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A Study of Noise Pollution Measurements and Possible Effects on Public Health in Ota Metropolis, Nigeria

Pelumi e. oguntunde.

1 Department of Mathematics, Covenant University, Ogun State, Ota, Nigeria

Hilary I. Okagbue

Omoleye a. oguntunde.

2 Department of Business Management, Covenant University, Ogun State, Ota, Nigeria

Oluwole O. Odetunmibi


Noise pollution has become a major environmental problem leading to nuisances and health issues.

This paper aims to study and analyse the noise pollution levels in major areas in Ota metropolis. A probability model which is capable of predicting the noise pollution level is also determined.

Datasets on the noise pollution level in 41 locations across Ota metropolis were used in this research. The datasets were collected thrice per day; morning, afternoon and evening. Descriptive statistics were performed, and analysis of variance was also conducted using Minitab version 17.0 software. Easy fit software was however used to select the appropriate probability model that would best describe the dataset.

The noise levels are way far from the WHO recommendations. Also, there is no significant difference in the effects of the noise pollution level for all the times of the day considered. The log-logistic distribution provides the best fit to the dataset based on the Kolmogorov Smirnov goodness of fit test.


The fitted probability model can help in the prediction of noise pollution and act as a yardstick in the reduction of noise pollution, thereby improving the public health of the populace.


Noise pollution is one of several environmental pollutions across the world. It can be described as the propagation of noise with a harmful impact on the physiological and psychological lives of humans or animals [ 1 ]. Noise or sound pollution is usually not studied compared with other forms of pollution such as air [ 2 ], [ 3 ], [ 4 ], water [ 5 ], soil [ 6 ], light and radioactive. The reason is that the adverse effects of other forms of pollution on humans are more pronounced. Notwithstanding, noise pollution remains a serious health concern in the study area (Ota, Nigeria) in particular and the entire planet [ 7 ], [ 8 ]. Some of the identified sources of noise pollution are loud music from concerts, religious buildings like churches and mosques, noise emitting generators [ 9 ], political rallies, road advertisement, traffic [ 10 ] and air transportation [ 11 ], sporting events, construction and industrial activities. In all the mentioned sources, areas that have high risk of noise pollution are residential places near to major roads [ 12 ] and airports and manufacturing industries [ 13 ]; for example, small scale industries [ 14 ], [ 15 ], steel rolling industries [ 16 ], oil and gas industry [ 17 ], [ 18 ] and so on.

The health effects of noise pollution cannot be over-emphasised. This has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Federal Environment Protection Agency (FEPA) (Nigeria) to set standards and limits of allowable noise levels. Noise pollution occurs when it is observed that those standards are exceeded as seen in [ 19 ], [ 20 ].

The most common manifestation of noise pollution is hearing loss or impairment [ 21 ]. Hearing impairment is mostly classified as occupational hazards especially when the individual is affiliated with industry that propagates loud sound or noise. Moreover, several physiological and psychological effects of noise pollution exist. The combination of noise and air pollution is associated with respiratory ailments, dizziness and tiredness in school children [ 22 ], [ 23 ]. In adults, noise pollution has been found to be associated with high blood pressure [ 24 ] and cognitive difficulties [ 25 ].

A look at the literature showed the abundance of evidence of the adverse effects of noise pollution on the general public health. The worsening situation of noise pollution is that it has not been upgraded to the level of the other forms of pollution. Also, recommendations suggested by several authors on the different strategies on tackling noise pollution has not been considered and implemented. However, noise pollution continues to impact negatively on fetal development [ 26 ], annoyance and anxiety [ 27 ], mental health crisis [ 28 ], sleep disturbance and insomnia [ 29 ], [ 30 ], cardiovascular disorders in pregnant women [ 31 ], cardiocerebrovascular diseases [ 32 ], type 2 diabetes incidence [ 33 ] and medically unexplained physical symptoms [ 34 ]. Other auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health are myocardial infarction incidence [ 35 ], peptic ulcers [ 36 ] and disruption of communication and retentive capabilities in children [ 37 ].

Material and Methods

The dataset used in this research was gotten from [ 38 ]. It represents the noise level in 41 major locations in Ota metropolis, Nigeria. These major areas include industrial areas, commercial areas, passenger loading parks, busy roads and junctions. The readings were taken using the SLM (Sound Level Meter). Measurements were taken three different times of the day; morning (7 am to 9 am), afternoon (1 pm to 3 pm) and evening (6 pm to 8 pm). Particularly, the noise pollution level (NLP) was considered and analysed in this present research.

Analysis of Variance

Analysis of variance is conducted in this research to know if there is a significant difference between the effect of noise pollution level in the morning, afternoon and evening in Ota metropolis. The hypothesis tested is:

H 0 : The effects of the noise pollution level are the same for morning, afternoon and evening

H 1 : The effects of the noise pollution level are not the same for at least one of either morning, afternoon or evening.

The level of significance used is 0.05, and the null hypothesis is considered rejected if the p-value is less or equal to the level of significance. The structure of the ANOVA table is such as presented in Table 1 .

A typical example of a one-way ANOVA Table

where, ‘f’ is the number of factors which is 3 according to this research; morning, afternoon and evening. ‘n’ is the overall sample size.

The goodness of Fit Test

The goodness of fit test is performed in this research to select the probability model that best fits the dataset. The Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS) test, the Anderson Darling (AD) test and Chi-square test are examples of the goodness of fit tests.

The KS test was adopted in this research because it is the most popular and others might give similar results. The null hypothesis tests whether the data follow a specified distribution. If represent ordered data points, the KS statistic is:

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is OAMJMS-7-1391-g001.jpg

where are the ordered data and is the cumulative distribution function (cdf) of the continuous distribution tested.

Descriptive Analysis of the Dataset

The summary for the LNP measurements is provided in Figures ​ Figures1 1 to ​ to3 3 while the summary for the mean measurement across the 41 locations is provided in Figure 4 .

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is OAMJMS-7-1391-g002.jpg

Summary report for morning measurements on LNP

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is OAMJMS-7-1391-g004.jpg

Summary report for evening measurements on LNP

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is OAMJMS-7-1391-g005.jpg

Summary report for the mean measurements of LNP across all locations in Ota

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is OAMJMS-7-1391-g003.jpg

Summary report for afternoon measurements on LNP

Result for the Analysis of Variance

The analyses of the means of the various measurements are presented in Table 2 .

Analysis of the Means

The 95% confidence interval (CI) plot for the means is displayed in Figure 5 .

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is OAMJMS-7-1391-g006.jpg

The 95% confidence interval (C.I) plot for the means

The result of the analysis of variance is presented in Table 3 .

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Table

The result in Table 3 shows that the generated p-value is 0.997 which is far greater than the level of significance (0.05). Hence, there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis, and it can, therefore, be concluded that there is no significant difference in the means of the noise level measurements taken in the morning, afternoon and evening. This result is further confirmed by Turkey’s post-hoc test which is summarized in Figure 6 .

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is OAMJMS-7-1391-g007.jpg

Summary of Turkey’s post-hoc analysis

It can be observed in Figure 6 that all the intervals contained zero; this is an indication that there is no significant difference in the pair of each of the measurements considered.

Fitting of Probability Models

To determine the appropriate probability model that describes the mean noise pollution level in Ota metropolis, Easyfit (trial version) software was used to select distribution with the best fit. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test of goodness of fit was used to select the best model. The software fitted sixty distributions to the dataset, but the best five was reported in this research. The result is presented in Table 4 .

Fitted Distributions

From Table 4 , the best-fitted model is the three-parameter Log-logistic distribution; this selection/decision is based on the Kolmogorov Smirnov statistic. A graph showing the best distribution fitted to the dataset on mean noise pollution level is presented in Figure 7 .

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is OAMJMS-7-1391-g008.jpg

Graph of log-logistic distribution on the histogram of the dataset

In conclusion, further analyses of the noise pollution level in Ota metropolis has been provided in this research. The mean noise level in the morning was 90.78 which is higher than (though very close to) that of afternoon and evening with means 90.6 and 90.72 respectively. This is reasonable as more activities are expected during this time; pupils are going to school, workers going to the office, traffic at some junction and major bus stops. However, the analysis of variance result indicated that the time of the day (morning, afternoon and evening) have the same effect on the environment and populace. Also, the noise pollution level in Ota metropolis can be modelled using the log-logistic distribution as evident from the goodness of fit test. The model can now be used in predicting and managing noise pollution in that area. Furthermore, the model can be used in different geographical settings where noise pollution poses a perceived threat to the public health of the populace.

Funding: This research received financial support from the Covenant University

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist

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RCE-077 (Air & Noise Pollution Control) UNIT-3 (Assignment Sheet

Profile image of Ankur  Kumar Bansal

AKTU UPTU Lucknow Course Name: Air and Noise Pollution Control Couse code : RCE-077, MTEV-202

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Noise Pollution

We know that a sound is a form of energy. Sometimes the sound can be soothing to listen to and, at times, loud to hear. Sound can travel in the air and is produced by the vibration of objects. Regular exposure to a higher sound level that impacts humans and other living organisms is known as sound pollution. This article will help us understand what noise pollution is, the types of noise and pollution, and its causes and examples.

What is Noise Pollution?

The word noise is derived from the Latin word ‘Nausea’, which means sickness in which one feels the need to vomit. Noise is the unpleasant and undesirable sound which leads to discomfort in human beings. The intensity of sound is measured in decibels (dB) . The faintest sound that the human ear can hear is 1 Db. Due to increasing noise around the civilizations, noise pollution has become a matter of concern. Some of its major causes are vehicles, aircraft, industrial machines, loudspeakers, crackers, etc. When used at high volume, some other appliances also contribute to noise pollution, like television, transistor, radio, etc.

Types of Noise Pollution

Following are the three types of pollution:

  • Transport Noise
  • Neighbourhood Noise
  • Industrial Noise

Noise pollution

It mainly consists of traffic noise which has increased in recent years with the increase in the number of vehicles. The increase in noise pollution leads to deafening of older people, headache, hypertension, etc.

The noise from gadgets, household utensils etc. Some of the main sources are musical instruments, transistors, loudspeakers, etc.

It is the high-intensity sound which is caused by heavy industrial machines. According to many researches, industrial noise pollution damages the hearing ability to around 20%.

Causes and Sources of Noise Pollution

Following are the causes and sources of noise pollution:

  • Industrialisation: Industrialisation has led to an increase in noise pollution as the use of heavy machinery such as generators, mills, huge exhaust fans are used, resulting in the production of unwanted noise.
  • Vehicles: Increased number of vehicles on the roads are the second reason for noise pollution.
  • Events: Weddings, public gatherings involve loudspeakers to play music resulting in the production of unwanted noise in the neighbourhood.
  • Construction sites: Mining, construction of buildings, etc add to the noise pollution.

Noise Pollution Examples

Following are the examples of noise pollution:

  • Unnecessary usage of horns
  • Using loudspeakers either for religious functions or for political purposes
  • Unnecessary usage of fireworks
  • Industrial noise
  • Construction noise
  • Noise from transportation such as railway and aircraft

Effects of Noise Pollution on Human Health

Noise pollution can be hazardous to human health in the following ways:

  • Hypertension: It is a direct result of noise pollution which is caused due to elevated blood levels for a longer duration.
  • Hearing loss: Constant exposure of human ears to loud noise that are beyond the range of sound that human ears can withstand damages the eardrums, resulting in loss of hearing.
  • Sleeping disorders: Lack of sleep might result in fatigue and low energy level throughout the day affecting everyday activities. Noise pollution hampers the sleep cycles leading to irritation and an uncomfortable state of mind.
  • Cardiovascular issues: Heart-related problems such as blood pressure level, stress and cardiovascular diseases might come up in a normal person and a person suffering from any of these diseases might feel a sudden shoot up in the level.

Prevention of Noise Pollution

Some noise pollution preventive measures are provided in the points below.

  • Honking in public places like teaching institutes, hospitals, etc. should be banned.
  • In commercial, hospital, and industrial buildings, adequate soundproof systems should be installed.
  • Musical instruments’ sound should be controlled to desirable limits.
  • Dense tree cover is useful in noise pollution prevention.
  • Explosives should not be used in forest, mountainous and mining areas.

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