deadline given by the system for slot3 day_unreturned3 float NULL  Counts the days if the book exceeds the given deadline for slot3 raw_date3 date NULL Indicates the date today and this is used to increase the penalty of the user for slot3 course varchar(255) Course of the user year varchar(255) Current year of the user section varchar(255) Current section of the user academic_status varchar(255) Current academic status of the user photo varchar(255) [images/defaultimg.png] Actual image of the user status varchar(255) [Not Validated] Status of the user if validated or not validated Table 27. Weighted Mean and Description of the Respondents’ Response on the System Functionality Test Indicators Weighted Mean Description 1 All buttons in the system are working 2 All pages in the system are working 3.40 Very Good 3.80 Very Good 3 Printing is working 3.40 Very Good 4 Overall, the system is usable 3.60 Very Good 3.55 Very Good General Weighted Mean Table 27 exhibits the weighted mean and descriptive interpretation of the respondents’ in terms of system functionality. Four questions had been answered to evaluate the functionality of the system. Based on the computation, the weighted means were: 3.40, 3.80, 3.40 and 3.60 respectively. The general weighted mean of the system functionality was 3.55 describe as "Very Good". Table 28. Weighted Mean and Description of the Respondents’ Response on the System Usability Test Indicators Weighted Mean Description 1 The system is easy to use 3.60 Very Good 2 The system has all the functions I expect it to have 3.60 Very Good 3 I am satisfied with how the system works 3.60 Very Good 4 The interface of the system is pleasant 3.80 Very Good 5 Overall, the system is user friendly 3.40 Very Good 3.60 Very Good General Weighted Mean Table 28 presents the weighted mean descriptive interpretation of the respondents’ according to system usability. Five questions had been answered to evaluate the usability of the system. Based on the computation, the weighted means were: 3.60, 3.60, 3.60, 3.80and 3.40 respectively. The general weighted mean of the system functionality was 3.60 describe as "Very Good ". Table 29. Weighted Mean and Description of the Respondents’ Response on the System Reliability Test Indicators Weighted Mean Description 1 Text is clear and printed suitable for target audience 3.80 Very Good 2 The system gives accurate information 4.00 Very Good 3 The flow of the system is easy to understand 3.60 Very Good 4 User can navigate throughout the program without difficulties 3.20 Very Good 5 Overall, the system provides reliable information 3.80 Very Good General Weighted Mean 3.68 Very Good Table 29 reveals the weighted mean and description of the respondents’ response in terms of system reliability. Five questions had been answered to evaluate the reliability of the system. Based on the computation, the weighted means were: 3.80, 4.00, 3.60, 3.20 and 3.80 respectively. The general weighted mean of the system functionality was 3.68 describe as "Very Good". Table 30. Weighted Mean and Description of the Respondents’ Response on the System Performance Test Indicators Weighted Mean 4.00 Description 1 The system loads faster 2 I feel comfortable using the system 3.60 Very Good 3 The information provided is easy to understand 4.00 Very Good 4 Overall, I am satisfied with the performance of the system 3.80 Very Good 3.85 Very Good General Weighted Mean Very Good Table 30 exhibits the weighted mean and description of the respondents’ response in terms of system performance. Four questions had been answered to evaluate the usability of the system. Based on the computation, the weighted means were: 4.00, 3.60, 4.00 and 3.80 respectively. The general weighted mean of the system functionality was 3.85 describe as "Very Good". Table 31. Weighted Mean and Description of the Respondents’ Response on the System Security Test Indicators Weighted Mean Description 1 The system has a page strictly for administrator only 4.00 Very Good 2 The system has a page strictly for staff/ client only 4.20 Very Good 3 Password is encrypted for security purposes 4.00 Very Good 4 Overall, the system is secured 4.20 Very Good 4.10 Very Good General Weighted Mean Table 31 presents the weighted mean and description of the respondents’ response in terms of system security. Four questions had been answered to evaluate the security of the system. Based on the computation, the weighted means were: 4.00, 4.20, 4.00, and 4.20. The general weighted mean of the system functionality was 3.80 describe as "Very Good". Table 32. Summary of the Weighted Mean and description of the Five (5) Indicators for the “Online Library System with SMS Notification” Indicators Weighted Mean Description 1 System Functionality Test 3.55 Very Good 2 System Usability Test 3.60 Very Good 3 System Reliability Test 3.68 Very Good 4 System Performance Test 3.85 Excellent 5. System Security Test 4.10 Excellent General Weighted Mean 3.76 Very Good Tables 32 illustrate the results of the Program Evaluation Test. It shows the summary of the weighted mean of the Five (5) Indicators. As gleaned in the table, the weighted mean of the respondents’ ranged from 4.10 to 3.55. The weighted mean of 4.10 is registered as the highest by the System Security Test, followed by 3.85 of System Performance Test, 3.68 of System Reliability Test, 3.60 of System Usability Test and the lowest 3.55 of System Functionality Test. Overall, the general weighted mean of system evaluation is equal to 3.76 presented as "Very Good". The result of the evaluation shows that the system is functional.
Report "Sample Chapter 4 Capstone"
Sample Chapter 4 Capstone
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Chapter 4. Finalizing Your Project Analysis
“the ultimate authority must always rest with the individual’s own reason and critical analysis” -dalai lama, spiritual leader.
When finalizing your analysis, you’ll be refining your project description and objectives, and identifying and using current research and resources in management to support the design and development of your course project. At this point in your work, you’ll want to be sure you’ve included all of the following:
- An introduction/overview containing a clear articulation of your project focus. Identify the relevance that this work has to your academic and professional development, as well as the intended audience for this project work.
- Your project objectives/outcomes. Now that you have refined the focus of your project work and conducted your research, what are your goals/objectives/expected outcomes for this project work?
- A thorough literature review and analysis of findings to illustrate background, managerial theory, and best practices as they related to your topic.
- Identification of any learner skills required to complete the project. Will you need to develop any new skills in order to complete this project? For example, if your project focuses on creating a database to increase the efficient storage and search functionality of client contact information for your organization, would you need to learn how to use the proposed database software?
Again, this is a good time to refer forward to the sections of your completed project in its entirety. As you can see, the various sections of your finalized project analysis will be part of your completed project (see sections I, II and III).
Capstone Project Format
Section I Introduction
The introduction should identify the focus of your project and explain the relevance to your major and connections with your applied field of studies that you have built upon in your B.S. Applied Studies Option in Management. Are you submitting to a supervisor, a board? Be sure to identify your intended audience.
Section II Project Outcomes
List your project outcomes that you developed in the Project Analysis phase of your work.
Section III Literature Review
Present your literature review noting best practices in the field as they relate to your project as well as the conclusions you’ve drawn from the literature review.
Section IV Project Content
Describe your project and include all materials associated with it so that the reader develops a good sense of what the project entails. Show your implementation and evaluation plans.
Section V Conclusions and Reflection
Appendix This section will contain any supplementary information.
MGMT660 Capstone Guide by Granite State College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
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Capstone Project | Explained step by step with examples
Help with your capstone project.
Taking on a Bachelor’s or a Master’s degree with a Capstone Project means switching to an entirely different writing style than you may have used in the past. While you may be used to academic writing and parsing through scholarly journals, writing a thesis or dissertation is an entirely different process.
At some colleges and universities, there is no difference between the words “thesis” and “Capstone Project”, but generally these are five-chapter papers that explore a new and original research topic. Nonetheless, both types of papers amount to the same writing process.
Chapter 1 is the introduction:
The purpose for the research should not be a mystery: begin the section with a one-sentence research problem statement that includes the variables studied. Follow the purpose of the research with a description of the background and the significance of the problem. Include the impact of the problem at the location where the research will be taking place and three or four research questions.
Chapter 2, the literature review:
This describes the history of the topic and key literature sources, illustrates major issues and refines focus to indicate research questions. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a broad picture of the literature, including analysis of any studies encompassing the scope of the entire applied research project.
Chapter 3 is the methodology:
Can be either qualitative or quantitative. Provide a rationale for using the particular methodology—either for the entire applied research project or for each specific research question. For a thesis, this will require outlining your step-by-step means of gathering data. For a dissertation, this may involve showing how you have found your data in the literature or from government records.
In Chapter 4, your findings are outlined:
You need to explain every piece of information you have collected in detail, and if there were any problems in the data.
Finally, Chapter 5 is where you draw your conclusions.
Provide your reader with deep analysis of what your data means in the real world, and how it might lead to change.
Developing your first draft
Using your outline, work through the paper from beginning to end. Normally, the opening paragraph should ‘hook’ the reader, contain your thesis statement, and explain what you are going to do in the paper so that the reader knows what to expect.
Be careful to link your subsequent sections to your main argument, make them substantive and persuasive. Importantly, however, avoid exaggeration. Do not overstate your points in ways that are clearly not supported by evidence. Be clear about what is known and what is not known. Recognize complexity but always stay with your main argument.
A paragraph is a means of developing and framing an idea or impression. As a general rule, you should address only one major idea per paragraph. Keep in mind that the divisions between paragraphs aren’t random, but indicate a shift in focus. In other words, you must carefully and clearly organize the order of your paragraphs so that they are logically positioned throughout your paper.
If you are having trouble coming up with arguments for your Capstone Project, let us help you by doing the research for you.
The closing should pull the whole discussion together, reinforcing your main Capstone Project points, and perhaps provoke further thought. It is often best to prepare the research and outline well, then to sit down and write the first draft all at once, and worry about refining it later. The simplest and most basic conclusion is one that restates the thesis in different words and then discusses its implications.
Writing your paper with originality
Many students make the mistake of thinking that the content of their paper is all that matters. Although the content is vitally important, it will not mean much if the reader cannot understand what you are trying to say. You may have some great ideas in your paper but if you cannot effectively communicate them you will not receive a very good grade.
Diction is the style of how you write. This refers to the way in which you create and communicate your ideas. How you construct and deliver your message is just as important as all of the facts within your term paper. This means that you need to write for clarity as well as accuracy. The challenge seems to be that many students think that they need to be able to utilize ten-dollar words and imagery in order to really impress their professors. To the contrary, your professor will be impressed if you can get your message across quickly and effectively. You will be penalized if you use words incorrectly or for no reason except to pad your Capstone Project.
Writing in an original fashion means that you need to think and plan ahead. Writing your paper at the last minute will not give you the time you need to be able to do the research you need to make your term paper stand out from the crowd. Make sure that you begin your research right away when you are assigned your paper so that you can get ahead of the game.
Editing your paper
Be sure to leave enough time for editing: editing should take about 20 percent of the time allotted. While writing varies, it takes about 20 hours of research, eight hours to write, and seven hours to edit and proof a ten-page paper properly and thoroughly, and longer for Capstone Projects that are expected to be 25 pages or more.
To edit your Capstone Project, reread each page out loud to ensure a logical flow of information and clarity. Ensure you explain yourself well and that every paragraph, in some way, serves to support the thesis and draw the reader towards your conclusions.
We’re here to help. If you need assistance in getting through all of these steps, we can help you succeed on your Capstone Project. Contact us!
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