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Uses of Internet Essay

اردو میں انٹرنیٹ مضمون کا استعمال اردو میں | Uses of Internet Essay In Urdu

اردو میں انٹرنیٹ مضمون کا استعمال اردو میں | Uses of Internet Essay In Urdu - 2400 الفاظ میں

انٹرنیٹ نے لوگوں کی زندگیوں کو ہمیشہ کے لیے بدل دیا ہے۔ گھر ہو یا دفتر، انٹرنیٹ ہر جگہ کئی وجوہات کی بنا پر استعمال ہوتا ہے۔ انٹرنیٹ کے کچھ استعمالات میں مواصلات، خریداری، بکنگ، تحقیق اور مطالعہ شامل ہیں۔ انٹرنیٹ ان دنوں ہماری زندگی کا لازمی حصہ بن چکا ہے۔ اس نے لوگوں کو بہت قریب لایا ہے۔ چاہے وہ آپ کے دوست ہوں، خاندان کے افراد ہوں یا آپ کے کاروباری ساتھی - ہر کوئی ہمیں یہ بتانے کے لیے صرف ایک کلک کی دوری پر ہے کہ ہمارے پاس انٹرنیٹ ہے اور یہ انٹرنیٹ کا صرف ایک استعمال ہے۔

اردو میں انٹرنیٹ کے استعمال پر طویل اور مختصر مضمون، انٹرنیٹ کے اپیوگ پر نبنڈ اردو میں

مضمون 1 (300 الفاظ).

انٹرنیٹ نے بہت سی تبدیلیاں لائی ہیں۔ ہمارے رہنے اور مختلف کام کرنے کا طریقہ یہ سب بدل گیا ہے۔ انٹرنیٹ اپنے بہت سے استعمال کے لیے جانا جاتا ہے اور اس نے تقریباً ہر شعبے کو متاثر کیا ہے۔ آج تقریباً ہر چیز آن لائن ہو گئی ہے۔ سفر اور سیاحت ان شعبوں میں سے ایک ہے جس پر انٹرنیٹ نے بہت زیادہ اثر ڈالا ہے۔

انٹرنیٹ نے ہمارے سفر کا طریقہ بدل دیا ہے۔

انٹرنیٹ کے استعمال نے ہمارے سفر کے انداز کو بڑے پیمانے پر بدل دیا ہے۔ اب آپ کو بس اسٹینڈ یا ریلوے اسٹیشن جا کر ٹکٹ بک کروانے کے لیے لمبی قطار میں کھڑے ہونے کی ضرورت نہیں ہے۔ آن لائن بکنگ پورٹلز نے آپ کے لیے کام کو آسان کر دیا ہے۔ ہوٹل بکنگ کا بھی یہی حال ہے۔ اب اس میں کوئی ابہام نہیں کہ چھٹیاں گزارنے پر آپ کو اچھا ہوٹل ملے گا یا نہیں۔ آپ بغیر کسی پریشانی کے اپنی پسند کا ہوٹل آن لائن بک کر سکتے ہیں۔

کسی دوسرے شہر کا سفر کرنا اب کوئی پریشانی نہیں ہے، چاہے وہ کاروباری سفر ہو یا دورہ کے لیے۔ اس کی وجہ یہ ہے کہ آپ ان جگہوں کے بارے میں پہلے سے مکمل معلومات حاصل کر سکتے ہیں۔ اس لیے اب آپ کسی بھی جگہ سے بے خبر نہیں رہیں گے اور اپنے سفر کو مزید منظم بنانے کے لیے پہلے سے منصوبہ بندی کر سکتے ہیں۔

سفر اور سیاحت کی صنعت نے انٹرنیٹ سے فائدہ اٹھایا ہے۔

مسافروں کی طرح سفر اور سیاحت کی صنعت کو بھی انٹرنیٹ کے استعمال سے بہت فائدہ ہوا ہے۔ انٹرنیٹ نے سیاحت کی صنعت کو فروغ دیا ہے۔ چونکہ لوگوں کے پاس پہلے سے ہی اس بات کی واضح تصویر ہوتی ہے کہ وہ کہاں جا رہے ہیں اور وہ وہاں کیسے لطف اندوز ہوں گے، اس لیے سفر کی منصوبہ بندی کرنے میں ہچکچاہٹ کی کوئی گنجائش نہیں ہے۔ ان دنوں زیادہ سے زیادہ لوگ پوری دنیا کا سفر کر رہے ہیں۔

مسافروں کی حوصلہ افزائی کے لیے انٹرنیٹ پر کئی سفری پیکجز بھی جاری کیے گئے ہیں۔ چھوٹے ہوٹل جن کے بارے میں پہلے کوئی نہیں جانتا تھا وہ اپنے فروغ اور منافع کے لیے انٹرنیٹ کا استعمال کر رہے ہیں۔

اس طرح ہم کہہ سکتے ہیں کہ ہوٹلوں، سیاحتی مقامات اور سیاحتی صنعتوں نے بھی انٹرنیٹ کے استعمال سے فائدہ اٹھایا ہے۔ یہ لوگوں کو سفر کرنے اور نئی جگہوں کو تلاش کرنے کی ترغیب دیتا ہے اور سیاحت کی صنعت کو بھی بلندیوں پر لے گیا ہے۔

مضمون 2 (400 الفاظ)

انٹرنیٹ کے بے پناہ استعمال ہیں۔ اس نے ہماری زندگیوں میں بہت سی تبدیلیاں لائی ہیں۔ چھوٹی ملازمتوں سے لے کر بڑی صنعتی ملازمتوں تک ہر جگہ انٹرنیٹ کا استعمال ہو رہا ہے۔ انٹرنیٹ نے ایک ایسا انقلاب لایا ہے جس نے ہماری زندگی کے ہر پہلو کو چھو لیا ہے۔ تعلیم کے شعبے کو خاص طور پر انٹرنیٹ کے استعمال سے بہت فائدہ ہوا ہے۔

تعلیمی صنعت میں انٹرنیٹ کا استعمال

تعلیمی صنعت میں انٹرنیٹ کے بہت سے استعمال ہیں۔ یہاں یہ ہے کہ اساتذہ، انتظامیہ اور طلباء نے اسے اپنے فائدے کے لیے کیسے استعمال کیا ہے:

اساتذہ کے لیے انٹرنیٹ تک رسائی

انٹرنیٹ اساتذہ کے لیے علم بانٹنے کی جگہ کا کام کرتا ہے۔ دنیا بھر کے اساتذہ انٹرنیٹ کے ذریعے ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ بات چیت اور خیالات کا تبادلہ کر سکتے ہیں۔ یہ سیکھنے اور تدریس کے طریقوں کو تیار کرنے کا ایک بہترین طریقہ ہے۔

آن لائن سیکھنے نے ان پیشہ ور افراد کے لیے ملازمت کے بہت سے مواقع بھی فراہم کیے ہیں۔ بہت سے اساتذہ نے اضافی ذمہ داریوں کی وجہ سے شادی کے بعد اپنا پیشہ چھوڑ دیا جب کہ بہت سے اپنے آس پاس مواقع نہ ہونے کی وجہ سے تدریس کا پیشہ اختیار نہیں کرتے۔ آن لائن کوچنگ ایسے اساتذہ کے لیے ایک اعزاز ثابت ہوئی ہے۔ اس سے انہیں اپنے مقام سے ویڈیو لیکچر دینے کا موقع ملتا ہے۔ یہ سب انٹرنیٹ کی مدد سے ہی ممکن ہوا ہے۔

انتظام کرنے کے لیے انٹرنیٹ تک رسائی

دنیا بھر کے مختلف تعلیمی اداروں کا انتظامی شعبہ انٹرنیٹ کے ذریعے بات چیت کر سکتا ہے۔ اس نے ترقی پذیر ممالک میں تعلیمی اداروں کے انتظام کو اپنے اداروں کے بنیادی ڈھانچے کو بہتر بنانے میں مدد کی ہے۔ بین الاقوامی معیارات کے ساتھ وقتاً فوقتاً نئے آئیڈیاز کو شامل کیا جاتا ہے۔

طلباء کے لیے انٹرنیٹ تک رسائی

طلباء نے بھی انٹرنیٹ کے استعمال سے بے پناہ فائدہ اٹھایا ہے۔ اگر وہ کوئی لیکچر چھوڑ دیتے ہیں، تو انہیں اساتذہ یا ساتھی طلباء کی مدد لینے کی ضرورت نہیں ہے۔ تمام ضروری معلومات انٹرنیٹ پر دستیاب ہیں۔ طلباء انٹرنیٹ سے آن لائن کسی بھی مضمون سے متعلق مدد حاصل کر سکتے ہیں۔ انٹرنیٹ منصوبوں کی تیاری اور کاموں کو مکمل کرنے کے لیے بھی کارآمد ہے۔

آن لائن کوچنگ سے ان طلباء کو بھی فائدہ پہنچا ہے جن کی اپنے آس پاس کے اچھے تعلیمی اداروں تک رسائی نہیں ہے۔ ملک کے بہت سے شہر اور گاؤں ایسے ہیں جہاں JEE اور NEET جیسے مسابقتی امتحانات کی تیاری کے لیے ادارے نہیں ہیں۔ آن لائن کوچنگ ایسے طلباء کے لیے بہت مددگار ہے۔ وہ کسی دوسری جگہ جانے یا اپنے خوابوں کو ترک کرنے کے بجائے گھر کے آرام سے ان امتحانات کی تیاری کر سکتے ہیں۔

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انٹرنیٹ بہت سی سہولیات فراہم کرتا ہے لیکن تعلیم کے میدان میں اس کا تعاون واقعی قابل تعریف ہے۔ اس نے واقعی میدان کی نئی تعریف کی ہے۔

مضمون 3 (500 الفاظ)

وہ دن گئے جب انٹرنیٹ صرف دفاتر میں استعمال ہوتا تھا، ان دنوں یہ اکثر گھروں میں بھی استعمال ہوتا ہے۔ اگر دیکھا جائے تو آج ہر کسی کے گھر میں ہی نہیں بلکہ اپنے موبائل پر بھی انٹرنیٹ کنکشن موجود ہے۔ موبائل پر انٹرنیٹ انہیں کسی بھی وقت انٹرنیٹ پر سرفنگ کرنے کے قابل بناتا ہے۔ صورتحال یہ ہو گئی ہے کہ آج لوگ دن میں کھانا چھوڑ سکتے ہیں لیکن انٹرنیٹ کے بغیر چند گھنٹے اپنی زندگی کا تصور بھی نہیں کر سکتے۔ انٹرنیٹ ہماری زندگی کا ایک اہم حصہ بن چکا ہے۔

کام پر انٹرنیٹ کے فوائد

کام کی جگہ پر انٹرنیٹ کے کچھ فوائد یہ ہیں:

انٹرنیٹ کے ضروری ہونے کی ایک اہم وجہ مواصلاتی مقاصد کے لیے ہے۔ انٹرنیٹ ای میل اور چیٹ کی سہولت فراہم کرتا ہے جو ملازمین کے درمیان بات چیت کو آسان بناتا ہے۔ انٹرنیٹ کی مدد سے صارفین تک پہنچنا اور بھی آسان ہو گیا ہے۔

  • خیالات کا اشتراک کریں

انٹرنیٹ ہمیں مختلف نشریاتی پلیٹ فارمز کے ذریعے خیالات کا اشتراک کرنے کے قابل بناتا ہے۔ یہ ایک ہی وقت میں لوگوں کی ایک بڑی تعداد کے ساتھ اپنے خیالات کا اشتراک کرنا آسان بناتا ہے۔

کسی بھی پروجیکٹ کے لیے تحقیق کی ضرورت ہوتی ہے اور انٹرنیٹ تحقیقی سرگرمیوں کے لیے بہت مددگار ہے۔ تمام ضروری معلومات وقت کے اندر انٹرنیٹ پر مل سکتی ہیں۔

  • کاروبار کو فروغ دینا

انٹرنیٹ ان دنوں کاروبار کو فروغ دینے کا ایک طاقتور ذریعہ بن گیا ہے۔ فیس بک اور ٹویٹر جیسے مختلف سوشل میڈیا پلیٹ فارمز نے نہ صرف بڑے کاروبار کو ترقی دینے میں مدد کی ہے بلکہ چھوٹے کاروباروں کو عوام تک پہنچنے اور اپنی موجودگی کا احساس دلانے میں بھی مدد کی ہے۔

  • علم کا اشتراک

صارفین کے درمیان علم کا اشتراک انٹرنیٹ کے ذریعے آسانی سے کیا جا سکتا ہے۔ آپ انٹرنیٹ کے ذریعے اپنے کاروبار کو بڑھانے کے لیے صارفین سے دوستی کر سکتے ہیں۔

گھر میں انٹرنیٹ تک رسائی

انٹرنیٹ کو گھر میں بھی مختلف مقاصد کے لیے استعمال کیا جاتا ہے جس طرح یہ دفاتر میں استعمال ہوتا ہے۔ گھر میں انٹرنیٹ کے کچھ عام استعمال پر ایک نظر یہ ہے:

  • مکالمہ/گفتگو

انٹرنیٹ نے ہمارے دوستوں اور خاندان کو قریب لایا ہے۔ اگر آپ کے پاس انٹرنیٹ کنیکشن ہے تو آپ کسی بھی وقت اپنے کسی بھی رشتہ دار، دوست یا خاندان کے ممبر سے بات کر سکتے ہیں۔

سوشل میڈیا پر سرفنگ سے لے کر کھیل کھیلنے اور فلمیں دیکھنے تک – انٹرنیٹ پر تفریح ​​کا پورا ذریعہ ہے۔ گھر میں لوگ اسے زیادہ تر تفریحی مقصد کے لیے استعمال کرتے ہیں۔

  • اپ ٹو ڈیٹ رہیں

انٹرنیٹ ہمیں دنیا بھر میں ہونے والے تازہ ترین واقعات سے باخبر رکھتا ہے۔ لوگ اب اپنے ٹی وی پر نیوز چینلز پر انحصار کرنا پسند نہیں کرتے۔ نیوز ایپ خود کو تازہ ترین خبروں سے باخبر رکھنے کا نیا طریقہ بن گیا ہے۔

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انٹرنیٹ نے ہماری زندگی کو بہت آرام دہ اور دلچسپ بنا دیا ہے۔ انٹرنیٹ ایک ایسا کارآمد ٹول ہے جو دن بھر میں بہت ساری چیزوں میں ہماری مدد کرتا ہے کہ ہم انٹرنیٹ کے بغیر اپنی زندگی کے بارے میں سوچ بھی نہیں سکتے۔ اگرچہ کسی بھی چیز کا ضرورت سے زیادہ استعمال کرنا برا ہے لیکن ضرورت سے زیادہ انٹرنیٹ کا استعمال ہماری ذہنی، جسمانی اور سماجی صحت کے لیے بھی برا ہے۔ اس لیے ہمیں اسے اپنے فائدے کے لیے سمجھداری سے استعمال کرنا چاہیے اور کثرت سے استعمال سے دور رہنا چاہیے۔

مضمون 4 (600 الفاظ)

انٹرنیٹ استعمال کرنے کے بہت سے فائدے ہیں۔ اپنے پیاروں سے بات چیت کرنے سے لے کر ٹکٹوں کی بکنگ تک، مالی لین دین کرنے سے لے کر نوکریوں کی تلاش تک – اس نے سب کچھ آسان بنا دیا ہے۔ یہاں انٹرنیٹ کے مختلف استعمالات پر ایک نظر ہے:

مواصلات کا آسان اور سستا ذریعہ

وہ دن گئے جب لوگ اپنے پیاروں کو پیغام بھیجنے کے لیے خطوط لکھتے تھے اور پھر ان کے جواب کے لیے کئی دن انتظار کرتے تھے۔ اس کے بعد ٹیلی فون ایک راحت ثابت ہوا کیونکہ یہ دور دراز علاقوں میں رہنے والے پیاروں سے رابطہ کرنے کا ایک تیز طریقہ بن گیا لیکن کالز کی قیمت بہت زیادہ تھی۔ انٹرنیٹ نے ان تمام رکاوٹوں کو عبور کیا اور لوگوں کے درمیان رابطے کو بہت آسان اور سستا بنا دیا۔ ای میل، چیٹ اور ویب کالز رابطے کے نئے ذرائع ہیں۔

پریشانی سے پاک مالی لین دین

بینک میں رقم جمع کرانے، نکالنے یا دیگر مالی لین دین کے لیے لمبی قطاروں میں کھڑا ہونا ماضی کی بات ہے۔ ان دنوں ایک بٹن کے کلک پر مختلف مالیاتی لین دین کے لیے انٹرنیٹ تک آسانی سے رسائی حاصل کی جا سکتی ہے۔

خبریں شیئر کرنا بہت آسان ہے۔

انٹرنیٹ نے خبروں کا اشتراک انتہائی آسان بنا دیا ہے۔ آپ دنیا بھر میں کسی بھی چیز کے بارے میں معلومات حاصل کرسکتے ہیں جو آپ کو سیکنڈوں میں دستیاب ہوگی۔ دنیا بھر کی تازہ ترین خبروں سے آپ کو اپ ڈیٹ رکھنے کے لیے بہت سی نیوز ایپس بنائی گئی ہیں۔ آپ انٹرنیٹ کے ذریعے طوفان، سیلاب اور دیگر قدرتی آفات کی وارننگ پہلے سے حاصل کر سکتے ہیں تاکہ آپ کو کسی خاص جگہ پر رہنے یا ان جگہوں سے چند دن/ہفتے پہلے سے دور جانے کا فیصلہ کرنے کے لیے کافی وقت مل سکے۔

تحقیق اور تعلیم

انٹرنیٹ معلومات کا پاور ہاؤس ہے۔ انٹرنیٹ کی وجہ سے کسی بھی موضوع سے متعلق تحقیق کرنا بہت آسان ہو گیا ہے۔ لائبریری کو سبسکرائب کرنے اور وہاں اپنی ضرورت کی کتابیں تلاش کرنے کے لیے گھنٹوں گزارنے کی ضرورت نہیں ہے۔ وہ کتابیں آپ انٹرنیٹ پر بھی حاصل کر سکتے ہیں۔

تعلیمی صنعت کو بھی انٹرنیٹ کے استعمال سے بے پناہ فائدہ ہوا ہے۔ انٹرنیٹ نے ایک آن لائن تعلیمی نظام کو راستہ دیا ہے جس نے اساتذہ اور طلباء دونوں کو یکساں فائدہ پہنچایا ہے۔ انٹرنیٹ پر دستیاب معلومات کی وسیع مقدار اساتذہ اور طلباء دونوں کو فائدہ پہنچاتی ہے۔

پریشانی سے پاک خریداری

اب آپ کو گرمی یا سردی کے دنوں میں خریداری کے لیے بازار جانے کی ضرورت نہیں ہے۔ ہر وہ چیز جس کی آپ خریداری کرنا چاہتے ہیں آن لائن دستیاب ہے۔ کپڑے ہوں، کتابیں، لوازمات، گھریلو اشیاء، الیکٹرانک سامان یا گاڑیاں، آپ سب کچھ آن لائن حاصل کر سکتے ہیں۔ اپنی ضرورت کی چیزوں کے لیے دکان سے دوسری خریداری کرنے کی ضرورت نہیں۔ آپ آسانی سے انٹرنیٹ پر چیزیں تلاش کر سکتے ہیں اور انہیں فوری طور پر آرڈر کر سکتے ہیں۔

انٹرنیٹ نے تفریح ​​کے بہت سے ذرائع دریافت کیے ہیں۔ اب آپ کو ٹیلی ویژن پر اپنے پسندیدہ سیریل کا انتظار کرنے کی ضرورت نہیں ہے۔ انٹرنیٹ کی مدد سے آپ کسی بھی وقت کچھ بھی دیکھ سکتے ہیں۔ اس کے علاوہ انٹرنیٹ پر بہت سے سوشل میڈیا پلیٹ فارمز اور دیگر دلچسپ ویب سائٹس موجود ہیں جو تفریح ​​کا بہت بڑا ذریعہ فراہم کرتی ہیں۔

ملازمت کی تلاش

انٹرنیٹ کی مدد سے نوکری کی تلاش بہت آسان ہو گئی ہے۔ بہت سے جاب پورٹل ہیں جن میں آپ اپنا ریزیوم پوسٹ کر سکتے ہیں تاکہ کمپنی اور دیگر محکمے کے اہلکار خود بخود صحیح شریک کار کو شارٹ لسٹ کر لیں۔ آپ اپنی اہلیت کے مطابق ملازمتیں بھی تلاش کر سکتے ہیں اور ان پورٹلز کے ذریعے آجروں سے رابطہ کر سکتے ہیں۔ انٹرنیٹ کے ذریعے آپ کے موبائل پر دنیا بھر سے مواقع دستیاب ہیں۔ اس طرح ملازمتوں کی تلاش کافی آسان ہو گئی ہے۔ انٹرویو کو کریک کرنے کی تجاویز تلاش کرنے کے لیے انٹرنیٹ تک بھی رسائی حاصل کی جا سکتی ہے۔

اب آپ کو ٹریول ایجنٹس سے بکنگ یا ٹکٹ بک کروانے کے لیے بس اسٹینڈ یا ریلوے اسٹیشن جانے کی ضرورت نہیں ہے۔ آپ اپنے گھر سے آسانی سے سیٹ بک کر سکتے ہیں۔ اسی طرح ہوٹل اور فلم کے ٹکٹ کی بکنگ بھی انٹرنیٹ کے استعمال سے انتہائی آسان ہو گئی ہے۔

انٹرنیٹ نے ہماری زندگیوں کو کئی طریقوں سے آسان بنا دیا ہے۔ اس نے ہمیں اپنے قریبی اور عزیزوں سے جڑنے میں مدد کی ہے اور ہماری زندگی کو انتہائی آرام دہ بنا دیا ہے۔

  • 10 Lines on Mother’s Day
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اردو میں انٹرنیٹ مضمون کا استعمال اردو میں | Uses of Internet Essay In Urdu

Essay on village life

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Modern facilities of health urdu communication are being provided in the rural areas.

Roads, dispensaries, schools, post offices and shopping centres have been provided at Government level. The facility of drinking water and electricity has been made available to a number of villages. Urban areas in Pakistan completely life from rural areas essay the life pattern. The urban areas are the centre of social life with greater facilities and amenities of life.

uc college essay prompts

The urban population of Pakistan represents about a third of the total. Two cities have a dominating position - Karachi and Lahore. Since the s, government policy has been urban towards the dispersal of industry, which had best resume template microsoft word heavily concentrated in Karachi. As a consequence, urban growth has life more evenly india among several cities.

essay on urban and rural life in urdu

Rapid and unplanned urban expansion has been parallel by deterioration in living conditions, particularly in the housing conditions of lower income groups. Many urban households are unable to pay rent for the rural form of available housing and live in makeshift shacks. Water supply and sewerage system are inadequate, and in many areas residents have to share communal water taps. Inadequate urban transport rural also a pakistan problem. The urban areas, unlike rural areas, are well-planned and well-built with modern residential colonies. The services cities, which form the academic of our urban areas, village the centres of high modern education. A large number of life educational institutions are situated in the big cities which attract the students from all parts of the country. The urban areas have become the centre urdu social activity because of their multifarious village of social life. The industrial rural and the location of Government and other departments in the urban areas have made these areas prosperous and progressing. Differences between Rural and Urban Way of Life. The rural and urban life differs in a number of ways. For an agricultural country like Pakistan, it is essential to understand how and why life in urdu and urban areas differs. Villages and towns differ in function. Villages are usually engaged in primary activities, including farming, animal hindi, lumbering, fishing etc. Towns are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities, like manufacturing, trade, transport, telecommunications, education, medical essay and other activities. However, these two sets of urban are essay exclusively confined to rural and urban areas. Shops, transportation services, educational and medical facilities and found in rural areas, too.

Similarly, there are vegetable essay questions for nicomachean ethics paper Karachi, Lahore and other major cities. It is more a question of the predominance of one set of activities over the other. As a consequence, the line urban distinction between a small town and a large village is difficult to determine.

Some specialists believe that lifestyle is a distinguishing feature of villages and towns. According to them, close contact with other members of the community is a distinctive and of rural life. The inhabitants of a village, for example, usually know each other personally. In urban areas, on the other hand, relationships tend to village impersonal; academic areas are so highly populated that most rural do not even know who their neighbours are. This is case in large urban centres like Karachi.

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The Biggest Supreme Court Case That Nobody Seems to Be Talking About

This is part of  Opening Arguments , Slate’s coverage of the start of the latest Supreme Court term. We’re working to  change the way  the media covers the Supreme Court. Support our work when you join  Slate Plus .

On Monday, the Supreme Court will hear arguments in a pair of cases out of Texas and Florida that could force major social media platforms to carry posts from Donald Trump or others who lie about elections being stolen or obliquely encourage election-related violence. A ruling in favor of these states would turn the First Amendment upside down and create the conditions for undermining American democracy. If there wasn’t so much else swirling around our elections and democracy right now, this case would be commanding everyone’s attention.

Moody v. NetChoice LLC and NetChoice LLC v. Paxton arise out of the actions that Facebook, Twitter (now X), and other social media companies took in removing Trump from their platforms after the attack on the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6, 2021. Trump had been relentlessly calling the 2020 election results into question despite having no reliable evidence of widespread fraud or irregularities. In an infamous tweet in December 2020, he encouraged his supporters to come to Washington for “wild” protests on Jan. 6, the day that Congress would be counting the states’ Electoral College votes to confirm Joe Biden as the election victor. After Trump and his supporters spoke in speeches on the Ellipse on Jan. 6, a crowd stormed the Capitol. The violent incident left 140 law enforcement officers injured (four later died by suicide) and four protesters dead. After Trump failed to immediately condemn the violence and call for the siege to end, the platforms had enough, determining that Trump had violated their terms of service and needed to be removed.

In response to the removal of Trump and concern over what they call “censorship” of conservatives, Florida and Texas each passed laws that make content moderation difficult if not impossible for major social media companies. The laws differ in some particulars, but both would make it illegal to remove the kinds of content we saw from Trump before he was deplatformed in 2020. A coalition representing the platforms sued, arguing that the laws violated the platforms’ First Amendment rights to decide what content to include or exclude on their platforms. The coalition won their primary arguments in the Florida case but lost in the Texas case, and the Supreme Court is hearing both of them on Monday.

The key First Amendment question is how to treat the platforms when they curate content. The platforms argue that they are private actors just like Slate or the Wall Street Journal, having a constitutional right to include or exclude content as they see fit. It’s a strong argument. In a 1974 case, Miami Herald v. Tornillo , the court held unconstitutional a (different) Florida law that required newspapers to print the reply of someone who had been criticized in the newspaper. The court held that private actors like newspapers have every right under the First Amendment to include or exclude content as they see fit.

The states argue that we should treat social media platforms as “common carriers,” the way we do the phone company. There are laws that forbid the phone company from denying you service because it doesn’t like the messages you might communicate by voice or text. In an amicus brief in the cases that I filed with political scientist Brendan Nyhan and journalism professor Amy Wilentz and co-authored with Nat Bach and his team at Manatt Phelps, we argue that the common carrier argument is a weak one.

As professor Eugene Volokh, one of the originators of the common carrier analogy, explains, what separates entities such as newspapers from entities such as phone companies is whether they produce a “coherent speech product.” Those who do are entitled under the First Amendment to exercise editorial discretion. Social media platforms surely do, however, produce such coherent products. Of course the public reasonably associates a controversial politician’s speech with a platform’s editorial message. People may be attracted to or repulsed by Trump’s speech on a platform, but they will perceive that speech as part of the platform. (In contrast, no one perceives private text messages sent over AT&T’s network as AT&T’s speech.) People know that Truth Social, where Trump commonly posts, is different from a platform where people rarely, if ever, see posts from Trump, or a platform marketed to Democrats organized around criticizing Trump.

It should be no surprise that after Elon Musk took over Twitter and changed its moderation policies to make the platform’s content less trustworthy and more incendiary, users and advertisers reevaluated the platform’s strengths and weaknesses, with many choosing to leave. Content moderation policies shape how the public perceives a platform’s messages. Content moderation decisions—including Musk’s, whether wise or not— are the exercise of editorial discretion. The public then decides which platforms to patronize, value, or devalue.

There’s also a huge irony in seeing people like Volokh or Justice Clarence Thomas express support for the common carrier theory and requiring private companies to carry speech they may disagree with or even find dangerous. In his amicus brief supporting Florida’s appeal, Trump approvingly quoted Volokh: “Recent experience has fostered a widespread and growing concern that behemoth social media platforms … have ‘seriously leverage[d their] economic power into a means of affecting the community’s political life.’ ”

That kind of equalization rationale has been rejected by the libertarians on the court in cases like Citizens United , the case that freed corporations to spend unlimited sums in support of candidates for election to office. There, the court wrote (quoting a 1976 case, Buckley v. Valeo ) that it is “wholly foreign” to the First Amendment to seek to equalize speech, and that the First Amendment can’t do anything to stop those with economic power from translating it into political power.

Now that it is conservatives yelling “censorship” rather than liberals complaining about big corporations seeking to have an outsize influence on whom is elected and on public policy, is the court really going to change its position on whether the government can mandate speech equalization depending on whose ox is being gored?

This case, though, implicates more than just the First Amendment right of platforms to curate content. It may affect the survival of American democracy itself, as the 2020 election demonstrated.

During the campaign and post-election periods, these platforms labeled and fact-checked many of Trump’s false and incendiary statements and limited the sharing of some of his content, but after Trump failed to condemn (and even praised) the Jan. 6 rioters, many major platforms, fearing additional violence fomented by the president, decided to remove or suspend Trump’s social media accounts. The platforms made voluntary decisions about labeling, fact-checking, demoting, and deplatforming content that undermined election integrity, stoked violence, and raised the risk of election subversion and democratic collapse.

In so doing, the platforms participated in the open marketplace of ideas by exercising their sound editorial judgment in a socially responsible way to protect democracy. Even if certain moderation decisions were imperfect in hindsight, the platforms’ efforts were vastly preferable to an alternative in which government fiat deprives platforms of the power to remove even dangerous speech.

We should learn by June if the Supreme Court agrees.

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Essay On Advertisement

500 words essay on advertisement.

We all are living in the age of advertisements. When you step out, just take a quick look around and you will lay eyes upon at least one advertisement in whichever form. In today’s modern world of trade and business, advertisement plays an essential role. All traders, big and small, make use of it to advertise their goods and services. Through essay on advertisement, we will go through the advantages and ways of advertisements.

essay on advertisement

The Various Ways Of Advertisement

Advertisements help people become aware of any product or service through the use of commercial methods. This kind of publicity helps to endorse a specific interest of a person for product sale.

As the world is becoming more competitive now, everyone wants to be ahead in the competition. Thus, the advertisement also comes under the same category. Advertising is done in a lot of ways.

There is an employment column which lists down job vacancies that is beneficial for unemployed candidates. Similarly, matrimonial advertisement help people find a bride or groom for marriageable prospects.

Further, advertising also happens to find lost people, shops, plots, good and more. Through this, people get to know about a nearby shop is on sale or the availability of a new tutor or coaching centre.

Nowadays, advertisements have evolved from newspapers to the internet. Earlier there were advertisements in movie theatres, magazines, building walls. But now, we have the television and internet which advertises goods and services.

As a large section of society spends a lot of time on the internet, people are targeting their ads towards it. A single ad posting on the internet reaches to millions of people within a matter of few seconds. Thus, advertising in any form is effective.

Benefits of Advertisements

As advertisements are everywhere, for some magazines and newspapers, it is their main source of income generation. It not only benefit the producer but also the consumer. It is because producers get sales and consumer gets the right product.

Moreover, the models who act in the advertisements also earn a handsome amount of money . When we look at technology, we learn that advertising is critical for establishing contact between seller and buyer.

This medium helps the customers to learn about the existence and use of such goods which are ready to avail in the market. Moreover, advertisement manages to reach the nooks and corners of the world to target their potential customers.

Therefore, it benefits a lot of people. Through advertising, people also become aware of the price difference and quality in the market. This allows them to make good choices and not fall to scams.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Conclusion of Essay On Advertisement

All in all, advertisements are very useful but they can also be damaging. Thus, it is upon us to use them with sense and ensure they are entertaining and educative. None of us can escape advertisements as we are already at this age. But, what we can do is use our intelligence for weeding out the bad ones and benefitting from the right ones.

FAQ on Essay On Advertisement

Question 1: What is the importance of advertisement in our life?

Answer 1: Advertising is the best way to communicate with customers. It helps informs the customers about the brands available in the market and the variety of products which can be useful to them.

Question 2: What are the advantages of advertising?

Answer 2: The advantages of advertising are that firstly, it introduces a new product in the market. Thus, it helps in expanding the market. As a result, sales also increase. Consumers become aware of and receive better quality products.

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  • 12 February 2024

China conducts first nationwide review of retractions and research misconduct

  • Smriti Mallapaty

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Technicians wearing full PPE work in a lab

The reputation of Chinese science has been "adversely affected" by the number of retractions in recent years, according to a government notice. Credit: Qilai Shen/Bloomberg/Getty

Chinese universities are days away from the deadline to complete a nationwide audit of retracted research papers and probe of research misconduct. By 15 February, universities must submit to the government a comprehensive list of all academic articles retracted from English- and Chinese-language journals in the past three years. They need to clarify why the papers were retracted and investigate cases involving misconduct, according to a 20 November notice from the Ministry of Education’s Department of Science, Technology and Informatization.

The government launched the nationwide self-review in response to Hindawi, a London-based subsidiary of the publisher Wiley, retracting a large number of papers by Chinese authors. These retractions, along with those from other publishers, “have adversely affected our country’s academic reputation and academic environment”, the notice states.

A Nature analysis shows that last year, Hindawi issued more than 9,600 retractions, of which the vast majority — about 8,200 — had a co-author in China. Nearly 14,000 retraction notices, of which some three-quarters involved a Chinese co-author, were issued by all publishers in 2023.

This is “the first time we’ve seen such a national operation on retraction investigations”, says Xiaotian Chen, a library and information scientist at Bradley University in Peoria, Illinois, who has studied retractions and research misconduct in China. Previous investigations have largely been carried out on a case-by-case basis — but this time, all institutions have to conduct their investigations simultaneously, says Chen.

Tight deadline

The ministry’s notice set off a chain of alerts, cascading to individual university departments. Bulletins posted on university websites required researchers to submit their retractions by a range of dates, mostly in January — leaving time for universities to collate and present the data.

Although the alerts included lists of retractions that the ministry or the universities were aware of, they also called for unlisted retractions to be added.

advertisement essay in urdu

More than 10,000 research papers were retracted in 2023 — a new record

According to Nature ’s analysis, which includes only English-language journals, more than 17,000 retraction notices for papers published by Chinese co-authors have been issued since 1 January 2021, which is the start of the period of review specified in the notice. The analysis, an update of one conducted in December , used the Retraction Watch database, augmented with retraction notices collated from the Dimensions database, and involved assistance from Guillaume Cabanac, a computer scientist at the University of Toulouse in France. It is unclear whether the official lists contain the same number of retracted papers.

Regardless, the timing to submit the information will be tight, says Shu Fei, a bibliometrics scientist at Hangzhou Dianzi University in China. The ministry gave universities less than three months to complete their self-review — and this was cut shorter by the academic winter break, which typically starts in mid-January and concludes after the Chinese New Year, which fell this year on 10 February.

“The timing is not good,” he says. Shu expects that universities are most likely to submit only a preliminary report of their researchers’ retracted papers included on the official lists.

But Wang Fei, who studies research-integrity policy at Dalian University of Technology in China, says that because the ministry has set a deadline, universities will work hard to submit their findings on time.

Researchers with retracted papers will have to explain whether the retraction was owing to misconduct, such as image manipulation, or an honest mistake, such as authors identifying errors in their own work, says Chen: “In other words, they may have to defend themselves.” Universities then must investigate and penalize misconduct. If a researcher fails to declare their retracted paper and it is later uncovered, they will be punished, according to the ministry notice. The cost of not reporting is high, says Chen. “This is a very serious measure.”

It is not known what form punishment might take, but in 2021, China’s National Health Commission posted the results of its investigations into a batch of retracted papers. Punishments included salary cuts, withdrawal of bonuses, demotions and timed suspensions from applying for research grants and rewards.

The notice states explicitly that the first corresponding author of a paper is responsible for submitting the response. This requirement will largely address the problem of researchers shirking responsibility for collaborative work, says Li Tang, a science- and innovation-policy researcher at Fudan University in Shanghai, China. The notice also emphasizes due process, says Tang. Researchers alleged to have committed misconduct have a right to appeal during the investigation.

The notice is a good approach for addressing misconduct, says Wang. Previous efforts by the Chinese government have stopped at issuing new research-integrity guidelines that were poorly implemented, she says. And when government bodies did launch self-investigations of published literature, they were narrower in scope and lacked clear objectives. This time, the target is clear — retractions — and the scope is broad, involving the entire university research community, she says.

“Cultivating research integrity takes time, but China is on the right track,” says Tang.

It is not clear what the ministry will do with the flurry of submissions. Wang says that, because the retraction notices are already freely available, publicizing the collated lists and underlying reasons for retraction could be useful. She hopes that a similar review will be conducted every year “to put more pressure” on authors and universities to monitor research integrity.

What happens next will reveal how seriously the ministry regards research misconduct, says Shu. He suggests that, if the ministry does not take further action after the Chinese New Year, the notice could be an attempt to respond to the reputational damage caused by the mass retractions last year.

The ministry did not respond to Nature ’s questions about the misconduct investigation.

Chen says that, regardless of what the ministry does with the information, the reporting process itself will help to curb misconduct because it is “embarrassing to the people in the report”.

But it might primarily affect researchers publishing in English-language journals. Retraction notices in Chinese-language journals are rare.

Nature 626 , 700-701 (2024)

doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-024-00397-x

Data analysis by Richard Van Noorden.

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Two more candidates file papers to run for U.S. Senate in Pennsylvania

HARRISBURG, Pa. — Two more candidates filed paperwork Thursday to appear on Pennsylvania’s primary ballots for U.S. Senate as Democratic Sen. Bob Casey runs for a fourth term and Democrats try to maintain a majority in the narrowly divided chamber.

Brandi Tomasetti, a Republican from Lancaster County, and William Parker, a Democrat from Allegheny County, both filed paperwork before a court-ordered deadline.

Both Parker and Tomasetti had gone to court to challenge the state election office’s rejection of the paperwork they had filed by the Feb. 13 deadline set in state law. In court, the state dropped its objections.

In addition to Casey, previously filed candidates are David McCormick , the ex-hedge fund CEO who is endorsed by the state Republican Party and narrowly lost the 2022 GOP primary to Dr. Mehmet Oz , and perennial candidate Joe Vodvarka, a retired spring manufacturer from the Pittsburgh area who is making his fifth bid for U.S. Senate and second as a Republican.

The primary election is April 23.

Parker, who developed a mobile vending app, has lost primary races for Allegheny County executive and U.S. Congress in the last two years.

Tomasetti, a former municipal government employee, is a first-time candidate.

Vodvarka’s petitions are being challenged in court, with a hearing scheduled for March 5.

The Senate candidates in Pennsylvania will share a ticket with candidates for president next year in a state that is critical to whether Democrats can maintain control of the White House and the Senate.

Casey is a stalwart of Pennsylvania’s Democratic Party — the son of a former two-term governor and Pennsylvania’s longest-ever serving Democrat in the Senate.

McCormick, 58, was heavily recruited to run again by the party establishment and has deep pockets, high-level connections in business and support from big Republican donors.

A race between Casey and McCormick could be one of the nation’s most expensive and closely watched in a year when Democrats have a difficult 2024 Senate map that requires them to defend incumbents in red states and multiple swing states.

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Essay on Newspaper In Urdu

Back to: Urdu Essays List 1

اخبار پر ایک مضمون

دور حاظر میں ہر خاص و عام فرد کو اپنے ارد گرد کا علم ہونا چاہیے۔ نئی ایجاد و دریافت کا علم رکھنے ملکی و غیر ملکی حالات و واقعات سے باخبر رہنے کے لئے اخبار (جریدہ) کا مطالعہ کرنا بہت ضروری ہے۔ دورِ رواں میں کسی ملک خطے علاقے میں پیش آنے والے معاملات اب وہیں تک محدود نہیں رہتے بلکہ ہمیں باخبر رکھنے کے لئے اخبار کو معارف کروادیا گیا ہے۔

“باخبر کس سے؟” علمی ادبی سماجی ہر قسم کی خبر سے ہمیں ہر روز کے حساب سے باخبر رہنے کے لئے اخبار بینی کرنی پڑتی ہے۔ مذہبی و اقتصادی ترقی کے لئے اخبار سے بہترین اشتعار کہیں پر میسر نہیں۔ ہر انسان کا فرض ہے کہ وہ اخبار بینی کرکے قومی اور بین الاقوامی حالات کا علم رکھے اس سے وہ اپنی صلاح وفلاح کا ذمہ خود اٹھاسکے گا اور معاشرے میں اپنا ایک مقام پیدا کرکے عزت سے جی سکے گا۔

واقفیت کی اہمیت

دنیا سمٹ کر ایک ملک کی مانند ہو گئی ہے۔ فاصلے کم ہو گئے ہیں۔ ملکوں ملکوں میں شاہراہیں قیام لے رہی ہیں۔ مہینوں کا سفر دنوں میں آگیا ہے۔ انسان چاند پر پہنچ کر دریافتیں کر رہا ہے۔ اسی ساری گہما گہمی اور تیزرفتاری کے بدلتے وقت میں ہمیں واقفیت کے شعور کو جدید سائنسی دور کے ساتھ لگائے رکھنے کو اخبار و رسالے کی مدد سے خود کو ہر بات سے آگاہ رکھنا چاہئے۔ جس کے لئے اخبار بینی بہت فائدے مند ہے۔

ذائقہ و مزاج

آج کل ہر شخص کی کچھ اپنی پسند نا پسند ہوتی ہے اسی لئے اخبار میں مختلف موضوعات پر لکھا یا چھاپا جاتا ہے۔ جیسے اگر ایک شخص کی توجہ کا مرکز کھلیوں کی جانکاری ہے اسے اپنے مزاج و ذائقہ کی مطابقت سے مواد مل جائے گا۔ کسی کی دلچسپیاں سیاست میں ہیں اسے وہ بھی میسر ہوجائے گا۔

اخبار کی اہمیت

قیام پاکستان کے وقت اخبار نے بہت اہم کردار ادا کیا۔ ایک دن کوئی بڑا رہنماء اپنی تقریر کرتا دوسرے دن وہ خبر ملک کے کونے کونے تک پہنچانے میں اخبار نے انتہائی سنجیدہ و اہم کردار ادا کیا ہے۔

۱۹۶۵ کی جنگ کی خبر کو ساری ملت تک پہنچانے کے لئے اسی اخبار نے مدد دی۔ اخبار سے ہی اپنے سپاہیوں کی سرفروشانہ کارناموں کی داستانیں ہم تک رساء کی گئیں۔

اخبار نے ہمیں جہاں بہت اچھی اچھی خبریں دی ہیں وہاں کچھ دل دہلا دینے والے واقعات بھی ہمارے گوش گزار کئے ہیں جیسے ۱۹۷۱ میں پاکستان دولخط ہوا۔ پاکستان میں ٹرین حادثات ،آتش ذدگی اور لوگوں کی ہلاکتوں کی خبریں، دہشت گردی کے سانحے  سے بھی ملک و قوم کو اخبار نے ہی باخبر کیا ہے۔

اگر اشیاء خوردنوش میں کچھ تبدیلیاں ہوتی ہیں تو حکومت براہِ راست تو عوام سے اس بارے میں بات نہیں کرسکتی اس لئے اخبار حکومت اور عوام کے درمیان ذرائع ابلاغ کا سب سے مؤثر نظام ہے۔ منڈی میں تیل کی قیمت کا اتار چڑھاؤ ہمیں اخبار بینی سے ہی معلوم پڑتا ہے۔

مسلمان امت کے احوال کی معلومات

کشمیر جل رہا ہے ، فلسطین ڈوب رہا ہے ، جنوبی افریقہ میں نسل پرست حکومت افریقی عوام پر مظالم کے پہاڑ توڑ رہی ہے، چین میں مسلمانوں پر مظالم ڈھائے جارہے ہیں ، پاکستان میں سیلاب ذدگان کی مدد کو پاک فوج سرگرم ہے۔ یہ تمام اطلاعات ہمیں اخبار کے مطالعہ سے ہی ملتی ہیں۔ ایک معاشرے میں اخبار کا بہت اہم کردار ہوتا ہے  معاشرے کی اصلاح و فلاح اخبار کی ذمہ داریوں میں شامل ہے۔

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Guest Essay

Kicking Native People Off Their Land Is a Horrible Way to Save the Planet

A photograph showing the back of a Masai man standing on a grassy hill overlooking a valley.

By Robert Williams

Mr. Williams is a law professor and the faculty chair of the Indigenous peoples law and policy program at the University of Arizona.

Over 600,000 tourists travel to Tanzania’s Ngorongoro Conservation Area each year, and many will catch a glimpse of the Great Migration: the famed trek of more than one million wildebeests and thousands of zebras, gazelles and other animals crossing over the Mara River into Kenya and back. Yet the Tanzanian government believes it can attract many more tourists seeking the safari adventure of a lifetime: five million by 2025, bringing $6 billion with them per year , according to a recent plan.

That’s why government officials recently announced a change in the legal status of Ngorongoro that will prohibit human settlement inside and near it. The decision will force authorities to remove nearly 100,000 people — mostly Maasai pastoralists who have used Ngorongoro’s vast grasslands to sustain their seminomadic cattle-herding way of life for generations — from the protected area. According to the government , the Maasai must be removed to conserve the land and protect biodiversity. The Maasai argue that removal puts their lives and cultural survival at risk and that the government should instead expand tourism in a way that respects their rights.

As countries around the world pursue environmental goals like preserving 30 percent of the planet’s land and seas by 2030 — goals that can also yield opportunities for eco-tourism development and carbon credit sales — they’re converting lands rich in natural beauty and biodiversity into protected areas. Often they do so with financing and guidance from the biggest conservation organizations, such as the World Wildlife Fund and Wildlife Conservation Society, and wealthy countries like the United States , France, Germany and Japan .

Yet in many cases people are already living and surviving off these lands — indeed, an estimated 476 million Indigenous people dwell on lands that are home to 80 percent of the world’s biodiversity. When governments decide that nature conservation and potential revenue from it take priority over existing human activities, too often they resort to evictions, destruction of agricultural fields and confiscation of livestock, sometimes through stupefying violence, to get residents off the land. At the University of Arizona Indigenous peoples law and policy program , which hosts the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, reports of these kinds of human rights abuses and complaints linked to conservation stream in on a weekly, and sometimes even daily, basis from all corners of the globe.

In India, the creation of tiger reserves to attract foreign tourist dollars has resulted in violent clashes and the evictions of scores of Adivasi Indigenous peoples from their ancestral lands. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Batwa Indigenous peoples (formerly referred to by the derisive, racist term “pygmies”) continue to resist government efforts to block them from returning to the Kahuzi-Biega National Park after being evicted in the 1970s . Just last month, Park Authority guards, accompanied by Congolese military, reportedly raided Batwa villages and burned their homes to the ground, accusing the Batwa of being members of a Tutsi insurgent group. ( The Batwa reject the accusation .)

Countries frequently regard these abuses as legally defensible because, unlike in the United States and most other Western nations with significant tribal populations, many African, Asian and Latin American Indigenous peoples have not been granted secure tenure and rights in their traditionally occupied lands. But the wildlife officials and others initiating and supporting large-scale relocation of Indigenous communities are too often ignoring another, far better way to protect biodiversity that doesn’t require destroying lives and livelihoods in the process. Community-based models of conservation, particularly Indigenous-led conservation practices , have proved time and again that they protect biodiversity effectively. Research and case studies from the ground show that these practices work just as well as, and in many instances even better than, the methods that exclude them.

Take the Bears Ears National Monument in Utah, which is now co-managed by five Native American tribes. In Australia, the Indigenous Gunditjmara people harvest eel and help manage the Budj Bim Cultural Landscape within their traditional homelands. Other projects in Mexico, New Zealand and Canada show it’s possible to meet climate and biodiversity goals while respecting the human rights and knowledge of Indigenous people living in protected areas.

The State Department and other U.S. agencies can help protect the property rights of Indigenous people in their traditional lands by pressuring countries to recognize those rights. Using credible information, they can increase monitoring and withhold funding from countries and projects where such abuses take place. Likewise, while the World Wildlife Fund and the Wildlife Conservation Society say they are using a human-rights-based approach to conservation, no group should be spending millions of dollars to provide support for projects in protected areas where Indigenous peoples’ property and other rights are infringed. Instead, they can use their considerable leverage and influence in places where abuses are still being perpetrated to ensure these rights are respected. For instance, they could demand at the outset of a project that they won’t move forward until there is certainty on Indigenous people’s legal rights through the local legal system.

In all instances, Indigenous peoples’ right to free, prior and informed consent must be guaranteed in any protected area project that will have an impact on their traditional lands, lives or livelihoods. Otherwise, the world’s urgently needed conservation and climate reduction goals will have, in effect, been purchased at the expense of the world’s Indigenous peoples. It is these communities that possess some of the most valuable knowledge and methods, tested over time and generations, needed to solve a global climate and biodiversity crisis not of their own making.

Robert Williams is a law professor and the faculty chair of the Indigenous peoples law and policy program at the University of Arizona.

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

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    Role Of Media Essay In Urdu. Back to: Urdu Essays List 3. 0. آج کے دور میں سوشل میڈیا کے بغیر زندگی گزارنا بہت مشکل ہو گیا ہے۔. ہر طرف اسی کی چرچا ہے اور ہر انسان اسی کا عادی بن چکا ہے۔. اس کی مقبولیت میں بہت ہی تیزی سے ...

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  7. Advertisement Meaning In Urdu

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    ID 28506 Advertisement Essay In Urdu Why is writing essays so hard? Patterns and boring topics imposed by schools and universities are not very conducive to creativity and human development. Such essays are very difficult to write, because many are not interested in this and do not see the meaning of the text.

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  27. Advertisement Essay In Urdu

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  28. Advertisement Essay In Urdu

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