The Cold War (1945-1989) essay
The Cold War is considered to be a significant event in Modern World History. The Cold War dominated a rather long time period: between 1945, or the end of the World War II, and 1990, the collapse of the USSR. This period involved the relationships between two superpowers: the United States and the USSR. The Cold War began in Eastern Europe and Germany, according to the researchers of the Institute of Contemporary British History (Warner 15). Researchers state that “the USSR and the United States of America held the trump cards, nuclear bombs and missiles” (Daniel 489). In other words, during the Cold War, two nations took the fate of the world under their control. The progression of the Cold War influenced the development of society, which became aware of the threat of nuclear war. After the World War II, the world experienced technological progress, which provided “the Space Race, computer development, superhighway construction, jet airliner development, the creation of international phone system, the advent of television, enormous progress in medicine, and the creation of mass consumerism, and many other achievements” (Daniel 489). Although the larger part of the world lived in poverty and lacked technological progress, the United States and other countries of Western world succeeded in economic development. The Cold War, which began in 1945, reflected the increased role of technological progress in the establishment of economic relationships between two superpowers. The Cold War involved internal and external conflicts between two superpowers, the United States and the USSR, leading to eventual breakdown of the USSR.
- The Cold War: background information
The Cold War consisted of several confrontations between the United States and the USSR, supported by their allies. According to researchers, the Cold War was marked by a number of events, including “the escalating arms race, a competition to conquer space, a dangerously belligerent for of diplomacy known as brinkmanship, and a series of small wars, sometimes called “police actions” by the United States and sometimes excused as defense measures by the Soviets” (Gottfried 9). The Cold War had different influences on the United States and the USSR. For the USSR, the Cold War provided massive opportunities for the spread of communism across the world, Moscow’s control over the development of other nations and the increased role of the Soviet Communist party.
In fact, the Cold War could split the wartime alliance formed to oppose the plans of Nazi Germany, leaving the USSR and the United States as two superpowers with considerable economic and political differences. The USSR was based on a single-party Marxist–Leninist system, while the United States was a capitalist state with democratic governance based on free elections.
The key figure in the Cold War was the Soviet leader Gorbachev, who was elected in 1985. He managed to change the direction of the USSR, making the economies of communist ruled states independent. The major reasons for changing in the course were poor technological development of the USSR (Gottfried 115). Gorbachev believed that radical changes in political power could improve the Communist system. At the same time, he wanted to stop the Cold War and tensions with the United States. The cost of nuclear arms race had negative impact on the economy of the USSR. The leaders of the United States accepted the proposed relationships, based on cooperation and mutual trust. The end of the Cold War was marked by signing the INF treaty in 1987 (Gottfried 115).
- The origins of the Cold War
Many American historians state that the Cold War began in 1945. However, according to Russian researchers, historians and analysts “the Cold War began with the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917, for this was when the capitalist world began its systematic opposition to and effort to undermine the world’s first socialist state and society” (Warner13). For Russians, the Cold War was hot in 1918-1922, when the Allied Intervention policy implemented in Russia during the Russian Civil War. According to John W. Long, “the U.S. intervention in North Russia was a policy formulated by President Wilson during the first half of 1918 at the urgent insistence of Britain, France and Italy, the chief World War I allies” (380).
Nevertheless, there are some other opinions regarding the origins of the Cold War. For example, Geoffrey Barraclough, an outstanding English historian, states that the events in the Far East at the end of the century contributed to the origins of the Cold War. He argues that “during the previous hundred years, Russia and the United States has tended to support each other against England; but now, as England’s power passed its zenith, they came face to face across the Pacific” (Warner 13). According to Barraclough, the Cold War is associated with the conflict of interests, which involved European countries, the Middle East and South East Asia. Finally, this conflict divided the world into two camps. Thus, the Cold War origins are connected with the spread of ideological conflict caused by the emergence of the new power in the early 20-th century (Warner 14). The Cold War outbreak was associated with the spread of propaganda on the United States by the USSR. The propagandistic attacks involved the criticism of the U.S. leaders and their policies. These attacked were harmful to the interests of American nation (Whitton 151).
- The major causes of the Cold War
The United States and the USSR were regarded as two superpowers during the Cold War, each having its own sphere of influence, its power and forces. The Cold War had been the continuing conflict, caused by tensions, misunderstandings and competitions that existed between the United States and the USSR, as well as their allies from 1945 to the early 1990s (Gottfried 10). Throughout this long period, there was the so-called rivalry between the United States and the USSR, which was expressed through various transformations, including military buildup, the spread of propaganda, the growth of espionage, weapons development, considerable industrial advances, and competitive technological developments in different spheres of human activity, such as medicine, education, space exploration, etc.
There four major causes of the Cold War, which include:
- Ideological differences (communism v. capitalism);
- Mutual distrust and misperception;
- The fear of the United State regarding the spread of communism;
- The nuclear arms race (Gottfried 10).
The major causes of the Cold War point out to the fact that the USSR was focused on the spread of communist ideas worldwide. The United States followed democratic ideas and opposed the spread of communism. At the same time, the acquisition of atomic weapons by the United States caused fear in the USSR. The use of atomic weapons could become the major reason of fear of both the United States and the USSR. In other words, both countries were anxious about possible attacks from each other; therefore, they were following the production of mass destruction weapons. In addition, the USSR was focused on taking control over Eastern Europe and Central Asia. According to researchers, the USSR used various strategies to gain control over Eastern Europe and Central Asia in the years 1945-1980. Some of these strategies included “encouraging the communist takeover of governments in Eastern Europe, the setting up of Comecon, the Warsaw Pact, the presence of the Red Army in Eastern Europe, and the Brezhnev Doctrine” (Phillips 118). These actions were the major factors for the suspicions and concerns of the United States. In addition, the U.S. President had a personal dislike of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and his policies. In general, the United States was concerned by the Soviet Union’s actions regarding the occupied territory of Germany, while the USSR feared that the United States would use Western Europe as the major tool for attack.
- The consequences of the Cold War
The consequences of the Cold War include both positive and negative effects for both the United States and the USSR.
- Both the United States and the USSR managed to build up huge arsenals of atomic weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles.
- The Cold War provided opportunities for the establishment of the military blocs, NATO and the Warsaw Pact.
- The Cold War led to the emergence of the destructive military conflicts, like the Vietnam War and the Korean War, which took the lives of millions of people (Gottfried13).
- The USSR collapsed because of considerable economic, political and social challenges.
- The Cold War led to the destruction of the Berlin Wall and the unification of the two German nations.
- The Cold War led to the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact (Gottfried 136).
- The Cold war provided the opportunities for achieving independence of the Baltic States and some former Soviet Republics.
- The Cold War made the United States the sole superpower of the world because of the collapse of the USSR in 1990.
- The Cold War led to the collapse of Communism and the rise of globalization worldwide (Phillips 119).
The impact of the Cold War on the development of many countries was enormous. The consequences of the Cold War were derived from numerous internal problems of the countries, which were connected with the USSR, especially developing countries (India, Africa, etc.). This fact means that foreign policies of many states were transformed (Gottfried 115).
The Cold War (1945-1989) essay part 2
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- How to Write an Essay on The Cold War
- How to Write a Great Essay on The Cold War
The scope of your work
Cold war participants, for how long did the cold war take place, what are the events that started the cold war, what are cold war effects, what about a leadership, who won the cold war, the system of writing the best cold war essay, 21 excellent cold war topic ideas, a helpful cold war essay example, final words.
The cold war is a major event that involved American and Russian allies as conflicting sides, led to different actions, created new forces, and changed the international order. This historical period ended not so many years ago. Writing the Cold War essay is a challenge to students, especially if they aren’t familiar with communism, capitalism, a threat or nuclear weapons, and other related historical information, but it’s an important part of earning high grades. Many details go into ensuring that such essays are free from errors. This detailed guide can help you figure out what to write.
To explore excellent topics, determine whether the cold war was inevitable based on historians’ opinions. Discuss possible events that could have a direct impact on it. Some of the areas to write about in your cold war essay within a specific number of words and pages include:
- Cold war leaders;
- Mutual rivalry of USSR and the USA;
- Cold war ideology;
- Global powers;
- How this superpower race began;
- Massive ideological propaganda;
- Future consequences;
- Forming new governments in Europe, Middle East, Asia, etc.
Consider all the alliances and each country included in one of the most intriguing wars in the international arena. Identify the roles of these parties in this crisis and fueling conflicts. Are there any prominent names that refer to the cold war? Think about such powerful politicians as Stalin, president Truman, Ronald Reagan, Gorbachev, and Churchill because each one was a strong leader who fought in this war. To get fresh ideas, take as an example our classification essay .
It’s a significant event that caused a revolution and resulted in democratic expansion and it has lasted for many decades, historians recorded it in detail. Elaborate on the period it has lasted in your cold war essay and list the activities that could lead to its prolongation.
There were certain circumstances that caused the cold war to erupt, and it’s worth focusing on the origins of allied attacks. Who were early masterminds behind these large-scale events? What were their interests? State main cold war reasons in your academic paper and use some space to talk about causes that contributed to a rise of the force that brought up huge tension between Americans and communist people. Analyze what each side believed in and wanted to achieve. It is where our exploratory essay will be useful.
Although there wasn’t any significant bloodshed held because of this conflict, it resulted in particular negative and positive effects. Was there any important social doctrine or policy? Research relevant diplomatic negotiations, hot debates, and treaty propositions. Determine whether each nation came to a consensus and if it’s valid to date while giving clear answers in your cold war essay.
There were some significant individuals who fueled the cold war and steered it, so try to describe their personal traits, motives, and position. Determine if they were silent or visible parties. Find and evaluate information about leaders who managed to defect from their sides to form an alliance with opposing parties.
When the war starts, there's always a weak side that has to plan defense from the attack and gives up and a winner who gets full control over benefits as a result. Write about the terms of the pact if you think that cold war participants succeeded to reach a consensus. Determine what they felt about the outcomes of this competition.
Writing your cold war essay should be a systematic process that involves:
- An engaging introductory paragraph should explain your topic, state your thesis, and contain a catchy hook to attract readers quickly;
- The main body needs to support your central argument with enough evidence;
- A conclusory section will summarize all of your major ideas, restate a thesis, and include a call to action.
Use this simple and effective approach to secure high grades. Ensure that you pick an interesting and original cold war topic. There are many suggestions to choose from due to the fact that this conflict has lasted so long and it had a number of social, political, economic, and cultural impacts that divided the world. The cold war is a very broad subject to focus on. Check a list of helpful ideas below.
- Connections between the Vietnam war and the cold war;
- The policies of elected soviets that caused this conflict to start;
- The Berlin wall that resulted in the division of Germany;
- How the cold war still affects people in North Korea;
- The Warsaw pact is a military union of several European communist nations: how it was formed in response to the entry of West Germany into NATO;
- The actions that made the US government feel a threat;
- Explain the Domino theory in your cold war essay;
- The role of this conflict in the Korean war ;
- The impact of the Cuban missile crisis in the cold war;
- Explore the Red Fear causes and effects;
- Question the nuclear bombing of Japan called an international disaster and destruction of Nagasaki and Hiroshima;
- The position of France in this conflict;
- The reunification of Germany as an effective aid to stop the cold war, how the Berlin wall was destructed;
- Defend your opinion about which army started this war;
- State if you agree that Reagan deserves a credit for engineering its end;
- The most important event of the cold war;
- Reasons why it was a major driving factor to set the growth of space and nuclear arms races;
- Determine if any actions had an impact on the existing situation in the Middle East;
- The effect of the cold war on pop culture;
- Compare the capitalist economy and communist economy during the cold war;
- Identify the nations that it impacted negatively.
Use the above-mentioned suggestions to brainstorm your own ideas. Write them down a few times to choose the best topic. If you face hardships when completing this academic assignment, look at a perfect sample below because it will guide you. Likewise, you can buy custom essays online and get fantastic results effort-free.
The cold war is an influential event in human history because this ideologically-driven conflict of powerful states had a potential to destroy humanity. It didn’t turn into proxy military conflicts. There is an opinion that the collapse of the Soviet Union means that America won this war, but it has opponents. The economy suffered from the buildup of armed foreign forces. There were also negative effects on democracy and international security. I think that no one won this war because it was both about who had nuclear weapons and a showdown between communism and capitalism. It ended in 1989 after a regime change in the Soviet Union. There were different changes that led to the spread of democracy throughout former communist nations, and they often become the main subject of debates. There are many theories that surround the collapse of this country. A notion that the US equipped its military and its nuclear weaponry preponderance created a possibility of mutual destruction; An idea that excellence in the USSR leadership was a cause of its collapse; Communism has certain inherited flaws and each communist nation will have its inevitable end. Some scholars think that the relative economies of both countries played important roles in ending the war, and many economists claim that destruction is an inevitable density of any communist society. Communism is effective in small countries that have strong homogeneity. The USSR was the largest country in the world and people started expanding belief systems and they wanted innovative leadership. No one won the cold war because it was an expensive and long political rivalry fueled by exaggerated and unreal expectations and intentions. It overstrained the economic and other resources of both sides. It left them with the legacy of heavy social, financial, and political issues that the US and Russia had to solve.
If you need more examples, take our causes of the Civil War essay .
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Essays on Cold War
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Case Study: the Cold War
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Dystopian Fiction during the Cold War
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Sports Media in the Cold War Era
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Introduction for Essay
Research paper on the cold war, thesis statement for the cold war.
The Cold War represented a prolonged period of economic, political, military, and social conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union. This strife lasted for several decades, ending only when the Soviet Union dissolved. Triggered by mutual threats and propaganda, the Cold War led to the fear of nuclear disaster and the emergence of anti-communist sentiment in both countries.
In the political sphere, the Cold War was marked by America’s determination to prevent the spread of Soviet communism to neighboring countries. By the war’s end, American officials concurred that the most effective defense strategy was “containment,” a policy designed to curb Soviet expansion.
The social aspect of the Cold War was embodied in the Yalta Conference, the second meeting of British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet Leader Joseph Stalin, and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. During the conference, the three leaders resolved to demand Germany’s unconditional surrender.
Economically, the Cold War was manifested through the Berlin Blockade, a Soviet attempt to restrict the ability of France, Great Britain, and the United States to access their sectors of Berlin. Russia further enforced the blockade by shutting down all highways, railroads, and canals from Germany into Berlin.
In military terms, the Cold War saw the erection of the Iron Curtain, a barrier created by the Soviet Union post-World War II to isolate itself from the West and other non-communist areas.
Argumentative Essay Examples on the Cold War
Both containment and the domino theory influenced U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War, as they were integral to defense strategies and preventing the spread of communism. For example, containment served as a defensive mechanism to thwart the spread of communism to other countries, an idea underpinning the domino theory. This theory posits that if one country adopts communism, others will follow suit. The “domino effect” was suggested by President Dwight D. Eisenhower due to the concerns of hesitant U.S. ambassadors. Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson both invoked the domino theory to justify aid to South Vietnam.
U.S. foreign policy encompasses how the country interacts with other nations and establishes standards for international entities, corporations, and its own citizens. The four primary goals of U.S. foreign policy include preserving national security, promoting world peace, securing a global environment, and maintaining a balance of power among nations.
The Iron Curtain served as a political and military barrier, allowing the Soviet Union to isolate itself from non-communist regions. Originating from Stalin, this curtain of control saw the installation of communist regimes in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Albania. In a significant 1946 speech in Missouri, Winston Churchill condemned the Soviet Union’s policies in Europe, acknowledging that the region was essentially under Soviet control.
The Vietnam War and the Korean War
The Vietnam War, a struggle between the communist government of North Vietnam and South Vietnam, backed by the United States, was intensified by the Cold War. The war concluded with communist forces seizing control of South Vietnam in 1975.
The Korean War, marking the first military action of the Cold War, saw the entry of American troops in support of South Korea. It was essentially a fight against the forces of international communism. The alternative would have been a broader war involving Russia and China. The Korean War represented the initial phase of a communist campaign to seize global control.
The Warsaw Pact and Its Significance
The Warsaw Pact, also known as the Treaty of Friendship, was established on May 14, 1955, by the Polish People’s Republic. It comprised the Soviet Union, Albania, and Czechoslovakia. This pact mandated member states to assist any member attacked by an external force, leading to a united military front. This agreement was held until 1991. According to History.com, “The rise of non-communist governments in other Eastern Bloc nations, such as Poland and Czechoslovakia, throughout 1990 and 1991 marked an effective end of the power of the Warsaw Pact.”
These defense mechanisms were intrinsic to U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War because the United States aimed to prevent countries like Korea and China from endorsing communism. The goal was to create a level playing field and avoid being outmatched.
Ideas of Conditions for GRIT during the Gorbachev Years
Based on the 1960s writings of Charles Osgood, Graduated Reciprocation in Tension Reduction (GRIT) is a strategy of unilateral and risk-free initiatives showing a willingness to start and continue a process of disarmament. The goal is to reduce a conflict spiral and create a mutual trust that will make negotiations easier. GRIT begins by announcing unilateral concessions publicly and making clear intentions; a state invites reciprocation but does not demand it. GRIT continues out concessions without demanding reciprocity, and it may take several concessions in order for it to be noticed. In order for it to be considered substantial, the concessions need to be moderately costly, slowly building in its cost.
This paper will analyze the conditions that made GRIT possible during the Gorbachev years of 1985-1989 between the Soviet Union and the United States. Although the conditions of the Soviet Union during the Gorbachev years made it possible to establish GRIT, ultimately, GRIT was not the sole cause of disarmament and reduced tensions between the two countries, but instead helped aid the negotiating environment. Conditions of the Cold War In order to understand why the conditions for GRIT worked, one must understand the conditions of the Cold War that did not make de-escalation possible. Even if both decision-makers from both countries wanted to de-escalate, they could not find common ground because they were unable to accurately draw inferences about the motives and intentions of each other.
Challenges to De-escalation during the Cold War
After World War II, the large superpowers were battling for global hegemon. Mistrust stems from the security dilemma: the means a state takes to increase its own security decreases the security for others. In the context of the Cold War, this meant the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In the 1950s, the United States viewed the Soviet Union’s proposals for German reunification as devices to divide NATO, weaken the West, and encourage neutralism. Additionally, expectations can largely determine how people construe other states’ behavior, and human psychologically suggests foreign policy officials interpret another state’s actions in a way that is consistent with their pre-existing beliefs.
Mistrust is irrational but also difficult to dispel, and in the context of the Cold War, the possibility of nuclear warfare heightened fears and paranoia, making trust even more difficult to achieve. Additionally, the propaganda of both countries fueled these fears on the government and domestic levels. Mistrust was at its peak during the Cold War. A key example is said mistrust is in the 1957-1962 Khrushchev years.
Due to the United States’ assumptions that the Soviet Union wanted to expand its communist propaganda, the US would set unrealistic suggestions for disarmament. Secretary of State John Foster, during a National Security Council meeting, once stated, ‘Disarmament proposals are probably an operation in public relations rather than actual disarmament proposals.’ Foster’s statement helps to understand the conditions of the Cold War that made it seem unlikely for the two countries to come together to reach conditions of reduced tension and an end to the Cold War.
The Cold War: Reassessing the Cold War and the Far-Right Essay
The cold war was a rivalry between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their allies. This was a result of power and the distribution of territories. Either ally wanted to have more power and control the others. This war affected numerous countries that needed to safeguard their territories. The war led to mass loss of people and countries fighting against each other. Tension was created as a result of the cold war as the geopolitical of different countries was affected, economic loss, and the rise of dangerous arms such as nuclear weapons.
European countries such as France participated in the cold war and suffered consequences. France engaged in the cold war, siding with the NATO alliances. It was also a United Nations Security Council member and opposed Soviet alliances. China was an Asian country that was also affected by the cold war in various perspectives. Consequently, during the beginning of this war, China sided with the Soviet Union. Therefore, these countries were affected differently by the cold war while also sharing similar ideologies.
France, a member of the Nation Security Council, had a crucial role in engaging different countries in the peace treaty. Despite China’s siding with the Soviet Union, it later participated in building political collisions. Contrary, the cold war had dissimilar impacts on France and China. The cold war aided France in retaining its economic status (Pannier & Schmitt, 2019). Additionally, its role in National Security Council ensured its security status and the military environment. The cold war led to a suspension of diplomatic ties of China with other states (Anievas & Saul, 2020). Further, China faced severe famine resulting from a disastrous economy. China faced political challenges that led to disorders in Taiwan.
In conclusion, the cold war had positive and negative impacts on different countries. Loss of lives in different states was a massive consequence of the cold war. Rather than France and China suffering, the cold war led to various conflicts. However, the attempt to engage in nuclear fights led to peace agreement treaties between the nations involved. Therefore, the cold war was a period of wrangling and destruction, which would later signify the end of tension due to differences in ideologies and state power and control.
Anievas, A., & Saull, R. (2020). Reassessing the Cold War and the far-right: Fascist legacies and the making of the liberal international order after 1945 . International Studies Review , 22 (3), 370-395. Web.
Pannier, A., & Schmitt, O. (2019). To fight another day: France between the fight against terrorism and future warfare . International Affairs , 95 (4), 897-916. Web.
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Essay on the Cold War: it’s Origin, Causes and Phases
After the Second World War, the USA and USSR became two Super Powers. One nation tried to reduce the power of other. Indirectly the competition between the Super Powers led to the Cold War.
Then America took the leadership of all the Capitalist Countries.
Soviet Russia took the leadership of all the Communist Countries. As a result of which both stood as rivals to each other.
Definition of the Cold War:
In the graphic language of Hartman, “Cold War is a state of tension between countries in which each side adopts policies designed to strengthen it and weaken the other by falling short by actual war”.
Image Source: i.ytimg.com/vi/y9HjvHZfCUI/maxresdefault.jpg
Infact, Cold War is a kind of verbal war which is fought through newspapers, magazines, radio and other propaganda methods. It is a propaganda to which a great power resorts against the other power. It is a sort of diplomatic war.
Origin of Cold War:
There is no unanimity amongst scholars regarding the origin of the Cold War In 1941 when Hitler invaded Russia, Roosevelt the President of USA sent armaments to Russia. It is only because the relationship between Roosevelt and Stalin was very good. But after the defeat of Germany, when Stalin wanted to implement Communist ideology in Poland, Hungery, Bulgaria and Rumania, at that time England and America suspected Stalin.
Winston Churchill, the Prime Minister of England in his ‘Fulton Speech’ on 5 March 1946 said that Soviet Russia was covered by an Iron Curtain. It led Stalin to think deeply. As a result of which suspicion became wider between Soviet Russia and western countries and thus the Cold War took birth.
Causes of the Cold War:
Various causes are responsible for the outbreak of the Cold War. At first, the difference between Soviet Russia and USA led to the Cold War. The United States of America could not tolerate the Communist ideology of Soviet Russia. On the other hand, Russia could not accept the dominance of United States of America upon the other European Countries.
Secondly, the Race of Armament between the two super powers served another cause for the Cold War. After the Second World War, Soviet Russia had increased its military strength which was a threat to the Western Countries. So America started to manufacture the Atom bomb, Hydrogen bomb and other deadly weapons. The other European Countries also participated in this race. So, the whole world was divided into two power blocs and paved the way for the Cold War.
Thirdly, the Ideological Difference was another cause for the Cold War. When Soviet Russia spread Communism, at that time America propagated Capitalism. This propaganda ultimately accelerated the Cold War.
Fourthly, Russian Declaration made another cause for the Cold War. Soviet Russia highlighted Communism in mass-media and encouraged the labour revolution. On the other hand, America helped the Capitalists against the Communism. So it helped to the growth of Cold War.
Fifthly, the Nuclear Programme of America was responsible for another cause for the Cold War. After the bombardment of America on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Soviet Russia got afraid for her existence. So, it also followed the same path to combat America. This led to the growth of Cold War.
Lastly, the Enforcement of Veto by Soviet Russia against the western countries made them to hate Russia. When the western countries put forth any view in the Security Council of the UNO, Soviet Russia immediately opposed it through veto. So western countries became annoyed in Soviet Russia which gave birth to the Cold War.
Various Phases of the Cold War:
The Cold War did not occur in a day. It passed through several phases.
First Phase (1946-1949 ):
In this phase America and Soviet Russia disbelieved each other. America always tried to control the Red Regime in Russia. Without any hesitation Soviet Russia established Communism by destroying democracy in the Poland, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungery, Yugoslavia and other Eastern European Countries.
In order to reduce Russia’s hegemony, America helped Greece and Turkey by following Truman Doctrine which came into force on 12 March 1947. According to Marshall Plan which was declared on 5 June, 1947 America gave financial assistance to Western European Countries.
In this phase, non withdrawal of army from Iran by Soviet Russia, Berlin blaockade etc. made the cold was more furious. After the formation of NATO in 1949, the Cold War took a halt.
Second Phase (1949-1953 ):
In this phase a treaty was signed between Australia, New Zeland and America in September, 1957 which was known as ANZUS. America also signed a treaty with Japan on 8 September, 1951. At that time by taking armaments from Russia and army from China, North Korea declared war against South Korea.
Then with the help of UNO, America sent military aid to South Korea. However, both North Korea and South Korea signed peace treaty in 1953 and ended the war. In order to reduce the impact of Soviet Communism, America spent a huge amount of dollar in propaganda against Communism. On the other hand, Soviet Russia tried to be equal with America by testing atom bomb.
Third Phase (1953-1957):
Now United States of America formed SEATO in 1954 in order to reduce Soviet Russia’s influence. In 1955 America formed MEDO in Middle East. Within a short span of time, America gave military assistance to 43 countries and formed 3300 military bases around Soviet Russia. At that time, the Vietnamese War started on 1955.
To reduce the American Power, Russia signed WARSAW PACT in 1955. Russia also signed a defence pact with 12 Countries. Germany was divided into Federal Republic of Germany which was under the American control where as German Democratic Republic was under Soviet Russia. In 1957 Soviet Russia included Sphutnick in her defence programme.
In 1953 Stalin died and Khrushchev became the President of Russia. In 1956 an agreement was signed between America and Russia regarding the Suez Crisis. America agreed not to help her allies like England and France. In fact West Asia was saved from a great danger.
Fourth Phase (1957-1962):
In 1959 the Russian President Khrushchev went on a historical tour to America. Both the countries were annoyed for U-2 accident and for Berlin Crisis. In 13 August 1961, Soviet Russia made a Berlin Wall of 25 Kilometres in order to check the immigration from eastern Berlin to Western Berlin. In 1962, Cuba’s Missile Crisis contributed a lot to the cold war.
This incident created an atmosphere of conversation between American President Kenedy and Russian President Khrushchev. America assured Russia that she would not attack Cuba and Russia also withdrew missile station from Cuba.
Fifth Phase (1962-1969 ):
The Fifth Phase which began from 1962 also marked a mutual suspicion between USA and USSR. There was a worldwide concern demanding ban on nuclear weapons. In this period Hot Line was established between the White House and Kremlin. This compelled both the parties to refrain from nuclear war. Inspite of that the Vietnam problem and the Problem in Germany kept Cold War between USA and USSR in fact.
Sixth Phase (1969-1978 ):
This phase commencing from 1969 was marked by DETENTE between USA and USSR- the American President Nixon and Russian President Brezhnev played a vital role for putting an end to the Cold War. The SALT of 1972, the summit Conference on Security’ of 1975 in Helsinki and Belgrade Conference of 1978 brought America and Russia closer.
In 1971, American Foreign Secretary Henry Kissinger paid a secret visit to China to explore the possibilities of reapproachment with China. The American move to convert Diego Garcia into a military base was primarily designed to check the Soviet presence in the Indian Ocean. During the Bangladesh crisis of 1971 and the Egypt-Israel War of 1973 the two super powers extended support to the opposite sides.
Last Phase (1979-1987 ):
In this phase certain changes were noticed in the Cold War. That is why historians call this phase as New Cold War. In 1979, the American President Carter and Russian President Brezhnev signed SALT II. But in 1979 the prospects of mitigating Cold War were marred by sudden development in Afghanistan.
Vietnam (1975), Angola (1976), Ethiopia (1972) and Afghanistan (1979) issues brought success to Russia which was unbearable for America. American President Carter’s Human Rights and Open Diplomacy were criticised by Russia. The SALT II was not ratified by the US Senate. In 1980 America boycotted the Olympic held at Moscow.
In 1983, Russia withdrew from a talk on missile with America. In 1984 Russia boycotted the Olympic game held at Los-Angeles. The Star War of the American President Ronald Regan annoyed Russia. In this way the ‘New Cold War’ between America and Russia continued till 1987.
Result of the Cold War:
The Cold War had far-reaching implications in the international affairs. At first, it gave rise to a fear psychosis which resulted in a mad race for the manufacture of more sophisticated armaments. Various alliances like NATO, SEATO, WARSAW PACT, CENTO, ANZUS etc. were formed only to increase world tension.
Secondly, Cold War rendered the UNO ineffective because both super powers tried to oppose the actions proposed by the opponent. The Korean Crisis, Cuban Missile Crisis, Vietnam War etc. were the bright examples in this direction.
Thirdly, due to the Cold War, a Third World was created. A large number of nations of Africa, Asia and Latin America decided to keep away from the military alliances of the two super powers. They liked to remain neutral. So, Non-Alignments Movement became the direct outcome of the Cold War.
Fourthly, Cold War was designed against mankind. The unnecessary expenditure in the armament production created a barrier against the progress of the world and adversely affected a country and prevented improvement in the living standards of the people.
Fifthly, the principle ‘Whole World as a Family’, was shattered on the rock of frustration due to the Cold War. It divided the world into two groups which was not a healthy sign for mankind.
Sixthly, The Cold War created an atmosphere of disbelief among the countries. They questioned among themselves how unsafe were they under Russia or America.
Finally, The Cold War disturbed the World Peace. The alliances and counter-alliances created a disturbing atmosphere. It was a curse for the world. Though Russia and America, being super powers, came forward to solve the international crisis, yet they could not be able to establish a perpetual peace in the world.
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Essay On Cold War: What to Write about?
An essay about the Cold War explores the crisis between the United States of America and the Soviet Union after WW2. It details how the USSR committed itself to spread communism in Eastern Europe, Vietnam, North Korea, and China. Inversely, every successive US president promoted capitalism worldwide. This ideological difference between the rival superpowers created conflict in key areas, like nuclear weapon proliferation. The war also affected international relations with other nations.
This war had some positive outcomes for the US, like liberating African Americans from white supremacy discrimination. It also allowed the American culture to intermingle with other cultures as the US fought communist expansionism by adopting the Containment Policy.
However, this historical period is still contradictory and unclear, so an average student faces challenges like balancing their stands on this subject. They must remain unbiased and avoid taking a West-versus-East position, which is often challenging.
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Home — Essay Samples — War — Cold War — The policy of containment during the Cold War
The Policy of Containment During The Cold War
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Writing help, paraphrasing tool, controlling the tide: understanding the cold war’s containment strategy.
How it works
In the annals of 20th-century history, the Cold War era stands out as a time of intense geopolitical rivalry, primarily between the United States and the Soviet Union. At the heart of the U.S. strategy to counter Soviet expansionism was the containment policy. This essay aims to dissect the nuances of this policy, exploring its foundation, execution, and the lasting effects on global politics.
The genesis of the containment policy can be traced back to the immediate aftermath of World War II. The European continent, ravaged by war, presented a fertile ground for the spread of Soviet influence. Recognizing this threat, American diplomat George F. Kennan, in his seminal "Long Telegram" of 1946, laid out a blueprint for what would become the containment strategy. Kennan posited that the Soviet Union's expansionist ambitions were deep-rooted and could only be countered through sustained and strategic opposition.
Policy in Practice and Major Incidents
The Truman Doctrine, declared in 1947, marked a pivotal moment in American foreign policy, formally embracing containment. This doctrine committed the U.S. to support nations grappling with communist insurgencies or external aggression, effectively positioning America as a bulwark against communist expansion.
A critical element of containment was the Marshall Plan of 1948, designed to resurrect the economies of Europe. This plan was as much a strategic initiative as it was an act of philanthropy, aiming to create economic stability that would, in turn, ward off communist ideologies.
The Korean War (1950-1953) further underscored the practical application of containment. The U.S. saw the conflict as a crucial battle in the larger war against Soviet-led communism, leading to direct military intervention to aid South Korea.
Controversies and Challenges
The policy, however, was not without its detractors and difficulties. The U.S. often found itself in morally ambiguous situations, sometimes backing authoritarian regimes to prevent communist takeovers. The protracted and divisive Vietnam War exemplified the pitfalls of the policy and the challenges inherent in confronting communism in varied geopolitical landscapes.
The Cold War's conclusion, symbolized by the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, was seen by many as a testament to the effectiveness of the containment policy. However, its true legacy is more nuanced, reflecting a complex interplay of ideological, political, and military strategies.
In summary, the Cold War's containment policy was a pivotal element in the U.S. approach to global politics during the era. Its roots in post-World War II geopolitical shifts, its diverse applications, and its enduring influence on international policy underscore its significance. The containment policy not only shaped the Cold War but also offers critical insights into contemporary international strategy and diplomacy.
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4 Cold War Era: Tensions, Triumphs, and a Legacy of Creativity
The Origins: WWII Endings and the Inception of the Cold War Soon after WWII ended, the Cold War transpired. It would not be fair to say that one nation was particularly at fault since many say that the Cold War was inevitable, as the Soviet Union was for communism, and we were not. The two […]
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Essay: The Cold War
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Cold war and international relations are two subjects that couldn’t be divided. Nowadays by the political development of international relations, there are few questions asked that ‘ does cold war continues till today? On the face of it, aforesaid question is too easy but society is devided in two parts by their opinion. By the commonly held view, cold war is part of twentieth century and it doesn’t have any relation with present; in spite of today’s global political pressure, minority considers that deterioration of international relations, division of world on west and east spheres, proves that cronological borders of cold war requires serious changes. According to sort of range theories widely spread in society, cold war subject needs deep and analitical analyse. Before the discussion of cold war bases, I wanted to take up few sentences about chronological borders of cold war from scientific-research literature. On the whole the Cold War was designated by continuous rivalry which existed in the second half of twentieth century between west and east block countries. If we give a glance in history manuals, it’s possible to find few dates which is recognised as a cold war starting point, for example one of the earliest events in the origin of the Cold War arose from the anti-Communism remarks of British leader Winstonn Churchill. In 1946, March 5, in a famous policy speech characterised of the political situation of the time, he said: ‘From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an ‘Iron Curtain’ has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow’. Soviet respond to western block is recognised ‘ 14th Marchs’ interview of Stalin to newspaper ‘Pravda’ but as we know Cold war has been started much earlier than Churchill speech in Fulltone. As I have mentioned, Cold war can be apprehended as contest between western and eastern block countries, west side leaded by USA and east by USSR. Actually, this effort was ideological battle between Communism and Capitalism, Autocratic and democratic systems. Traditional geopolitical struggle , which was developed by idea of dominace among developing world and desire to controll world military industry. What some historians call anti-communism, others analyze as fear, because Stalin, shortly after invading Berlin, had gone on to conquer all of Eastern Europe. The Americans responded to Stalin’s maneuvers in Eastern Europe with the Marshall Plan, a generous provision of free financial aid for the reconstruction of war-torn Western Europe. The Soviets responded to the Marshall Plan with the Zhdanov Doctrine, unveiled in October of 1947. The Zhdanov Doctrine claimed that the United States was seeking global domination through American imperialism, as well as the collapse of democracy. On the other hand, according to this Doctrine, the Soviet Union was intent on eliminating imperialism and the remaining traces of fascism, while strengthening democracy. The Americans reacted to the Zhdanov Doctrine with the so-called ‘Long Telegram,’ written by George Kennan, Deputy Chief of Mission in Moscow, saying in part: Soviet power, unlike that of Hitlerite Germany, is neither schematic nor adventuristic. It does not work by fixed plans. It does not take unnecessary risks. It is Impervious to logic of reason, and it is highly sensitive to the logic of force. For this reason it can easily withdraw and usually does when strong resistance is encountered at any point. Because of George Kennan and his Long Telegram, official US policy became the ‘containment’ of Communism. The Soviet Union and the United States, two nations that had never been enemies on any field, and which had fought side by side during WWII, were now undeclared enemies in a war that would never break out in the open, but which would last for more than fifty years.
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Cold War Argumentative Essays Samples For Students
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Essay Examples about Cold War
💡 research paper examples on cold war, 👍 good cold war essay samples for college, 🎓 simple research papers about cold war.
The contribution of the books by Alvandi and by Mearsheimer and Walt is significant, as they provide a new perspective on the involvement of the USA in local conflicts.
The investigation and analysis of the nature and lessons of the Cold War are important, as they can help avoid the repetition of similar destructive events.
The reasons and consequences of the Cold War have been probed and the effectiveness of the United Nations Security Council both during the Cold War and after has been explored.
The Cold War that represented the fight between the USSR and the US serves as a long-lasting lesson for the global society and the world’s superpowers.
The end of the Cold War could not be considered as the end of all the world conflicts which continued to determine the situation in many other parts of the globe.
The end of the Cold war and the dissolution of the Soviet Union left the United States as the sole super power of the world.
The Cold War was a conflict between the U.S. and its allies against the Soviet Union and its allies which lasted from the end of World War II until 1991.
The aim of the paper is to provide evidence that Reagan's actions and politics were not a hindrance, but part of the process of resolving conflict war questions.
This essay talks about the main aspects of the Cold war and its impacts on the United States' diplomatic relations.
The cold war was of great significance in the revolution and the colonial system all over the world. United States and its allies, the like of Britain, France, Japan and Canada became capitalist States.
In 1945, the joint forces of the allies managed to defeat the Axis, which resulted in the end of World War II.
The Cold War represented a situation of conflict involving countries that did not take part in open martial action but was pursued mainly through political and economic endeavors.
In historiographies a great attention is paid to the problem of Cold War. A special attention is usually paid to the foreign policy of the USA and the USSR in post-war period.
This analytical treatise attempts to explicitly review the historical significance of communist revolutions in East Asia, especially in China and North Korea.
Cold war refers to strained relationship between the two superpowers that emerged after the Second World War. The two super powers were the United States and the Soviet Union.
Kennedy's doctrine during the Cold War involved committing US resources to such regions as Cuba that were under the threat of Soviet influence.
This paper discusses why was the United States unable to avoid entering a Cold War with the Soviet Union and evaluates Truman’s foreign policy.
“The Cold War” gives accounts, different perspectives and analysis, as to what has happened after Hitler and Germany were defeated and what exactly transpired between the US and Russia.
The Cold War ended in 1991, with the disbandment of the Soviet Union and the creation of newly independent states in Eastern Europe.
The second half of the twentieth century was characterized by conflicts and wars among the world’s strongest nations. The main war during that period was the cold war.
The Cold War was a political conflict characterized by military tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and its political allies that occurred between 1946 and 1991.
Historically, the Cold War started in 1945 way before the silence of gunshots in Pacific areas and in Germany when World War II had just ended.
Since both China and North Korean political agenda was aimed toward the increase of communistic influence, it was important for Canada to protect the victory.
The examination of the Cold War-era demonstrates how the rise of two superpowers – the United States and the Soviet Union – after WW2 led to a series of conflicts all over the world.
Most scholars dealing with issues emanating from International Relations have indeed found the subject of state sovereignty to be of immense significance.
The work will examine the lasting results of the Cold War and discuss how the Cold War change over time through new its new forms acquiring.
During the Cold War, the whole world was influenced by the politics of the USA and the Soviet Union. These were the two nations willing to overpower each other.
The definition of the Cold War refers to the conflict between the Western countries against the Eastern Bloc and is also known as the conflict between capitalism and communism.
One critical question that bogs the minds of most people when talking about the Cold War is the concern of securing the national interests of the United States.
When the Cold War between the USA and the Soviet Union broke out fear of spread of communist ideas was also common for Canada which played an important role in the war.
Near the end of the World War II, upon the surrender of the Nazi, there emerged strong alliances among nations that had participated in the world war
This paper is focused on the great historical event which had a great impact on the history of both countries – the USA and the USSR. Cold War had great political, cultural, and economic results for both countries.
The impact of the Cold War on the social and economic conditions of inhabitants in the USSR and the USA has been a hot topic of debate among critics.
The cold war between Russia, the United States and Britain played a major role in the onset of the 1953 Iranian coup that led to the subsequent downfall of the Shah Pahlavi’s government.
The end of World War II did not necessarily imply the beginning of peace but in reality, the dawn of other more complicated conflicts.
This paper will explain the details of the most significant Cold War confrontation between the USSR and the United States, the Cuban Missile Crisis.
This essay discusses the causes of Norman’s death. It is important to note that, Herbert Norman committed suicide because of a series of reasons which all amount to witch-hunt.
This essay explains how the Cold War ideology that crystallized after WWII changed wartime alliances and how American Cold War policies and practices influenced international relations
The Cold War was a post World War II confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union; then know as the United Soviet Socialist Republic.
The following discussion aims to illustrate the importance of communication ethics with reference to Cold War that is an important historical event.
The economies of Latin American countries were developing at a high pace in the 1960s, and international financial institutions such as the World Bank.
This paper discusses how the Cold War that occurred after 1945 influenced U.S. governmental foreign and domestic policies.
This argumentative essay gives a detailed analysis and comparison of two historical developments: The Cold War and September 11.
This paper proves that decolonization originated from the colonized nations' aspiration to be sovereign and was applied as a geopolitical tactic by the US and USSR in the Cold War.
The cold war is a period in history characterized by great tension between the USSR and the western allies, led by the United States.
How such a cordial relationship so quickly deteriorated into conflict and into the cold war for nations that had invested so much together to defeat a common enemy in form of the Nazi.
The Sinews of Peace known as The Iron Curtain is the speech of Winston Churchill to the United States and Great Britain that outlined the onset of the Cold War.
Holocaust refers to the state sponsored genocide that took place in Nazi Germany in the duration preceding the World War 2.
The paper highlights the significant aspects of the cold war era and its modern consequences.
This paper will analyze the most significant events of the Cold War. On March 5, 1946, Winston Churchill delivered the banking Iron Curtain speech.
The rise of democratization, millenarianism and authoritarianism in Southeast Asia is explained by the role that both the Cold War and the US anticommunism had on the history.
This paper will cover the premises underpinning the policy of Containment, how it was manifested over the course of the Cold War and prove its irrelevance to the U.S. today.
This essay intends to illuminate the divisions that existed between the communist bloc nations during the cold war.
America’s positioning as a “great power” during the Cold War era and the country’s sub-sequential rise to the position of a “superpower” is reflective of the Realist outlook on IR.
The World War II changed foreign policies and of the USA and introduced new world order based on two superpowers: the USA and Russia.
The Cold War (1945-1991) was a period of political confrontations between two blocks, the Capitalist America and the communist USSR.
The Vietnam War and the Cold War were escalated by the assumption that the communist movement would spread out to other Asian states in the south east region.
For many African countries that were engulfed by the Cold War, this was a real tragedy, since the country's problems were in the background of the United States and the USSR.
The Cold War was a significant period in the history of the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern Bloc, as well as other countries.
During the Cold War period, international relations were characterized by rivalry, tension, self interest and the competition for nuclear supremacy.
China’s aggressive domestic and foreign policies can make the USA respond sharply to them. This results in the second Cold War, between the United States and China.
The 20th century is known as an age of wars; for instance, the first two World Wars had detrimental consequences all around the world.
The images of Russia emerging a new Cold War do not make its policies and motivations more understandable; instead, they assume that Russia has not developed its strategies or arms since the USSR downfall.
The paper explains that technological advances during the First World War had convinced the experts, of the superiority of defense over offense.
It is possible to admit the radical change in the security concept after the Cold War and the collapse of the global system characterized by two camps’ opposition.
According to Gaddis, it was the revolution in a global transportation system that crippled America’s most strategic assets which were used in controlling wars.
The history of the United States is quite complex and riddled with numerous events and moments that contributed to the growth of the nation.
The WWII and its aftermath resulted in the development of another opposition of superstates. The former allies were not able to able to determine the spheres of their influence and make a compromise.
Cold war refers to the tension that existed between Soviet Union and the United States during the post World War II period.
The Cold War took place after World War II and it was marked by geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union.
The Civil War and the Cold War were two important stepping stones that have proved that people’s views very much depend on the time and place and a difference in opinions causes a major conflict.
Canada pursued a moderate anti-communist policy during the Cold War while aiding struggling countries and promoting peace in the world arena.
Control of Europe was at the centre of the cold war because communists controlled Eastern Europe and wanted to extent their influence to Western Europe as well.
To get clear understanding of work of the theory of international relations it is very useful to refer to some major political event and to analyze the event in accordance with the given theory.
Cold war was the state of conflict, tension and competition between the United States of America and Soviet Union (USSR) and their respective allies from mid 40s to early 1990s
The tactics employed throughout the cold war included trade and industry wars, diplomatic haggling, misinformation, and sporadic military conflicts.
The USSR rather predictably proposed an opposite theory that blamed the US for the Cold War. While this interpretation was popular during the existence of Soviet Russia.
With the USSR beginning to pose a political and an economic threat to the U.S., as well as the world, in general, the confrontation was inevitable.
Relations between Pakistan and the United States have been tumultuous since the 1950s, a trend that continued after the Cold War ended in 1991.
The competition between the Soviets and America between the years 1957 to 1975 was based on missiles arms that were to prove their superiority.
This paper reviews the article The Cold War: Did Intelligence make any Difference? by Michael Herman that tries to establish the effects of intelligence during the Cold War.
During the Cold War, there were many reasons for both the US and USSR to be equally interested in preserving the integrity of international law.
The cold war was between 1946-1991 and was defined by proxy wars, military tension, political conflict and economic competition. The war spread over to the Asia-Pacific region.
In the book, The Cold War: A New History John Lewis Gaddis proposes a unique vision of the Cold War and its impact on the world and relations between the USSR and America.
The cold war was the conflict between communist nations led by the Soviet Union, and capitalist nations led by America.
There are people who suppose that foreign policy of the United States before and during the Cold War were two plans of actions that could be called almost independent.
The cold war was a 44 year tense and hostile period that pitted the United States of America against the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
This paper discusses why the Cold War developed first in Europe, how it defined Europe’s development, and how European leaders responded to the key challenges.
The matters of the cold war have been regarded by historians from both sides of the ocean for the years, and everyone accuses the opposite side of starting the cold war.
The challenges of the Cold War historical period, which affected the everyday life of Americans, included the panic related to atomic weapons, and the methods for testing loyalty.
Vietnam War was a cold war era military conflict which had started in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia from 1st November 1954 to 30th April 1975.
Reagan's accomplishments and legacy that was major achievement by Reagan’s won the Cold War. This interpretation holds a view about how Reagan won the Cold War.
The role that corporate America played on Hitler's Holocaust cut across corporate, academic and financial relations. This was evident in the 1920s and 1930s leading up to the Second World War.
Achievement from the US perspective was its unprecedented rise as an Empire, a situation discernible especially after the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989.
The Cold War was the defining conflict after the end of World War Two. It had a tremendous effect on almost every part of western and eastern societies, from culture to technology.
The basic characteristic of the international system during the Cold War era is its duo-polarity nature characterized by the ideological war of the two most powerful nations.
The Cold War, a result of the development of nuclear weapons and the confrontation between two massive world powers, had many consequences that affected the entire world.
In the 1950s, the interest of superpowers in Africa was mainly determined by obtaining information about the plans and intentions of rival countries.
The cold war is said to have began around 1947 when President Truman of the United States affirmed his policy against communism thereby provoking a cold war.