Essay on Organizational Development | Management
Read this essay to learn about organisational development. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Meaning of Organisation Development 2. Objectives of Organisational Development Efforts 3. Strategies 4. Effectiveness 5. Promise.
List of Essays on Organisational Development
- Essay on the Promise of Organisational Development
1. Essay on the Meaning of Organisation Development:
Managing change in individuals and organisations is a continuous process. If this is done, a good organisational climate can be maintained. Some organisations may make a thorough analysis of organisational problems and then implement a long-range programme based on it. Such an approach goes by the name Organisational Development.
Although organisational change and development are related, organisational developmental activities are principally directed at improving the process or interpersonal side of organisational life. In fact, several organisations seek to cope with changes by developing innovative ways not only to deal with change but also to promote it.
One such innovative method is organisational development. It shows great promise for helping organisations go through a process of change, renewal, and revitalisation.
Organisational development is a broad term referring to all the activities engaged in by managers, employees and helpers which are directed toward building and maintaining the health of the organisation as a total system. It is a comprehensive long-term plan, rather than one undertaken by an individual manager.
Organisational development is concerned with changing attitudes, perceptive, behaviour and expectations.
To be more specific, organisational development can be defined as “an effort planned, organisation-wide, and managed from the top, to increase organisation effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organisation’s ‘process’, using behavioural science knowledge”.
This means that any attempt to use organisational development in an organisation needs to be systematic, must be supported by top management and should be broad in its application.
The theory and practice of organisational development are based on some very important assumptions:
(1) Firstly, employees must have a desire to grow and develop;
(2) Secondly, they must have a strong need to be accepted by other group members;
(3) And, the total organisation and the way it is designed will influence the way individuals and groups within the organisation behave;
(4) Moreover, some form of collaboration between managers and employees is necessary to take advantage of the skills and abilities of the employees and eliminate aspects of the organisation that retard employee growth, development and group acceptance.
2. Essay on the Objectives of Organisational Development Efforts :
According to Gene E. Burton, the “primary purpose of organisational development is to bring about a system of organisational renewal that can effectively cope with environmental changes.In doing so organisational development strives to maximise organisational effectiveness as well as individual work satisfaction.”
The other objectives of organisational development are the following:
1. To increase the level of trust and support among the people in an organisation.
2. To create an environment in which the authority of an assigned role is enhanced by personal authority based on expertise and knowledge.
3. To increase the level of permanent and group-responsibility in planning and implementation.
4. To increase the openness of communication among the members of the organisation.
5. To search out or identify synergistic solutions to problems with greater frequency.
3. Essay on the Organisational Development Strategies :
Organisational development is perhaps the most comprehensive strategy for managers. It involves all the activities and levels of management in ongoing programmes that respond to internal and external forces. The organisational development process can be pictured as a cyclical process as in Fig.15.7.
Organisational development strategies consist of various tools, devices, and methods for introducing changes. W.L. French and C.H. Bell, Jr., have identified 12 kinds of interventions or activities that are performed in the service of organisational development. These are listed in Table 15.4.
1. Diagnostic Activities:
As in medical profession, diagnostic organisational development activities analyse the current conditions of an organisation. Diagnostic techniques include various methods such as questionnaires, opinion or attitude surveys, interview, archival data and meetings. The diagnosis is likely to generate profiles of the organisation’s operating procedures and growth patterns, which can be used to identify problem areas — i.e., areas which need correction.
2. Team Building:
Team-building activities seek to enhance the effectiveness and satisfaction of individuals who work in groups, or teams. Project teams in a matrix organisation seem to be suitable candidates for such activities. And organisational development commitment might interview team members to determine their feeling about the group on the basis of which an off-site meeting could be held to discuss the issues that surfaced and to iron out any problem areas or member concerns.
3. Survey Feedback:
In survey feedback, each employee responds to a questionnaire intended to measure perceptions and attitudes (for example, satisfaction and supervisory style). The results of such survey are feedback to anyone involved, including the supervisor. Workshops are then conducted to evaluate results and suggest constructive changes.
In the context of organisational development, educational activities typically focuses on ‘sensitivity skills’. That is, it teaches employees to be considerate and understand their peers and subordinates better.
5. Intergroup Activities:
The focus of such activities is improving the relationships between two or more groups. As a general rule, as group interdependence increases, so do co-ordination difficulties. Intergroup organisational development activities are designed to promote cooperation or resolve conflict that may have arisen as a result of interdependence.
6. Third-Party Peacemaking:
Third-party peacemaking may proceed on the individual, group or organisational level. In this context, the third party is usually an organisational development consultant. He uses various mediation or negotiation techniques to resolve any problems or conflicts between individuals or groups.
7. Techno-Structural Activities:
Such activities are concerned with the design of the organisation and its technology. Examples of techno-structural organisational development activities are a structural change (such as an increase in decentralisation), a job design change (such as an increase in the use of automation), and a technological change (such as a change in work). The common objective of such activities is to improve group and interpersonal relationships within the organisation.
8. Process Consultation:
In process consultation an organisational development consultant observes groups in the organisation to develop an understanding of their communication pattern, decision-making and leadership process and methods of cooperation and conflict resolution. The consultant then provides feedback to the involved parties about the processes he(she) has observed.
9. Life and Career Planning:
This technique helps employees formulate their personal goals and evaluate strategies for properly integrating these goals with those of the organisation. Such activities could include specification of training needs, plotting a career map and similar life and career-related ideas.
10. Coaching and Counselling:
This technique provides non-evaluate feedback to individuals. The objective is to help people develop a better sense of how others see them and to help people learn behaviours that are likely to assist othersin achieving their work-related goals.
11. Planning and Goal Setting:
This technique helps individuals and groups integrate themselves better into the overall planning process. This technique is more pragmatic than others.
12. Grid Organisatio nal Development:
The grid approach to organisational development is based on the Managerial Grid.
It may be recalled that the Managerial Grid provides a means for evaluating leadership styles and then training managers to move toward an idea style of behaviour.
Two important points may be noted in this context. Prima facie, receptiveness of organisational members is crucial to the success of organisational development efforts. Secondly, consent of the governed is required before any implementation of strategies. Usually a long time is required to pave the way for changes as well as to implement them.
4. Essay on the Effectiveness of Organisational Development :
Since organisational development is an on-going, long-term effort to introduce permanent — as opposed to transitory — changes and to reshape an organisation’s technology, structure and people, its successful implementation depends on huge investments of money and time.
Both are equally vital to accurately diagnose problems, select strategies and evaluate the effectiveness of the organisational development programme. Given the diversity of activities encompassed by organisational development, manufacturers report mixed results from various organisational development interventions.
Some companies have trained many individuals in organisational development processes and techniques. These trained experts have subsequently become internal organisational development consultants to assist other managers in applying the techniques. By contrast, many other organisations report that they have tried organisational development but then discarded it.
Results of the organisational development evaluation do provide the necessary feedback to redirect and improve programmes, strategies and change agents. In the ultimate analysis, the effectiveness of organisational development, like any other managerial effort, depends on the quality of its expected outcomes.
It has to be based on solid research, clear goals, appropriate methods and effective change agents. Most organisations employ outside consultants as change agents because they are supposed to bring unique and specialized skills and knowledge to their tasks. Moreover, these people are objective in their approaches and may be better equipped to sell their ideas, approaches and management’s goals.
However, organisational development is not a panacea that is likely to solve all organisational problems. It requires top management support. It has worked well in organisations where the work environment favours a participative, problem-solving approach to achieve effective results.
Although organisational development appears to be so promising, very few groups and organisations are practising it at present. There are various reasons for this. Firstly, managers have started learning within the organisations. Secondly organisational development is a complex process and requires a large organisation for its success. Thirdly, it has not always been successful even in large organisations.
Empirical research has shown that efforts to introduce a change succeed in the following areas:
1. Profit-seeking organisations.
2. Task environments that are stable in the long run and unstable in the short run.
3. When the parties involved voluntarily collaborate in the endeavour.
4. When the change agent has a participative orientation.
5. If the solution is focused on a mix of organisational relationships.
6. If change efforts are directed at the total organisation.
7. If change efforts employ standardised strategies that involve high levels of participation.
5. Essay on the Promise of Organisational Development:
Organisational development is an outward expression of management’s effort to say flexible. It recognises that events inside and outside the organisation can happen quite suddenly and create pressures for change. Organisational development provides the personnel and mechanisms to deal with those changes and to control the evolution of change and its impact on the organisational structure, technology and people.
However, the ultimate promise of organisational development is that, when successfully applied, organisational development efforts enable the organisation to remove obstacles to individual and organisational development and renewal.
What about the future? The speculation is that organisational development will remain an important part of management theory and practice. Of course, there are no “sure things” when dealing with social systems such as organisations, and the effectiveness of many organisational development techniques is difficult to evaluate.
Since all organisations are open systems interacting with their complex external environments, an improvement in an organisation may be attributable to an organisational development intervention — but it may also be attributable to changes in economic conditions, luck or other factors.
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The Importance of Organizational Development
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Introduction, enhancing adaptability and resilience, fostering employee engagement, driving innovation and creativity, improving organizational efficiency.
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Essay On Organizational Development
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Topic: Sociology , Leadership , Organization , Workplace , Theory , Human Resource Management , Employee , Development
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An organization is a social entity with different people that managed and structured to meet an objective or aim at a particular goal. All organizations have different administrative structures that give different roles to different departments within the organization. It has the duty to assign roles, subdivide responsibility to the members and authority to undertake various tasks. Organization are termed as open system, they are affected and affect by the environment in which it operates (Argyris and Schon, 1978). Organizational development can be as improving a business performance and the development of individual staff members. Each organization can be looked at as logical system comprising of different parts or departments. Organizational growth as a process consist of methodologies and planning, leadership design, diversity, organizational design, coaching and balance between life and work. The main reason of having organization development is to deal with recurrent needs of any successful organization; it involves a centralized co-relation of internal and external experts at hand to find out the process through which a business can use to be become much more attractive to stakeholders. Organizational development is continuous process that a company has to undergo with time. It is always done through help by catalysts or agents and the use of legal appropriate theories and methods from anthropology, applied behavioral science, phenomenology and sociology. Most notably, the change is brought by the leader who is deeply involved in the leadership – an effective process or a transformative leader as opposed to incremental and management based (Rother and Mike, 2009). While people believe that the techniques and concepts of organization development has become part of any manager because it provides them with the knowledge of marketing, accounting and finance. It is predicted that the management with its departmental heads will develop a boundaries within the organizations development. Organizational development gives a set of management theories that are available to members of the workplace to who feel like they need to improve on the organizational goal achievement. It is advised on what organizational development is and how it can be used to develop an organization.
With organization development there are various intervention and techniques that are planned and put into practice so that they could facilitate or assist in the implementation of certain programmed and result oriented change in the composition, human resources and the various processes within the organization (Argyris and Schon, 2008). The organizational development is systematic plan, as it needs diagnosis, mobilization of resources (which could be technical, financial or human), program development in the entire organization or in the departments within the organization. According Carter and Louis (2004) organizational development is the approach that applies effort to improve different activities in a business. It involves strategy analysis, culture and structure of the organization; it analyzes both formal and informal departments of the organization. According to Frederick Taylor's theory of motivation, it explains that most staff members are motivated exclusively by the way they are paid and their working capability is therefore work in equivalent to what they are paid. He postulated that staff members or employees are not satisfied with the kind of work they do and only perform better in that particular job when given a direct motivation or reward such as monetary payment. Henry Ford adopted some ideas of Taylor's theory of scientific management and paid their workers considering the production made in a period. The main reason of having organization motivation is to deal with recurrent needs of any successful organization; it involves a centralized co-relation of internal and external experts at hand to find out the process through which a business can use to be become much more attractive to stakeholders. Organizational development is a continuous process that a company has to undergo with time. It is always done through external support by catalysts or agents and the use of legal appropriate theories and methods from anthropology, applied behavioral science, phenomenology and sociology. Most notably, the change is brought by the leader who is deeply involved in the leadership an effective process or a transformative leader as opposed to incremental and management based (Rother, 2009).
According to Marx Weber's theory of bureaucracy, he held that psychological forces can drive human beings to act in a certain way. Their theory proposes a graduated scale of human needs ranging from basic requirements, to physical needs such as thirst and hunger to high expectations such as the need for self-fulfillment and the want to feel loved. They greatly believed employers would get greater outcome from their employees if they acknowledged the different individual needs of the employees and give out rewards in accordance to the individuals needs. The theory that applies in this social issue is based on Marxist social theory, which advocates for a better societal order. The theory argues that individuals or groups of people or a social class in the society have different capabilities and material and non-material resources. Some group takes advantage of others by not allowing them to be at certain positions. This process gives the staff members chance to do the decision making of the organization by use of informal and formal means. This could be done by having formal meeting with the staff members to have discos on the decision that have impact on the employees’ lives. The main idea behind participative management is to improve staff members working conditions (Carter, 2004). If employees can be motivated and presented with opportunities to be involved in the in the company’s decision making then their individual performance would rise or improve. This will also push the performance of the company to move high hence leading to increased profits accompanied by workers boost in morale. The theory established that the social needs of the employers should be the center of focus by an organization. Mayo believed that by just paying the workers is not a complete way to motivating the staff members in a company. He says that the social needs of employees ought to be put into consideration if an organization has to perform well. He recommended that employers should show their employees that they care about their about their social needs and they should also demonstrate interest in every workers abilities to have them perform at their best.
Argyris, C. and Schon, D. (2008), Organizational Learning: A theory of action perspective, Reading MA: Addison-Wesley Louis L. (2004), Best Practices in Leadership Development and Organization Change, Jossey Bass, ISBN 0-7879-7625-3 Carter, L. (2004), Best Practices in Leadership Development and Organization Change, Jossey Bass, ISBN 0-7879-7625-3 Rother, M. (2009). Organization development: strategies and models. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. p. 114. ISBN 0-87620-540-6. OCLC 39328. Verma, V. (2007). Managing the Project Team. Upper Darby, PA: Project Management Institute Shukul, M. (2013). A Compendium of Research in Home Management. Authors Press.
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Organization Development and Its Future
OD (Organization Development) is mainly the practice and theory of planned, methodical change in the values, beliefs, and attitudes of the employees through creating and reinforcing long-term training programs. It is paramount to note that OD is action-oriented and it begins with a thorough organization-wide investigation of the current situation as well as future requirements. OD mainly employs various behavioral sciences techniques such as transactional analysis, sensitivity training, and behavior modeling. The fundamental objective of OD is to enable an organization adopt better to fast-changing external environments of new technologies, regulations, and markets (Foster, 2014).
In addition, Organizational development is a field of theory, practice, and research devoted to knowledge development. As well, OD is also dedicated to the efficiency of employees or people to achieve a more flourishing performance and change in an organization. OD is also a process of evaluation, action planning, and continuous diagnosis. Its major objective of transferring skills and knowledge to organizations so that they can effectively improve their capacity required for managing future change and solving problems (Foster, 2014).
The history of OD began in the 1950s when human relations studies were conducted. There were reputable psychologists who conducted these studies and they concluded that organizational processes and structures influenced the employee’s motivation and behavior. Currently, the growth of OD has its aim focused on efficiently bringing into line organizations in handling the complex and rapidly changing environment. In order to achieve this, organizational values and norms transformation, organizational learning, and knowledge management has to be aligned effectively. There are various key concepts in OD, and they include the organizational climate, organizational culture, and organizational strategies (Foster, 2014).
OD has been able to change effectively the perception of how people think regarding an organization’s work effectively. OD has continued to change rapidly due to the technological changes, which has ensured that practitioners and leaders are abreast with these changes in achieving organizational success. OD consists of a valuable heritage, which will continue to assist organizations to tackle their challenges. In addition, there will be innovation of new tools and ideas that will enable organizations to handle effectively tougher challenges in organizational and change dynamics particularly in this diverse, complex world. This is the paramount reason OD should be strengthened so that it can maintain its fundamental core values effectively through the establishment of innovative solutions (Foster, 2014).
The future of Organization development is dependent on two main aspects and they include E-change and O-change. The two aspects must go hand-in-hand because OD is an equal and strong supporter of E-change. On the other hand, there are five approaches, which can be utilized in leading a successful organizational change. These five approaches include education, participation and involvement, facilitation and support, negotiation, and straight talk. However, for these approaches to be effective, leaders should not resist resistance. Since they lead a successful organizational change and this change should start with the leader changing first so that the other employees can follow (O’Brien, 2008).
In conclusion, OD is indeed the game-changer in predicting the future of many organizations, and it should be able to overcome leadership, strategy, and competency barriers. OD will always continue to be an integral aspect to the HR professionals so that they can be able to support their organizations in the current turbulent, competitive, and rapidly changing world effectively. OD major focus is to assist in building healthy organizations, which contribute, to the society (Foster, 2014).
Foster, C. (2014). Organization Development. Web.
O’Brien, M. J. (2008). 5 approaches to leading successful organizational change. Leadership and Management. Healthcare Financial Management.
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Organizational Development Consultants in Business Essay
Organizational Development (OD) Specialists help businesses improve their operations and profits by providing advice and assistance. As an OD consultant, an individual can play a range of positions and styles. OD specialists should be able to deliver good results to a company. They are highly qualified and can have a significant effect on a business. They also provide the resources needed to facilitate change in organizations, despite having little control over them. The words specialist and consultant are used with the same meaning in OD (Bierema, 2020). Organizational development seeks to enhance the efficiency of the company; therefore, an OD specialist’s main duty lies in strengthening the relations with and between people and firms in order to achieve the objective. This paper will address the relevance of the problem, specific conditions for OD consulting, and an acceptable solution to the institution’s problem.
Validity of the Problem
Initial assessment of the issue.
The first move for management should be to get a broad picture of the situation to pinpoint the real issue. Top management should consult advisors and experts to determine the type of the system that is needed (Chesson, 2018). Consultants may only meet and assess an organization’s personnel in the first stage to collect information. The consultant will work with people from various organizational levels at the initial assessment stage to obtain product information.
A specialist will conduct surveys at this level to assess the organization’s environment and the employees’ behavioral issues. Interview questions, questionnaires, and related documentation are the tools that consultants may use to gather data (Singh, 2020). The consultant works with different organizations outside of the workplace to determine the organizational environment and behavioral problems that the company is facing. Surveys are used to collect data, and interviews are conducted to develop it.
Data Feedback and Confrontation
The information collected in the second phase will be circulated to work teams, who will be responsible for updating it. Any conflict areas will be resolved solely among themselves, and goals for a reform will be identified (Bierema, 2014). The data is then shared with the relevant workgroups, which are later asked to review the information. They examine the data, find the problem areas, resolve them, make a decision, and then offer reform recommendations.
Developing a Change Strategy
At this point, the consultant will recommend a change strategy. The professional tries to turn the assessment of the issue into a proper action plan with the overall aims for success, which is the basic method for achieving certain aims and the systematic strategy. The group deals with the problems of the company and prepares comprehensive plans to determine who is responsible for the crisis and how they work and when.
During an OD cycle, the machine interferes with the programmed, featured system. The main objective of OD is to strengthen the structure through these scheduled events (Bierema, 2014). External consultants may be involved in design, including preparation, process management, and team building activities. The creation of a natural partnership, including managing director and subordinates, allows for the development of bigger groups consisting of many teams. In this manner, the whole organization would be included in the process.
In the process of team building, the consultant helps the groups to focus on how they communicate with one another. Group meetings take place during the planning process and the advisor encourages members to choose how to operate together: as a community or as a team (Singh, 2020). The consultant assists them in realizing the importance of clear communication and gaining their confidence. The OD specialist should notify them about the importance of open communication and faith in group dynamics.
Since OD is a long process, it necessitates close monitoring in order to obtain accurate input about what happens after the program starts. This will make it easier to perform appropriate changes as needed. Critique sessions, evaluation of progress efforts, and comparison of pre and post-training behavioral trends are also successful ways to test an OD system (Bierema, 2014). As a result, the abovementioned social mechanism and the measures addressed do not apply to all organizations.
Specific Criteria for OD Consulting
Consultants should be able to build and maintain successful relationships with people and groups in the organization and assist them in developing the skills they need to solve existing issues. The foundation expertise is considered to be team dynamics, comparative cultural experiences, and market functions, managing the consultation process and cooperation as core skills (Singh, 2020). Successful partnerships are affected by both team dynamics and comparative cultural experiences.
General Consulting Skills
OD begins by diagnosing an agency or department to explain how it is currently operating and identify the areas for improvement. At an early stage, OD practitioners should be able to make a precise diagnosis. People should understand how to include employees in the organization in the review, as well as help them think critically and gather data (Chesson, 2018). The director should be familiar with basic diagnostic inquiries and techniques for gathering information, such as questionnaires and surveys, and evaluation techniques, such as force field analysis or qualitative means.
Organizational Growth Theory
A general understanding of organizational development is the final fundamental method that OD practitioners can possess. They should be aware of the numerous interventions available and the value of reviewing and institutionalizing transformation initiatives (Kuna & Nadiv, 2018). Most notably, OD practitioners should be aware of their functions as an OD consultant, director or specialist business consultant in the developing area of organizational advances.
Response to the Organization Regarding Their Issue
Accommodating involves people putting their own needs aside to appease others and maintain harmony. Smoothing or improvising can lead to a false solution to an issue and a range of emotions in the individual, from anger to enjoyment (Chesson, 2018). Accommodators are quiet and friendly, and they may serve as a martyr, troublemaker, or saboteur. On the other hand, accommodation may be helpful when one is mistaken or when a person needs to reduce losses to maintain relationships.
Rather than confronting a dispute, avoiders choose to disregard or withdraw. Avoiders tend to be unconcerned with their own or others’ problems. People who escape a disability expect to leave, to repair themselves without interfering, or to take responsibility for someone else. On the other hand, avoidance may be dangerous if another individual thinks the person is not interested in communicating.
Collaboration leads to innovative ideas that address all of the parties’ issues and requirements. Collaborators identify underlying questions, evaluate theories, and obtain a deeper understanding of others’ viewpoints (Bierema, 2014). Collaboration takes time and if the connections of the parties are not important, time and effort cannot be worth the effort to find an effective solution. Collaboration, on the other hand, fosters value, confidence, and partnerships.
In conclusion, I discovered no direction or way to inform customers on various matters by contrasting these types and functions of an organizational leadership consultant. In seeking a consultant, the company should first decide if the specialist needs to be external or internal. Being an OD consultant necessitates mastery of consulting skills as well as ongoing education. There should always be a degree of contact between a specialist and a customer to choose an appropriate approach.
Bierema, L. L. (2014). Organization development: An action research approach . Bridgepoint Education.
Chesson, D. (2018). Meeting 21st century organizational challenges with design thinking. Organization Development Journal, 36 (3), 73-82.
Kuna, S., & Nadiv, R. (2018). Divided we stand? Occupational boundary work among human resource managers and external organization development practitioners. Employee Relations , 40 (5), 848–867. Web.
Singh, R. (2020). The ODC Practitioner. Leading Organizational Development and Change , 123–141. Web.
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"Organizational Development Consultants in Business." IvyPanda , 7 Dec. 2022, ivypanda.com/essays/organizational-development-consultants-in-business/.
IvyPanda . (2022) 'Organizational Development Consultants in Business'. 7 December.
IvyPanda . 2022. "Organizational Development Consultants in Business." December 7, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/organizational-development-consultants-in-business/.
1. IvyPanda . "Organizational Development Consultants in Business." December 7, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/organizational-development-consultants-in-business/.
IvyPanda . "Organizational Development Consultants in Business." December 7, 2022. https://ivypanda.com/essays/organizational-development-consultants-in-business/.
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