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124 Mesopotamia Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

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Mesopotamia, often referred to as the cradle of civilization, was an ancient region located in the Middle East that is known for its advancements in areas such as agriculture, writing, and mathematics. With such a rich history, there are countless essay topics that can be explored to delve deeper into the culture, society, and achievements of the Mesopotamian people. Here are 124 Mesopotamia essay topic ideas and examples to help inspire your next research paper or academic project:

  • The significance of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamian civilization
  • The invention of writing in Mesopotamia and its impact on the world
  • The role of religion in Mesopotamian society
  • The development of agriculture in Mesopotamia
  • The rise of city-states in Mesopotamia
  • The Code of Hammurabi and its influence on modern legal systems
  • The role of women in Mesopotamian society
  • The invention of the wheel in Mesopotamia
  • The construction of ziggurats in Mesopotamia
  • The Mesopotamian view of the afterlife
  • The development of cuneiform writing in Mesopotamia
  • The role of trade in Mesopotamian society
  • The Mesopotamian system of education
  • The development of mathematics in Mesopotamia
  • The influence of Mesopotamian art on later civilizations
  • The Mesopotamian concept of kingship
  • The role of priests and temples in Mesopotamian society
  • The development of astronomy in Mesopotamia
  • The Mesopotamian system of weights and measures
  • The Mesopotamian system of government
  • The Mesopotamian system of taxation
  • The development of irrigation systems in Mesopotamia
  • The role of warfare in Mesopotamian society
  • The Mesopotamian concept of beauty
  • The Mesopotamian system of medicine
  • The Mesopotamian system of music
  • The development of metalworking in Mesopotamia
  • The Mesopotamian system of slavery
  • The Mesopotamian system of marriage and family
  • The Mesopotamian system of trade and commerce
  • The Mesopotamian system of diplomacy
  • The Mesopotamian system of agriculture
  • The Mesopotamian system of animal husbandry
  • The Mesopotamian system of construction
  • The Mesopotamian system of transportation
  • The Mesopotamian system of communication
  • The Mesopotamian system of religion
  • The Mesopotamian system of art
  • The Mesopotamian system of dance
  • The Mesopotamian system of theater
  • The Mesopotamian system of literature
  • The Mesopotamian system of philosophy
  • The Mesopotamian system of science
  • The Mesopotamian system of technology
  • The Mesopotamian system of architecture
  • The Mesopotamian system of engineering
  • The Mesopotamian system of mathematics
  • The Mesopotamian system of astronomy
  • The Mesopotamian system of psychology
  • The Mesopotamian system of sociology
  • The Mesopotamian system of anthropology
  • The Mesopotamian system of history
  • The Mesopotamian system of geography
  • The Mesopotamian system of economics
  • The Mesopotamian system of politics
  • The Mesopotamian system of law
  • The Mesopotamian system of ethics
  • The Mesopotamian system of aesthetics
  • The Mesopotamian system of logic
  • The Mesopotamian system of metaphysics
  • The Mesopotamian system of epistemology
  • The Mesopotamian system of theology
  • The Mesopotamian system of mythology
  • The Mesopotamian system of folklore
  • The Mesopotamian system of legends
  • The Mesopotamian system of myths
  • The Mesopotamian system of rituals
  • The Mesopotamian system of ceremonies
  • The Mesopotamian system of festivals
  • The Mesopotamian system of holidays
  • The Mesopotamian system of customs
  • The Mesopotamian system of traditions
  • The Mesopotamian system of beliefs
  • The Mesopotamian system of values
  • The Mesopotamian system of norms
  • The Mesopotamian system of mores
  • The Mesopotamian system of taboos
  • The Mesopotamian system of superstitions
  • The Mesopotamian system of omens
  • The Mesopotamian system of prophecies
  • The Mesopotamian system of divination
  • The Mesopotamian system of magic
  • The Mesopotamian system of sorcery
  • The Mesopotamian system of witchcraft
  • The Mesopotamian system of demonology
  • The Mesopotamian system of angelology
  • The Mesopotamian system of cosmology
  • The Mesopotamian system of eschatology
  • The Mesopotamian system of creation
  • The Mesopotamian system of destruction
  • The Mesopotamian system of salvation
  • The Mesopotamian system of damnation
  • The Mesopotamian system of afterlife
  • The Mesopotamian system of reincarnation
  • The Mesopotamian system of resurrection
  • The Mesopotamian system of judgment
  • The Mesopotamian system of punishment
  • The Mesopotamian system of reward
  • The Mesopotamian system of redemption
  • The Mesopotamian system of forgiveness
  • The Mesopotamian system of mercy
  • The Mesopotamian system of justice
  • The Mesopotamian system of fairness
  • The Mesopotamian system of equality
  • The Mesopotamian system of freedom
  • The Mesopotamian system of democracy
  • The Mesopotamian system of monarchy
  • The Mesopotamian system of aristocracy
  • The Mesopotamian system of oligarchy
  • The Mesopotamian system of theocracy
  • The Mesopotamian system of dictatorship
  • The Mesopotamian system of totalitarianism
  • The Mesopotamian system of anarchy
  • The Mesopotamian system of chaos
  • The Mesopotamian system of order
  • The Mesopotamian system of lawlessness
  • The Mesopotamian system of crime
  • The Mesopotamian system of rehabilitation
  • The Mesopotamian system of recidivism

These essay topic ideas and examples are just a starting point for exploring the fascinating world of Mesopotamia. Whether you are interested in history, archaeology, anthropology, or any other related field, there is no shortage of topics to choose from when it comes to studying this ancient civilization. So, pick a topic that interests you and start researching to uncover the secrets of Mesopotamia.

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Mesopotamian Civilization Essay


The word Mesopotamia is derived from an ancient Greek work, which translates to “(land) between rivers.” The earliest known usage of the term has been recorded to be in the second century when it was used to refer to the land that sits on the east of the Euphrates River in Syria.

This was coined by Anabasis Alexandri. It was not until much later when the name Mesopotamia was used to refer to the whole region that lies between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. Mesopotamia lay in what is today known as Syria, Iraq, and Turkey.

The region can be further divided into two regions. The Northern Mesopotamia is also referred to as Jezirah and is the land that lies between the two rivers from their sources down to Baghdad (Heine and Nissen 45).

The history of the region can be traced to the rise of urban societies throughout the Ubaid period, which occurred around 5300BC. Mesopotamia can also be found in the history of the Ancient Near East beginning in the lower Paleolithic period.

The Ancient Near East is suspected to have collapsed after the arrival of the Achaemenid Empire. This was during the late 6 th century and some researchers say it happened during the Conquest of Mesopotamia by the Arabs. Some of the world’s most advanced states in the ancients times can be found in the Mesopotamian region.

Mesopotamia is famous for being one of the regions where writing was invented and advanced. The other places include the Nile valley and the Yellow River Valley. The greatest cities that were ever built in Mesopotamia include Nippur, Uruk and Babylon.

The other states that lay on the outskirts and territory of Mesopotamia include Ma-aesesblu. Several dynasties were formed in Mesopotamia and included Ur Kingdom, Akkadian Dynasty and the Assyrian Empire. Mesopotamia also saw great leaders emerge from the cities and states.

They included Hammurabi, Sargon and Ashur-Uballit II who was instrumental in setting up the Assyrian Empire (Fiero 110). The history of this great land can be traced through looking at the history of different people who occupied it who included the Sumerians, the Akkadians, the Amorites, the Hitites, the Kassites, the Assyrians, and the Chaldeans (Kramer 75).

The Sumerian: They reigned from 3500-1800 B.C.

The Sumerians are among the first and earliest civilization in Mesopotamia and are suspected to have built the civilization around 3000 BC when they began building large city-states. Besides running the cities, the natives were involved in conquering and controlling the large areas around them.

Some of these city-states included Ur, Lagash, and Eridu. The Sumerians were a warring people and fought among themselves and with other people for control of watering holes. The wars led to people building large city-states which were used later to conquer the smaller ones.

When the Sumerians went to war with the Akkadians they eventually lost control of their city-states, which were now being controlled by the Akkadian empire from, Akkad, a city that would later become Babylon. In 2125, the Sumerians residing in the city of Ur fought the Akkadians and took control of the city-states in the southern Mesopotamia region (Kramer 98).

One the greatest thing from this period is the invention of writing. The early writing was done through use of pictograms and rough sketches of the words they were supposed to represent. They used to do their writing on wet clay using reeds as the writing instrument and this was effective in storage of information.

The Sumerians also invented some of the earliest application of mathematics including abstract mathematics. They are also accredited for being the inventors of astrology, where they tried to learn about the heaven as they sought answers regarding their gods.

The most important creation from the Sumerian is considered to the law. Although not much is known about the Sumerian law scholars are for the opinion that the Code of Hammurabi, which was written by the Babylonian monarch, gives us a peek into how the Sumerian law was like.

The Hammurabi code as used in the law exacts that revenge should be used when solving of cases. This is also known as the lex talionis law that governs that that you should reciprocate therefore, an eye for an eye.

The law also recognized class distinction and people were judged according to the class they came from. The laws set marked a basis for many of the following Semitic conquerors including the Babylonians and the Assyrians.

The Akkadians: they reigned from 2340-2125 B.C.

The history of the Akkadians before they conquered the Sumerians is not well known though they are known to have migrated to the North. In the year 2340, the Akkadian built their empire under the leadership of Sargon. The capital city they built, Akkad, was later renamed to Babylon by those who conquered it later.

The city was used as a commercial hub in the Mediterranean region and was used for close to 200 years for this purpose. The Akkadian empire under the leadership of Sargon was short lived because in 2125, the Sumerians in the city of Ur revolted against his rule and set pace for the renewal of other Sumerian cities (Heine and Nissen 89).

The Amorites reigned from 1800 to1530 B.C.

When the Sumeriam kingdom fell, Mesopotamia witnessed many battles that lasted for almost a century until the Amorites grouped and formed a Kingdom that had a centralized form of government. They based the capital of the government in the city of Babylon and this gives the Amorites the name Old Babylonians (Heine and Nissen 110).

The Amorite dynasty lasted from 1900 to 1600 BC and it is referred to as the Old Babylonian period. In this period, the Old Babylonians believed that the monarch was a god and his word was the law. The all-powerful monarch devised new ways of administering the states and the resources.

He introduced taxation and involuntary military service. The greatest achievement made by the Amorites was centralization, unlike the Sumerian empire that had many autonomous and independent city-states the Old Babylonian was ruled from Babylon and consisted of several cities.

To achieve control and dominance of these cities the monarch took away the power and autonomy of most of them. The Amorites also adopted the code of Hammurabi and most of the crimes in the empire were punishable by death. The Amorites believed in many gods and took Marduk as the most powerful of all the gods (Somervill 156).

The Hitites: they reigned from 1600 to 717 B.C.

The Hitites are not known from where they came from but their empire was spread out across Mesopotamia to Palestine and Syria. The invasion of the Hitites marked the end of the Amorite dynasty and like those before them; they adopted the ways and culture of the natives thus continuing the heritage and tradition of the Sumerians.

The empire is cited to have been greatest between 1600 and 1200 BC and even during the invasion of by the Assyrians in 1300 BC, most of the Hitites cities grew independently until 717 BC when they were finally occupied by the Assyrians and other enemies.

The Hitites were traders and are responsible for spreading Mesopotamian law thought, political structure etc to the rest of the Mediterranean (Somervill 162).

The Kassites: 1530-1170 B.C.

The Hitites were among the most successful Indo-European invaders to conquer Mesopotamia, but their rule did not last long. When the Kassites conquered and controlled Mesopotamia, they renamed the Babylon city to Karanduniash.

They set the capital city of their empire in a new city they built known as Dorkurigalzu. During the reign of the empire, the Mesopotamia region witnessed many wars and this attributed to the short life of the Kassites Empire. The Kassites are referred to as barbarians and savages by the Assyrians who would later conquer them (Somervill 82).

The Assyrians: Their Reign was from 1170 to 612 B.C.

The Assyrians are depicted in most of the history of Mesopotamia as being ruled rather than ruling. They tried to create their own empire under the rule of Shamshi-Adad though this was short lived after the dream was crashed by Hammurabi. Control of the Assyrian cities over the centuries changed hands from the Assyrians and the southern people.

The various times the region was under the rule of the Assyrians includes 1235-1198 BC under Tukulti-Ninurta, 116-1090 BC under Tiglat-Pileser, 883-824 under Ashurnarziparl II and Shalmeneser III who spread the reach of the kingdom to Syria and Babylon.

It is also during the reign of this dynasty that saw the Jewish diaspora when Sargon II (721-705 BC), deported the Jews after conquering Israel. The Assyrian empire was built through wars, invasions, and conquests. The empire is accredited with innovation in the mathematics field. They were also the first to apply longitudes and latitude in geographical maps (Somervill 62).

The Chaldeans: Also Known As Neo Babylon from reigned from 612 to 539 BC

They are the last people who are Semites to rule Mesopotamia after the Assyrian Kingdom fell. After much suffering in the hands of the Assyrians Babylon revolted against them and they burnt down the capital city of the Assyrian empire Nineveh.

The leader of the Babylonians was Nabopolassar and was succeeded by Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 BC) who protected his empire from being conquered by the Egyptians and Syria. Under Nebuchadnezzar the capital city Babylon was rebuilt and upon its completion, it was the most splendid city in the Middle East.

The whole period the empire was under the Babylonian there were many wars and this resulted to the empire ending in 555 BC after the rule of the empire fell to a king who was loyal to the Assyrians.

He defiled Marduk the Babylonian god and this resulted to the priests welcoming the occupation of the region by Cyrus the Conqueror of Persia. This marked the end of the region dominance by the Semites (Heine and Nissen 120).

Works Cited

Fiero, Gloria. Landmarks in Humanities. Boston : McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009. Print.

Heine, Peter and Nissen, Hans. From Mesopotamia to Iraq: a concise history . The University of Chicago Press, 2009. Print.

Kramer, Samuel. The Sumerians: their history, culture, and character. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963. Print.

Somervill, Barbara. Empires of Ancient Mesopotamia: Great Empires of the Past . New York: Chelsea House, 2010. Print.

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IvyPanda. (2019, March 28). Mesopotamian Civilization. https://ivypanda.com/essays/mesopotamian-civilization/

"Mesopotamian Civilization." IvyPanda , 28 Mar. 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/mesopotamian-civilization/.

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IvyPanda . 2019. "Mesopotamian Civilization." March 28, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/mesopotamian-civilization/.

1. IvyPanda . "Mesopotamian Civilization." March 28, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/mesopotamian-civilization/.


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AP® World History

Mesopotamia: ap® world history crash course review.

  • The Albert Team
  • Last Updated On: March 1, 2022

Mesopotamia - AP® World History Crash Course Review

It’s always difficult to decide on what you are going to focus on when you are studying for your AP® World History Exam. How can you cover thousands of years of global history? It’s a good question, but that’s why we’ve created these AP® World History Crash Course reviews. And trust us, you are going to want to add Mesopotamia to your list of must-know AP® World History concepts .

Mesopotamia has also been called “the Cradle of Civilization,” hence you know you’re going to want to use this AP® World History review during your exam studying. It was a hugely influential place and time in world history. So, stick with this AP® World History review and we will take you through everything you need to know for your AP® World History Exam, covering not only the most important dates and events, but how the concept is most likely to pop up on the exam itself.

Mesopotamia, The Cradle of Civilization

Mesopotamia literally means “between two rivers” in Greek. That’s because the term itself references the ancient civilizations that arose in the regions between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers.

In modern day terms, we’re talking most of Iraq and parts of Iran Syria, and Turkey. And more specifically, it was bounded by the Zagros Mountains in the Northeast and the Arabian Plateau in the Southeast. But why take our word for it? Take a look at the map below for a much easier to understand depiction of the Mesopotamia region.


Map of Mesopotamia Image Source: Wikimedia Commons

You might also know the area as the “Fertile Crescent,” due to the fact that the river sediment and nutrients surrounding the area led to prime civilization territory. The land was primed and ready for food production, water was plentiful, and therefore there were also plenty of animals to both raise and eat.

Why is Mesopotamia Important?

Basically, the rich diversity of the Mesopotamic region allowed for human civilization to thrive. It helped to start the Neolithic and Agricultural Revolutions, which allowed for the development of culture, science, and religion, and helped to give rise of the most influential ancient empires.

There has been evidence of human activity in the region tracking all the way back to 10,000 BCE. These were the peoples who helped to domesticate animals, invented the wheel, planted the first cereal crops, studied the skies, and created written script.

In other words, this is a super important AP® World History Concept. Another reason this term is a must-know for the AP® World History exam is the fact that ancient Mesopotamians created the written word and therefore there is an ancient history to trace. They wrote about actual historical events, when other contemporaries were unable to.

The People of Mesopotamia

People have been present in the Mesopotamic region since the Stone Age and it has been the center of human activity for tens of thousands of years. When hunters and gatherers settled down to tend their crops, they began to create sophisticated tools and social structures as a way to survive, so objects like pottery and farm equipment were developed between 5,000 to 7,000 BCE.

Now, this AP® World History Crash course will get a little more interesting with the introduction of what have been called the Copper and Bronze Ages. This is where you get bigger and highly structured societies, because what does the development of copper and Bronze bring? Weapons.

The Sumerian Civilization was one of the first and most influential societies in all of world history, and therefore you need to know this AP® World History concept. By 3,000 BCE the Sumerian people were mathematically plotting the stars, writing, and working the land.

And the region only thrived from there. The Babylonians arrived on the scene around 2,000 BCE and remained a powerhouse for several thousands of years.

Probably the most significant influences on the region began to emerge around 1,000 BCE and would remain the central empire throughout the Roman Empire. These were the Assyrian and the Persian Civilizations.

It was the Babylonians, the Assyrians, and the Persians that emerged as the three biggest influences on the region, creating advanced and well-armed armies that maintained regional control, traded extensively with the ancient Greeks, Romans, Indians, and even as far east as the Pacific Coast of China.

Mesopotamia’s Contributions to World History

Mesopotamia’s history is so rich and its influences are so vast that it would take several book-length AP® World History reviews to properly cover every detail. But there are definitely some key developments and concepts that they contributed that you will need to know for your upcoming AP® World History exam.

For one, remember this was the “Cradle of Civilization.” This was where humans were born and raised basically. But it’s also the first real evidence of the city-state. Mesopotamian cities were infamous and rather unique with multi-storied buildings, markets, and rules that were enforced. A lot like cities today, right?

Also, their political rule typically revolved around the city. These city-states were relatively independent and operated as political hubs, a lot like ancient Greece. It would take large empires like that of the Assyrians to unify these diverse political cities.

Religiously speaking, this was a sunny, rich area. Since food required the sun to grow, religious deities often centered around one powerful god with other, less powerful ones controlling the natural and mystical worlds. Religion was so central that they created pyramids, or ziggurats, as centers of worship.

Lastly, you can’t really talk about Mesopotamia without mentioning technology and astronomy. Great thinkers hovered around these even greater cities, leading to sometimes odd discoveries. Bronze and copper production led to advances in military technology from spears to armor. But there were other inventions like the world’s first battery.

Thinking also led their eyes upwards. They were astoundingly brilliant astronomers. They were the first peoples to accurately trace the planets movements. They even theorized the rotation of the earth and moon to impressive detail. To this day, we are not entirely sure how they did all this.

Mesopotamia and the AP® US History Exam

So, this AP® World History Crash Course review on Mesopotamia has been a bit of a whirlwind, we know. But to be clear, this term needs to be on your list of must-know AP® World History concepts. Attack those textbooks, this website, and any other tool you can use to study for your AP® World History Exam.

What do you need to focus on then? Good question. Always keep in mind that Mesopotamia was the “Cradle of Civilization.” This is where human society began as we generally know it today. It was the birthplace of writing, the city-state, agricultural production, and the center for diverse technologies, religions, and societies.

Also, think about the role of nature and the environment here. Would it all have been possible if this was in a barren region? Probably not. How did the surrounding resources actually inform how human civilization developed.

And third, remember the emergence of empire. Powerful societies sprouted here. This meant extreme cultural exchange across a vast amount of space. But it also meant the development of culture and science, especially astronomy.

With that said, take a look at this example essay question from the AP® World History Course and Exam Guide (page 94):

Which of the following occurred as a result of the development of agriculture in societies that previously relied on hunting and gathering?

(A) Conditions for women improved. (B) The incidence of disease declined. (C) Population density increased. (D) Degradation of the environment lessened.

One thing that is nice about studying something as broad as Mesopotamia is that it covers a number of topics and time periods. So, by reading through this AP® World History review on Mesopotamia, you should know quite a bit about the Agricultural Revolution.

As we covered in this AP® World History Crash Course review, better access to nutrient rich land meant better ability to farm and better ability to farm resulted in the consolidation of peoples that led to the emergence of large cities and even empire in the region. In other words, the answer is C.

And now, take what you’ve learned from this AP® World History review and good luck getting that 5 on your upcoming AP® World History Exam!

Let’s put everything into practice. Try this AP® World History practice question:

Mesopotamia Pastoral Developments AP® World History Practice Question

Looking for more AP® World History practice?

Check out our other articles on  AP® World History .

You can also find thousands of practice questions on Albert.io. Albert.io lets you customize your learning experience to target practice where you need the most help. We’ll give you challenging practice questions to help you achieve mastery of AP® World History.

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World history

Course: world history   >   unit 1, ancient mesopotamia.

  • Ancient Mesopotamia and the Hebrew Bible

Ancient Mesopotamian civilizations

  • Mesopotamia
  • Mesopotamian civilizations formed on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is today Iraq and Kuwait.
  • Early civilizations began to form around the time of the Neolithic Revolution—12000 BCE.
  • Some of the major Mesopotamian civilizations include the Sumerian, Assyrian, Akkadian, and Babylonian civilizations.
  • Evidence shows extensive use of technology, literature, legal codes, philosophy, religion, and architecture in these societies.

Civilizations born along rivers

Akkadian empire, assyrian empire, what do you think.

  • Why did Mesopotamian rulers decide to build ziggurats if they required such massive amounts of human labor?
  • How did trade with faraway civilizations likely impact Mesopotamians’ views of the world?

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Great Answer


Mesopotamia is thought to be one of the places where early civilization developed. It is a historic region of West Asia within the Tigris-Euphrates river system. In fact, the word Mesopotamia means "between rivers" in Greek. Home to the ancient civilizations of Sumer, Assyria, and Babylonia these peoples are credited with influencing mathematics and astronomy. Use these classroom resources to help your students develop a better understanding of the cradle of civilization.

Anthropology, Archaeology

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In this project, I am going to investigate how the empire building process in the early Egyptian dynasties contributed to the world civilization process. Egypt is historically known to be one of the sources of early civilization process. The building of empires led to the development of architectural events that resulted in some of fascinating pyramids and works of art in history. This particular period saw numerous advancements in science, technology, and algebraic math that facilitated civilization through architectural development and emergence of education. Therefore, I will seek to answer questions such as:

How did empire building lead to civilization in the ancient Egypt?

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Religion was the basic unifying factor and source of unity between Mesopotamia and Egypt. The nature evidently explained the divine forces in work and every person in these two societies worked towards the goal of serving the gods. In Mesopotamia, the Sumerians had a sole believe that the laws guiding them descended from the gods to the ruling kings. These kings then administered the laws to the people with the core support of the priests. The priests then revealed the will of the gods to the kings and the people.

Free Essay About Hans Nissen Article Relation To Writing And Arithmetic In Ancient Mesopotamia

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What is meant by the term ‘Romanization’? Was military force the primary means of achieving the ‘pax Romana’?

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2) Introduction Looking back on the history of how communication was developed, it is unimaginable that the generations today reached the level of development in the language and scripts. From the cave paintings of the Homo sapiens to the pictograms in Mesopotamia that tells stories through pictures in a chronological manner and to the revolutionary alphabet that simplified and decreased symbols. This is a revolution in the field of communication as it combined several symbols to form words and sounds.

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Background of Islamic Faith

In the VII century BC most of Arabia was a desert inhabited by tribes of nomadic Bedouins. However, on the fertile lands along the shores of the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean were scattered permanent settlements, from where originated caravan routes across the sands to the cities of Syria and Mesopotamia (now Iraq). Due to the caravan trade, there flourished rare oases along the trade routes, including the small towns of Mecca and Medina, which in the history of Islam were destined to play a key role.

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Essays on Mesopotamia

The pyramids of Egypt are considered among the Seven Wonders of the World and it’s irrefutable that they pose a challenge to contemporary human beings in an attempt to decipher their secrets.  These commemorative tombs are the remnants of the period's governed through Egypt's the Old Kingdom. Having been built...

Words: 1186

The pyramids of Egypt are considered among the Seven Wonders of the World and it s irrefutable that they pose a challenge to contemporary human beings in an attempt to decipher their secrets. These commemorative tombs are the remnants of the period s governed through Egypt s the Old Kingdom....

Words: 1200

A progress trap is a technology or idea that produces an impressive outcome at first but it can lead to an impossible, deadly end. People experiment with progressions that are lethal but potentially self destructing; this is as a result of specialization of the human brain.  The atomic bomb is...

Words: 2043

Having a civilized world, one where there shall be no need for war is a dream that might never come true unless people change their perceptions of others from different cultures. The use of force against a section of people will always be a possibility as long as people who...

Words: 1285

The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Hero's Quest The Epic of Gilgamesh is a classic poem from the old Mesopotamia that is considered as one of greatest surviving works of literature. Despite most stories ending with a happy ending, the heroic character in this poem does not have a successful quest. Therefore,...

Words: 1232

Written at the heart of ancient Mesopotamia The epic poem of Gilgamesh formed one of the earliest work of literature in the world. Its origin dates back to the 3rd and 2nd millennium BCE when a cuneiform script was written to narrate the story of Sumerian legends. Gilgamesh who is the...

Words: 1252

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The Ancient Egyptians' Funeral Practices The ancient Egyptians had a well-developed set of funeral practices that had developed over the generations. The Egyptians were firm believers in life after death and therefore they believed it was vital to ensure immortality after someone died. They, therefore, conducted different rituals before burying their...

The Maya are the aboriginal dwellers of Central America and Mexico. Their present day population covers areas like Campeche, Tabasco, Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Chiapas, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala (Mark, 2012). The emergence of Maya Civilization took different stages in different eras like the Archaic Period, the Olmec Period,...

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Mesopotamia art was influenced by their main activities such as farming and rearing of animals. Art designs transformed over time as people changed from one lifestyle to another and as innovation increased. This stone caving show what can be referred as the initial steps towards the development of writing in the...

The Ancient Egyptian culture has several years of recorded history since Ancient Egypt formed part of Africa's earliest civilizations (Bleeker, 1964). Ancient Egypt had an outstandingly complex, stable, and unique culture that greatly influenced later European cultures. The Ancient Egyptian Culture thrived between c. 5500 BCE (characterized by technological advancements)...

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The Temple of Amon at Karnak The Temple of Amon at Karnak is an ancient cult center of worship dedicated to Khonsu, Mut, and Amun (Eaton 891). The structure was constructed more than 4,000 years ago from 2055 BC to 100 AD. In ancient Egypt, temples served as administration, learning, and...

Although complicated, comprehending patriotism is largely influenced by aspects of one's nation. Patriotism may be influenced by a nation's politics, past, or geopolitical context. In some nations, being a nationalist is acceptable. Ownership of a patriotic symbol and the national flag, engaged citizenship, and social acceptance can all be considered...

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Mesopotamia Essay Examples

We found 15 free papers on mesopotamia, essay examples, ishtar gate: mesopotamian art.


The Mesopotamian art was highly affected by the environmental influence. In fact it was due to these environmental limitations that constitute the Mesopotamian art to grow in such a unique manner. The natural environment caused the artists to visualize clearly the best tools which can produce the best piece of art. The southern Iraq was…

Ancient Mesopotamia

NOTES Geography * Mesopotamia means the land between the rivers in Greek. (rivers = Tigris and Euphrates) * It is located in western Asia. * It is also known as the world’s earliest urban civilizations. (arose around: 3500 bc) * Mesopotamia, known as “the cradle of civilization”, was the centre of Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, and…

Victory Stele of Naramsin Analysis

Victory Stele of Naram Sin-2250 (2-13) According to Artlex Art Dictionary, iconography is the pictorial representation of a subject or the collected images illustrating a subject. It can refer to both content and subject and, in art history, can represent a visual record of subject matter or historical events (“Iconography”). One of the most significant…

Hebrew and Mesopotamia

The Jews lived to preserve their culture; that essentially represented the fundamental goal of life to the Jews. The Jews observed the decadence of the Sumerians as a cause of cultural diffusion, and wanted to make sure that same thing would not happen to them. Eventually, the Jews did become vulnerable to cultural diffusion around…

Hammurabi The Lawgiver

applied ethics

Capital Punishment

social institutions

Hamburg will forever be remembered throughout history for being a diplomat, builder of temples, and a lawgiver, that epitomizes Mesopotamia society. In this paper, multiple aspects of Hamburg and Babylonian society will be addressed. First, how Hamburg took an insignificant city-state and through a series of wars with neighboring kingdoms, made it into a powerful…

Mesopotamian View of Life

The Mesopotamian Era which consists of the tribes of Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, and Babylonians lived between the valley of the river, the Tigris and Euphrates. These empires were known to contribute to the Mesopotamian culture and beliefs. This ancient civilization is notorious for their religious views and view on life. The ancient beliefs now help…

European and Mesopotamia areas

Welfare, money given to families in need, is not free money. It benefits many people who have a low income or no means of income at all. The benefits available are based on the level of money earned for different sized families and in different states. Welfare is also not to be provided in a…

A Comparison of the Worldviews of Egypt and Mesopotamia

Placet Sicque Suum: A comparison of the worldviews of Egypt and Mesopotamia Egypt and Mesopotamia were both flourishing examples of civilization in their day, yet their worldview differed drastically: Mesopotamia had a negative outlook upon the world and life in general, whereas Egyptians had a much more positive worldview. The negative worldview of the Mesopotamians…

The Changing Role Of Accountants In The


twenty-first Century. Essay, Research Paper A figure of studies by academicians and practicians all over the universe have called important alteration in the accounting methods and research and their relevancy in the twenty-first century. Many believe that the accounting theoretical account is outdated with small relevancy to the alterations taken topographic point in the wider…

Similarities/Differences of Mesopotamia and Egypt

Despite being geographically close, Mesopotamia and Egypt exhibit notable differences in their social and government structures. However, they also possess similarities in cultural development and religion, both civilizations experiencing similar advancements in culture and embracing polytheism. Nevertheless, the primary distinguishing feature between Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations lies within their social structure. Despite both Mesopotamia and…

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Mesopotamia Essay

This sample Mesopotamia Essay is published for informational purposes only. Free essays and research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality essay at affordable price please use our custom essay writing service .

Mesopotamia is the ancient land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. It covers modern day Iraq and parts of Iran, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. Mesopotamian civilizations were the first in history to exist in well-populated and fixed settlements. As settlements became larger and more organized, they progressed politically and socially into city-states. They developed irrigation methods and invented the wheel and the plow. After they developed the first written language, economic transactions and legal codes were kept. Mesopotamian literature was recorded. Great architectural structures were built. In time, empires, kings, and innovative military establishments emerged. These advancements, along with scientific, mathematical, and communal ceremonies, are the legacies of the great Mesopotamian civilizations.

Mesopotamia was the heartland of emerging nations and empires that would control the Near East for centuries. Mesopotamia is a general name for a number of diverse ethnic groups that contributed to the culture of the region. The most well-known Mesopotamian civilizations include the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. Other cultural groups may have been key players on the Mesopotamian stage, but none was as influential as these groups. The Sumerians captured the region beginning in the Early Dynastic period (ca. 2900 BC) and ending with the Third Dynasty of Ur (ca. 2004 BC). Over these years, Sumerians developed the first writing system and created epic literature. They invented the wheel, the plow, and the earliest known irrigation methods, enabling an otherwise unstable agricultural environment to prosper as Sumerian settlements grew into the world’s first political city-states. Under an Akkadian Empire (ca. 2334–2193 BC), this land of independent city-states consumed the entire Mesopotamian.

Mesopotamia Essay

Assur lay to the north in the Upper Tigris Valley and around the ancient city of Nineveh. Assyrians were a fierce cultural group, and the Assyrian empire reigned during a time of intense warfare. Assyrian control constantly expanded and receded in its quest for complete domination of Mesopotamia. At one time, the empire had expanded from Egypt, far to the east, to Iran in the west. At another time, Assyrian control receded to near extinction. The civilization reached its zenith from 910 BC to circa 610 BC but would eventually fall to a renewed Babylonian military.

Mesopotamia Begins in Sumer

The first inhabitants of this Mesopotamian region settled in a broad range of foothills that surrounded the Mesopotamian plains known as the Fertile Crescent. The region ran from central Palestine, north to Syria and eastern Asia Minor, and extending eastward to northern Iraq and Iran. During the historic periods known as the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods (ca. 9000–5800 BC), the people of the Fertile Crescent began to abandon a lifestyle where hunting and food gathering prevailed and entered a period of food production. They settled into farming and herding communities. As they became skilled in animal husbandry and farming, they were able to produce more food and the population in this region soared.

Although the villages in the Fertile Crescent became more sophisticated and sedentary, the people migrated southward, into the Mesopotamian Plains, between 6000 and 5000 BC. Some families and clans may have migrated to escape excessive population and overcrowding. Others may have left due to social or political discontent. Still other evidence suggests that a great flood may have wiped out the shores surrounding the Black Sea and that many settlers may have been refugees of this huge natural disaster.

The earliest Mesopotamians existed in a variable climate with a geography that included deserts, mountains, and river plains. Although northern Mesopotamia had adequate rainfall for successful agriculture, the remaining regions required irrigation and skilled control of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Southern Mesopotamian settlements may have begun using irrigation principles as early as 5000 BC. Their ability to irrigate allowed growth in settlement populations, which then created a need for organized communal work and complex hierarchical social structures.

During these years, an immigrant group of settlers known as the Sumerians settled into the Mesopotamian region. Sumerians were a very influential culture. Future peoples in this region preserved aspects of the Sumerian political and social customs as well as Sumerian literature and artistic style. Sumerians created the first wheel and the plow. Their skilled irrigation methods enabled an increase in food production. Sumerians rapidly turned agricultural communities into urban developments as they built the first cities. Sumerians also developed the writing system that enabled nobles and rulers to record economic transactions and legal decrees.

Sumerian city-states were independent of one another, and each was focused on controlling and supporting its farmlands and villages. The earliest city-states developed by the Sumerians were originally organized around a temple and a priesthood governed by an en (“high priest”). The en represented the local god and managed the temple lands that the people entrusted to work on them. As societies grew more complex, an ensi (“governor”) emerged to manage civic affairs such as law and order, commerce, trade, and military efforts. In time, people would select a leader, called a lugal (“great man”), to rule during times of war and peril. The lugal managed all civil, military, and religious functions of the city. The office of lugal seemed to emerge at a time when defense walls were first constructed. As war became a constant threat, rulers became kings who would remain in power for their lifetimes, passing rule onto their sons as successors to their thrones. As a state of dynasties took root, kings and royal families emerged.

One of the most elaborate and impressive architectural structures of this time was the ziggurat, a multilevel platformed temple of worship. The oldest ziggurat was unearthed in the city-state of Ur. C. Leonard Wooley was the archaeologist who discovered most of what we know about this ancient city. He also uncovered ancient burial tombs that included not only the deceased but also physical possessions and domestic servants. Experts believe that the burial tomb included everything that the Sumerians believed would be needed for a comfortable afterlife.

By the second half of the third millennium, the Semitic-speaking people were a significant element in northern Mesopotamia, also known as Akkad. The most notable kings of the time were Sargon of Akkad and his grandson, Narcum-Sin. They enslaved Sumerian city-states and achieved control of the trade routes from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean, achieving for the first time a unified Mesopotamian region. Sumerian culture and cuneiform were retained, but Akkadian tongue became the dominant language in Mesopotamia. The empire of Sargon and his grandson reigned for nearly a century. But the Akkadian empire would then fall, leaving its legacy of imperialistic expansion.

The Third Dynasty of Ur came into power circa 2112 to 2004 BC. This Sumerian dynasty governed most of Mesopotamia and southwestern Iran. Its founder, Ur-Nammu, wrote the oldest known collection of laws, intended to protect the economically and politically weak. As this dynasty fell to pressure from the Amorites, another migration of Semites who originated west of the Euphrates, central imperial control disappeared.

Babylonian Culture

According to scholars, the years following the Third Dynasty of Ur are called the Old Babylonian period (2000–1400 BC). For many years, Mesopotamia was disunited, with independent city-states frequently engaging in disputes and wars with its neighbors. This time of intense conflict was a time of great political opportunity for the most powerful men in Mesopotamia. The most successful leaders to establish dynasties were Amorites, who spoke Akkadian, and Elamites, who spoke a tongue unrelated to any others in the region. The Akkadian speakers settled a strong state in the city of Assur. When Ur fell to the Elamites, Assyrians became a leading political–military force. In 1813 BC, Shamshi- Adad overthrew Assur and established a new dynasty there. Because Shamshi-Adad’s troops were consumed by military expeditions, he avoided attacks on the strong city-state of Babylon that lay southeast of Assur. The attacks Shamshi-Adad did launch were relatively small scale and ceased after his death in 1781 BC. His successor was then squashed by a Babylonian army led by the sixth king of an Amorite dynasty that had established itself circa 1850 BC.

This widely respected and feared king was known as Hammurabi and lived in Babylonia. Hammurabi wrote the most famous laws of the time, known as the Code of Hammurabi, which embraced and proclaimed an “eye for an eye” discipline. Hammurabi also became the first king since Sargon of Akkad to unite the entire Mesopotamia land, stretching from the Persian Gulf to the Syrian border and the Armenian foothills. He was a skilled military leader and conqueror. Under his administration, trade flourished. He attended to domestic and economic issues while promoting literature, the arts, and science.

However, the peaceful times he created diminished shortly after his death in 1750 BC. What followed was a time of military conflict and strikes for the captured territories that wanted to break from Hammurabi’s Babylonia. Eventually, the city of Babylonia fell to the Kassite nobles, who took the city in 1400 BC. They were so impressed with the refined culture that they became assimilated into the Babylonian way, abandoning their native tongue for the Akkadian dialect of the Babylonians. In fact, the Kassites stabilized the region for more than four centuries, the longest period in Babylonian history.

Great military innovations developed during the Old Babylonian period. The horse was domesticated. After the wheel was redesigned with spokes instead of a solid surface, horses were harnessed to chariots to enable military attacks en masse. The bow was also redesigned to fly faster and farther. These changes were implemented, and large-scale military action was possible.

Although Mesopotamians were famous for building elaborate palaces, the most impressive palace belonged to King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon (604–562 BC). Although no archaeological evidence or other physical remains have ever been found, this palace is said to contain the legendary Hanging Gardens of Babylon, built to please one of Nebuchadnezzar’s wives who was homesick for her mountainous Iranian homeland that was lush with foliage.

The Assyrians

In 1365 BC, during a time that some modern scholars call the Middle Assyrian period, the Assyrians launched their first major front in the northwest from the border of Hatti, through Armenia, and to the Zagros Mountains. In a series of small-scale attacks, the Assyrians use their newfound military innovations to take human captives, horses, and other war booty. The Assyrians continued a second major front to seize Babylon and placed it under the rule of a monarch, Tukulti-Ninurta I, who reigned from 1244 to 1208 BC. Although this victory filled the Assyrians with great pride and satisfaction, the great Babylonian nobles would rebel. In 1165, a strong Elamite king would lay permanent claim to the great city.

In the next tactical front, the Assyrians fought relentlessly from Syria to the Mediterranean Sea. In the most amazing gain during this period of empirical expansion, King Tiglathpileser I took control of the Mesopotamian region from the Mediterranean Sea to Babylon. He was assassinated in 1077, and because his successors could not hold together this vast land, in time the Assyrian empire shrank until only Assur and Nineveh remained. It lay dormant until reaching its height during the Neo-Assyrian Empire circa 911 to 612 BC. This was a time when the Assyrian army became a highly skilled machine. Merciless warrior kings launched repeated military campaigns and attained impressive imperialistic growth. Assyrian conquest extended across the Near East and made Nineveh one of the richest cities in the Ancient World.

The greed of the Assyrians would be their demise. Nineveh and the Assyrian control would soon fall to the Babylonians and Medes. At this time, the splendor of the three greatest cultures of Mesopotamian civilizations would become legend. Their great contributions to the time and to world history were a finality. For the next several hundred years, the land would fall to many new tribes, new empires, and other dynasties, but none would be as influential as those of the Sumerians, Babylonians, and Assyrians.

From 539 to 331 BC, Persians saw Aramaic replace the long-standing Akkadian language. In 331 BC, Alexander the Great would take the region and make Babylon the capital of his empire. The Parthians, and then the Sassians, would later rule the land. When Islamic control began in 651 AD, a time and a culture known as ancient Mesopotamia ended.


  • Bertman, S. (2003). Handbook to life in ancient Mesopotamia. New York: Facts on File.
  • Bottero, J. (2001). Everyday life in ancient Mesopotamia. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Kramer, S. N. (1967). Cradle of civilization. New York: Time–Life Books.
  • Nardo, D. (2004). Ancient Mesopotamia. San Diego: Gale Group/Thomson Learning.
  • Nemet-Nejat, K. R. (1998). Daily life in ancient Mesopotamia. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
  • Postgate, J. N. (1994). Early Mesopotamia: Society and economy at the dawn of history. New York: Routledge.

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    essay questions for mesopotamia


  1. History Class 6 Chapter 1

  2. Ancient Mesopotamian civilizations

  3. The Rise and Fall of the Mesopotamian Civilization

  4. Charity Questions the Philosopher

  5. Mesopotamia Civilization Introduction Page in Hindi

  6. All about Mesopotamia || #mesopotamia #history #ancienthistory


  1. 124 Mesopotamia Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    Here are 124 Mesopotamia essay topic ideas and examples to help inspire your next research paper or academic project: The significance of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamian civilization. The invention of writing in Mesopotamia and its impact on the world. The role of religion in Mesopotamian society.

  2. 95 Mesopotamia Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    The social structures of Mesopotamia and Egypt were similar in the fact that they both had broad social class systems with many tiers of power. Urbanization Process in Mesopotamia. History of the involvement of the cities in the world has different reasons that lead to the development and establishment of the towns. We will write.

  3. Mesopotamia Questions and Answers

    Mesopotamia Questions and Answers - Discover the eNotes.com community of teachers, mentors and students just like you that can answer any question you might have on Mesopotamia

  4. Mesopotamian Civilization

    Mesopotamia lay in what is today known as Syria, Iraq, and Turkey. The region can be further divided into two regions. The Northern Mesopotamia is also referred to as Jezirah and is the land that lies between the two rivers from their sources down to Baghdad (Heine and Nissen 45). The history of the region can be traced to the rise of urban ...

  5. Mesopotamia: AP® World History Crash Course Review

    Mesopotamia has also been called "the Cradle of Civilization," hence you know you're going to want to use this AP® World History review during your exam studying. It was a hugely influential place and time in world history. ... With that said, take a look at this example essay question from the AP® World History Course and Exam Guide ...

  6. Ancient Mesopotamian civilizations (article)

    Early civilizations began to form around the time of the Neolithic Revolution—12000 BCE. Some of the major Mesopotamian civilizations include the Sumerian, Assyrian, Akkadian, and Babylonian civilizations. Evidence shows extensive use of technology, literature, legal codes, philosophy, religion, and architecture in these societies.

  7. History of Mesopotamia

    This article covers the history of Mesopotamia from the prehistoric period up to the Arab conquest in the 7th century ce. For the history of the region in the succeeding periods, see Iraq, history of. For a discussion of the religions of ancient Mesopotamia, see Mesopotamian religion. See also art and architecture, Mesopotamian.

  8. Essay On Mesopotamia: [Essay Example], 755 words GradesFixer

    Essay on Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia, often referred to as the "cradle of civilization," is a region in the Middle East that played a crucial role in the development of human society. From its fertile lands between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers emerged some of the world's earliest complex societies, such as the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians ...

  9. Mesopotamia Essay

    Mesopotamia Essay. One geographical area in which civilization first developed would be Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia in Greek means between two rivers. Mesopotamia was located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Fertile Crescent region. I think that a complex society emerged in Mesopotamia because Mesopotamia is between two rivers.

  10. Mesopotamia: Empires & Warfare

    Mesopotamia: Empires & Warfare. by Marion Wadowski. published on 04 September 2023. Download this teaching resource: Free Download on TES.com on Teachers Pay Teachers. This lesson pack on empires and warfare in ancient Mesopotamia includes the following content: Two Lesson Plans. Assyrian & Akkadian Empires.

  11. Mesopotamia

    Mesopotamia is thought to be one of the places where early civilization developed. It is a historic region of West Asia within the Tigris-Euphrates river system. In fact, the word Mesopotamia means "between rivers" in Greek. Home to the ancient civilizations of Sumer, Assyria, and Babylonia these peoples are credited with influencing mathematics and astronomy. Use these classroom resources to ...

  12. Mesopotamia Essays: Examples, Topics, & Outlines

    The umerians lived in this area of Mesopotamia about 2800 BC in cities such as Adab, Eridu, Isin, Kish, Kullab, Lagash, Larsa, Nippur, and Ur. Around the city of Ur, which was established around 2100 BC, grew rich agricultural lands. Inside the city proper, stood homes and temples that later became very huge and elaborate buildings.

  13. ≡Essays on Mesopotamia. Free Examples of Research Paper Topics, Titles

    Essays on Mesopotamia . Essay examples. Essay topics. Topics in this category. 1 Nefertiti and Her Husband Pharaoh Akhenaten . 2 pages / 752 words . During the 18th dynasty of ancient Egypt, Nefertiti and her husband Pharaoh Akhenaten were influential figures who left a lasting impact on the history and culture of Egypt. Their reign was marked ...

  14. Mesopotamia Essay Examples

    Get your free examples of research papers and essays on Mesopotamia here. Only the A-papers by top-of-the-class students. Learn from the best! ... Essay Topics. Essays on Mesopotamia. 88 samples on this topic . To some learners, crafting Mesopotamia papers comes easy; others need the help of various types. The WowEssays.com collection includes ...

  15. Mesopotamia Essays

    Mesopotamia Dbq Essay 597 Words | 3 Pages. Ancient Mesopotamia was a civilization from 4,000 B.C., which was almost 6,000 years ago! A civilization is a large group of non-nomadic people with its language and set of rules, usually advanced for its time.

  16. Mesopotamia

    Get an answer for 'What are the similarities and differences in religious beliefs among the Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Hebrews, and Assyrians?' and find homework help for other Mesopotamia ...

  17. Free Essays on Mesopotamia, Examples, Topics, Outlines

    Need some inspiration before writing Mesopotamia essay? Explore 100% free Mesopotamia essays, research paper examples and choose any topic you need.

  18. Mesopotamia Essay Examples

    Ancient Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia. Words: 1165 (5 pages) NOTES Geography * Mesopotamia means the land between the rivers in Greek. (rivers = Tigris and Euphrates) * It is located in western Asia. * It is also known as the world's earliest urban civilizations. (arose around: 3500 bc) * Mesopotamia, known as "the cradle of civilization", was ...

  19. Mesopotamia Questions and Answers

    Where do most of the non-polar residues of the crystal structure of xanthine dehydrogenase reside? View Answer. Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations shared all of the following characteristics except: a. A centralized model of authority, in which one king ruled an extended empire. b. Advanced writing syst... View Answer.

  20. Mesopotamia Essay

    Mesopotamia is the ancient land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. It covers modern day Iraq and parts of Iran, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. Mesopotamian civilizations were the first in history to exist in well-populated and fixed settlements. As settlements became larger and more organized, they progressed politically and socially ...

  21. Essay Question Mesopotamia

    Essay Question Mesopotamia: Level: College, University, High School, Master's, PHD, Undergraduate. Some attractive features that you will get with our write essay service. Grab these brilliant features with the best essay writing service of PenMyPaper. With our service, not the quality but the quantity of the draft will be thoroughly under ...

  22. Essay Questions About Mesopotamia

    Essay Questions About Mesopotamia. The narration in my narrative work needs to be smooth and appealing to the readers while writing my essay. Our writers enhance the elements in the writing as per the demand of such a narrative piece that interests the readers and urges them to read along with the entire writing. View Sample. REVIEWS HIRE.

  23. Essay Questions On Mesopotamia

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  24. DSE 2024: Hot topics for this year's History exam

    Paper 2 constitutes 40 per cent of the total grade and requires students to select and answer two out of seven essay-type questions within one and a half hours.