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25 Thesis Statement Examples

thesis statement examples and definition, explained below

A thesis statement is needed in an essay or dissertation . There are multiple types of thesis statements – but generally we can divide them into expository and argumentative. An expository statement is a statement of fact (common in expository essays and process essays) while an argumentative statement is a statement of opinion (common in argumentative essays and dissertations). Below are examples of each.

Strong Thesis Statement Examples

school uniforms and dress codes, explained below

1. School Uniforms

“Mandatory school uniforms should be implemented in educational institutions as they promote a sense of equality, reduce distractions, and foster a focused and professional learning environment.”

Best For: Argumentative Essay or Debate

Read More: School Uniforms Pros and Cons

nature vs nurture examples and definition

2. Nature vs Nurture

“This essay will explore how both genetic inheritance and environmental factors equally contribute to shaping human behavior and personality.”

Best For: Compare and Contrast Essay

Read More: Nature vs Nurture Debate

American Dream Examples Definition

3. American Dream

“The American Dream, a symbol of opportunity and success, is increasingly elusive in today’s socio-economic landscape, revealing deeper inequalities in society.”

Best For: Persuasive Essay

Read More: What is the American Dream?

social media pros and cons

4. Social Media

“Social media has revolutionized communication and societal interactions, but it also presents significant challenges related to privacy, mental health, and misinformation.”

Best For: Expository Essay

Read More: The Pros and Cons of Social Media

types of globalization, explained below

5. Globalization

“Globalization has created a world more interconnected than ever before, yet it also amplifies economic disparities and cultural homogenization.”

Read More: Globalization Pros and Cons

urbanization example and definition

6. Urbanization

“Urbanization drives economic growth and social development, but it also poses unique challenges in sustainability and quality of life.”

Read More: Learn about Urbanization

immigration pros and cons, explained below

7. Immigration

“Immigration enriches receiving countries culturally and economically, outweighing any perceived social or economic burdens.”

Read More: Immigration Pros and Cons

cultural identity examples and definition, explained below

8. Cultural Identity

“In a globalized world, maintaining distinct cultural identities is crucial for preserving cultural diversity and fostering global understanding, despite the challenges of assimilation and homogenization.”

Best For: Argumentative Essay

Read More: Learn about Cultural Identity

technology examples and definition explained below

9. Technology

“Medical technologies in care institutions in Toronto has increased subjcetive outcomes for patients with chronic pain.”

Best For: Research Paper

capitalism examples and definition

10. Capitalism vs Socialism

“The debate between capitalism and socialism centers on balancing economic freedom and inequality, each presenting distinct approaches to resource distribution and social welfare.”

cultural heritage examples and definition

11. Cultural Heritage

“The preservation of cultural heritage is essential, not only for cultural identity but also for educating future generations, outweighing the arguments for modernization and commercialization.”

pseudoscience examples and definition, explained below

12. Pseudoscience

“Pseudoscience, characterized by a lack of empirical support, continues to influence public perception and decision-making, often at the expense of scientific credibility.”

Read More: Examples of Pseudoscience

free will examples and definition, explained below

13. Free Will

“The concept of free will is largely an illusion, with human behavior and decisions predominantly determined by biological and environmental factors.”

Read More: Do we have Free Will?

gender roles examples and definition, explained below

14. Gender Roles

“Traditional gender roles are outdated and harmful, restricting individual freedoms and perpetuating gender inequalities in modern society.”

Read More: What are Traditional Gender Roles?

work-life balance examples and definition, explained below

15. Work-Life Ballance

“The trend to online and distance work in the 2020s led to improved subjective feelings of work-life balance but simultaneously increased self-reported loneliness.”

Read More: Work-Life Balance Examples

universal healthcare pros and cons

16. Universal Healthcare

“Universal healthcare is a fundamental human right and the most effective system for ensuring health equity and societal well-being, outweighing concerns about government involvement and costs.”

Read More: The Pros and Cons of Universal Healthcare

raising minimum wage pros and cons

17. Minimum Wage

“The implementation of a fair minimum wage is vital for reducing economic inequality, yet it is often contentious due to its potential impact on businesses and employment rates.”

Read More: The Pros and Cons of Raising the Minimum Wage

homework pros and cons

18. Homework

“The homework provided throughout this semester has enabled me to achieve greater self-reflection, identify gaps in my knowledge, and reinforce those gaps through spaced repetition.”

Best For: Reflective Essay

Read More: Reasons Homework Should be Banned

charter schools vs public schools, explained below

19. Charter Schools

“Charter schools offer alternatives to traditional public education, promising innovation and choice but also raising questions about accountability and educational equity.”

Read More: The Pros and Cons of Charter Schools

internet pros and cons

20. Effects of the Internet

“The Internet has drastically reshaped human communication, access to information, and societal dynamics, generally with a net positive effect on society.”

Read More: The Pros and Cons of the Internet

affirmative action example and definition, explained below

21. Affirmative Action

“Affirmative action is essential for rectifying historical injustices and achieving true meritocracy in education and employment, contrary to claims of reverse discrimination.”

Best For: Essay

Read More: Affirmative Action Pros and Cons

soft skills examples and definition, explained below

22. Soft Skills

“Soft skills, such as communication and empathy, are increasingly recognized as essential for success in the modern workforce, and therefore should be a strong focus at school and university level.”

Read More: Soft Skills Examples

moral panic definition examples

23. Moral Panic

“Moral panic, often fueled by media and cultural anxieties, can lead to exaggerated societal responses that sometimes overlook rational analysis and evidence.”

Read More: Moral Panic Examples

freedom of the press example and definition, explained below

24. Freedom of the Press

“Freedom of the press is critical for democracy and informed citizenship, yet it faces challenges from censorship, media bias, and the proliferation of misinformation.”

Read More: Freedom of the Press Examples

mass media examples definition

25. Mass Media

“Mass media shapes public opinion and cultural norms, but its concentration of ownership and commercial interests raise concerns about bias and the quality of information.”

Best For: Critical Analysis

Read More: Mass Media Examples

Checklist: How to use your Thesis Statement

✅ Position: If your statement is for an argumentative or persuasive essay, or a dissertation, ensure it takes a clear stance on the topic. ✅ Specificity: It addresses a specific aspect of the topic, providing focus for the essay. ✅ Conciseness: Typically, a thesis statement is one to two sentences long. It should be concise, clear, and easily identifiable. ✅ Direction: The thesis statement guides the direction of the essay, providing a roadmap for the argument, narrative, or explanation. ✅ Evidence-based: While the thesis statement itself doesn’t include evidence, it sets up an argument that can be supported with evidence in the body of the essay. ✅ Placement: Generally, the thesis statement is placed at the end of the introduction of an essay.

Try These AI Prompts – Thesis Statement Generator!

One way to brainstorm thesis statements is to get AI to brainstorm some for you! Try this AI prompt:

💡 AI PROMPT FOR EXPOSITORY THESIS STATEMENT I am writing an essay on [TOPIC] and these are the instructions my teacher gave me: [INSTUCTIONS]. I want you to create an expository thesis statement that doesn’t argue a position, but demonstrates depth of knowledge about the topic.

💡 AI PROMPT FOR ARGUMENTATIVE THESIS STATEMENT I am writing an essay on [TOPIC] and these are the instructions my teacher gave me: [INSTRUCTIONS]. I want you to create an argumentative thesis statement that clearly takes a position on this issue.

💡 AI PROMPT FOR COMPARE AND CONTRAST THESIS STATEMENT I am writing a compare and contrast essay that compares [Concept 1] and [Concept2]. Give me 5 potential single-sentence thesis statements that remain objective.

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Chris Drew (PhD)

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 50 Durable Goods Examples
  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 100 Consumer Goods Examples
  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 30 Globalization Pros and Cons
  • Chris Drew (PhD) https://helpfulprofessor.com/author/chris-drew-phd/ 17 Adversity Examples (And How to Overcome Them)

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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Tips and Examples for Writing Thesis Statements

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This resource provides tips for creating a thesis statement and examples of different types of thesis statements.

Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement

1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing:

  • An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.
  • An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.
  • An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.

If you are writing a text that does not fall under these three categories (e.g., a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your reader.

2. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.

3. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.

4. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.

Thesis Statement Examples

Example of an analytical thesis statement:

The paper that follows should:

  • Explain the analysis of the college admission process
  • Explain the challenge facing admissions counselors

Example of an expository (explanatory) thesis statement:

  • Explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers

Example of an argumentative thesis statement:

  • Present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college

Examples logo

High School Essay

High School Essay 1

Navigating the complexities of High School Essay writing can be a challenging yet rewarding experience. Our guide, infused with diverse essay examples , is designed to simplify this journey for students. High school essays are a crucial part of academic development, allowing students to express their thoughts, arguments, and creativity. With our examples, students learn to structure their essays effectively, develop strong thesis statements, and convey their ideas with clarity and confidence, paving the way for academic success.

What Is a High School Essay? A high school essay is anything that falls between a literary piece that teachers would ask their students  to write. It could be anything like an expository essay , informative essay , or a descriptive essay . High school essay is just a broad term that is used to describe anything that high school student writes, probably in subjects like English Grammar or Literature.

It is a good way to practice every student’s writing skills in writing which they might find useful when they reach college. Others might even be inspired to continue writing and take courses that are related to it.

high school essay bundle

Download High School Essay Bundle

When you are in high school, it is definite that you are expected to do some write-ups and projects which require pen and paper. Yes. You heard that right. Your teachers are going to let you write a lot of things starting from short stories to other things like expository essays. However, do not be intimidated nor fear the things that I have just said. It is but a normal part of being a student to write things. Well, take it from me. As far as I can recall, I may have written about a hundred essays during my entire high school years or maybe more. You may also see what are the parts of an essay?

High School Essay Format

1. introduction.

Hook: Start with an engaging sentence to capture the reader’s interest. This could be a question, a quote, a surprising fact, or a bold statement related to your topic. Background Information: Provide some background information on your topic to help readers understand the context of your essay. Thesis Statement: End the introduction with a clear thesis statement that outlines your main argument or point of view. This statement guides the direction of your entire essay.

2. Body Paragraphs

Topic Sentence: Start each body paragraph with a topic sentence that introduces the main idea of the paragraph, supporting your thesis statement. Supporting Details: Include evidence, examples, facts, and quotes to support the main idea of each paragraph. Make sure to explain how these details relate to your topic sentence and thesis statement. Analysis: Provide your analysis or interpretation of the evidence and how it supports your argument. Be clear and concise in explaining your reasoning. Transition: Use transition words or phrases to smoothly move from one idea to the next, maintaining the flow of your essay.

3. Conclusion

Summary: Begin your conclusion by restating your thesis in a new way, summarizing the main points of your body paragraphs without introducing new information. Final Thoughts: End your essay with a strong closing statement. This could be a reflection on the significance of your argument, a call to action, or a rhetorical question to leave the reader thinking.

Example of High School Essay

Community service plays a pivotal role in fostering empathy, building character, and enhancing societal well-being. It offers a platform for young individuals to contribute positively to society while gaining valuable life experiences. This essay explores the significance of community service and its impact on both individuals and communities. Introduction Community service, an altruistic activity performed for the betterment of society, is a cornerstone for personal growth and societal improvement. It not only addresses societal needs but also cultivates essential virtues in volunteers. Through community service, high school students can develop a sense of responsibility, a commitment to altruism, and an understanding of their role in the community. Personal Development Firstly, community service significantly contributes to personal development. Volunteering helps students acquire new skills, such as teamwork, communication, and problem-solving. For instance, organizing a local food drive can teach students project management skills and the importance of collaboration. Moreover, community service provides insights into one’s passions and career interests, guiding them towards fulfilling future endeavors. Social Impact Secondly, the social impact of community service cannot be overstated. Activities like tutoring underprivileged children or participating in environmental clean-ups address critical societal issues directly. These actions not only bring about immediate positive changes but also inspire a ripple effect, encouraging a culture of volunteerism within the community. The collective effort of volunteers can transform neighborhoods, making them more supportive and resilient against challenges. Building Empathy and Understanding Furthermore, community service is instrumental in building empathy and understanding. Engaging with diverse groups and working towards a common goal fosters a sense of solidarity and compassion among volunteers. For example, spending time at a senior center can bridge the generational gap, enriching the lives of both the elderly and the volunteers. These experiences teach students the value of empathy, enriching their emotional intelligence and social awareness.   In conclusion, community service is a vital component of societal development and personal growth. It offers a unique opportunity for students to engage with their communities, learn valuable life skills, and develop empathy. Schools and parents should encourage students to participate in community service, highlighting its benefits not only to the community but also in shaping responsible, caring, and informed citizens. As we look towards building a better future, the role of community service in education cannot be overlooked; it is an investment in our collective well-being and the development of the next generation.

Essay Topics for High School with Samples to Edit & Download

  • Should schools have dress codes?
  • Sex education in middle school
  • Should homework be abolished?
  • College education costs
  • How does technology affect productivity?
  • Is climate change reversible?
  • Is social media helpful or harmful?
  • Climate change is caused by humans
  • Effects of social media on youth
  • Are men and women treated equally?
  • Are professional athletes overpaid?
  • Changes over the past decade
  • Guns should be more strictly regulated
  • My favorite childhood memory
  • Religion in school
  • Should we stop giving final exams?
  • Video game addiction
  • Violence in media content

High School Essay Examples & Templates

high school essay

Free Download

High School Essay For Students

high school essay for students

High School Essay Outline

high school essay outline

High School Essay Example

high school essay

High School Self Introduction Essay Template

high school self introduction essay template

High School Student Essay

high school student essay

englishdaily626.com

Reflective High School

reflective high school

oregoncis.uoregon.edu

Argumentative Essays for High School

argumentative essays for high school

Informative Essays for High School

informative essays for high school1

High School Persuasive

high school persuasive

writecook.com

Narrative Essays

narrative essays for high school

Scholarship Essays

scholarship essays for high school

High School Application

high school application

e-education.psu.edu

High School Graduation Essay

high school graduation essay

High School Leadership Essay

high school leadership essay

web.extension.illinois.edu

How to Write a High School Essay

Some teachers are really not that strict when it comes to writing essay because they too understand the struggles of writing stuff like these. However, you need to know the basics when it comes to writing a high school essay.

1. Understand the Essay Prompt

  • Carefully read the essay prompt or question to understand what’s required. Identify the type of essay (narrative, persuasive, expository, etc.) and the main topic you need to address.

2. Choose a Topic

  • If the topic isn’t provided, pick one that interests you and fits the essay’s requirements. Make sure it’s neither too broad nor too narrow.

3. Conduct Research (if necessary)

  • For expository, argumentative, or research essays, gather information from credible sources to support your arguments. Take notes and organize your findings.

4. Create an Outline

  • Outline your essay to organize your thoughts and structure your arguments effectively. Include an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.

5. Write the Introduction

  • Start with a hook to grab the reader’s attention (a quote, a question, a shocking fact, etc.). Introduce your topic and end the introduction with a thesis statement that presents your main argument or purpose.

6. Develop Body Paragraphs

  • Each body paragraph should focus on a single idea or argument that supports your thesis. Start with a topic sentence, provide evidence or examples, and explain how it relates to your thesis.

7. Write the Conclusion

  • Summarize the main points of your essay and restate your thesis in a new way. Conclude with a strong statement that leaves a lasting impression on the reader.

Types of High School Essay

1. narrative essay.

Narrative essays tell a story from the writer’s perspective, often highlighting a personal experience or event. The focus is on storytelling, including characters, a setting, and a plot, to engage readers emotionally. This type allows students to explore creativity and expressiveness in their writing.

2. Descriptive Essay

Descriptive essays focus on detailing and describing a person, place, object, or event. The aim is to paint a vivid picture in the reader’s mind using sensory details. These essays test the writer’s ability to use language creatively to evoke emotions and bring a scene to life.

3. Expository Essay

Expository essays aim to explain or inform the reader about a topic in a clear, concise manner. This type of essay requires thorough research and focuses on factual information. It’s divided into several types, such as compare and contrast, cause and effect, and process essays, each serving a specific purpose.

4. Persuasive Essay

Persuasive essays aim to convince the reader of a particular viewpoint or argument. The writer must use logic, reasoning, and evidence to support their position while addressing counterarguments. This type tests the writer’s ability to persuade and argue effectively.

5. Analytical Essay

Analytical essays require the writer to break down and analyze an element, such as a piece of literature, a movie, or a historical event. The goal is to interpret and make sense of the subject, discussing its significance and how it achieves its purpose.

6. Reflective Essay

Reflective essays are personal pieces that ask the writer to reflect on their experiences, thoughts, or feelings regarding a specific topic or experience. It encourages introspection and personal growth by examining one’s responses and learning from them.

7. Argumentative Essay

Similar to persuasive essays, argumentative essays require the writer to take a stance on an issue and argue for their position with evidence. However, argumentative essays place a stronger emphasis on evidence and logic rather than emotional persuasion.

8. Research Paper

Though often longer than a typical essay, research papers in high school require students to conduct in-depth study on a specific topic, using various sources to gather information. The focus is on presenting findings and analysis in a structured format.

Tips for High School Essays

Writing a high school essay if you have the tips on how to do essay effectively . This will give you an edge from your classmates.

  • Stay Organized: Keep your notes and sources well-organized to make the writing process smoother.
  • Be Clear and Concise: Avoid overly complex sentences or vocabulary that might confuse the reader.
  • Use Transitions: Ensure that your paragraphs and ideas flow logically by using transition words and phrases.
  • Cite Sources: If you use direct quotes or specific ideas from your research, make sure to cite your sources properly to avoid plagiarism.
  • Practice: Like any skill, essay writing improves with practice. Don’t hesitate to write drafts and experiment with different writing styles.

Importance of High School Essay

Aside from the fact that you will get reprimanded for not doing  your task, there are more substantial reasons why a high school essay is important. First, you get trained at a very young age. Writing is not just for those who are studying nor for your teachers. As you graduate from high school and then enter college (can see college essays ), you will have more things to write like dissertations and theses.

At least, when you get to that stage, you already know how to write. Aside from that, writing high essays give a life lesson. That is, patience and resourcefulness. You need to find the right resources for your essay as well as patience when finding the right inspiration to write.

How long is a high school essay?

A high school essay typically ranges from 500 to 2000 words, depending on the assignment’s requirements and the subject matter.

How do you start a personal essay for high school?

Begin with an engaging hook (an anecdote, quote, or question) that introduces your theme or story, leading naturally to your thesis or main point.

What makes a good high school essay?

A good high school essay features a clear thesis, coherent structure, compelling evidence, and personal insights, all presented in a polished, grammatically correct format.

sample thesis for high school students

High School Essay Generator

Text prompt

  • Instructive
  • Professional

Write a High School Essay on the importance of participating in sports.

Discuss the role of student government in high schools in a High School Essay.

What are your chances of acceptance?

Calculate for all schools, your chance of acceptance.

Duke University

Your chancing factors

Extracurriculars.

sample thesis for high school students

100 Interesting Research Paper Topics for High Schoolers

What’s covered:, how to pick the right research topic, elements of a strong research paper.

  • Interesting Research Paper Topics

Composing a research paper can be a daunting task for first-time writers. In addition to making sure you’re using concise language and your thoughts are organized clearly, you need to find a topic that draws the reader in.

CollegeVine is here to help you brainstorm creative topics! Below are 100 interesting research paper topics that will help you engage with your project and keep you motivated until you’ve typed the final period. 

You can’t have a good research paper without a good research paper topic. “Good” is subjective and different students will find different topics interesting; however, what’s important is that you find a topic that makes you want to find out more and make a convincing argument. Maybe you’ll be so interested that you’ll want to take it further and submit your paper to a competition!

A research paper is similar to an academic essay but more lengthy and requires more research. This is bittersweet: although it is more work, you can create a more nuanced argument, and learn more about your topic area. Research papers are a demonstration of your research ability and your ability to formulate a convincing argument. How well you’re able to engage with the sources and make original contributions will determine the strength of your paper. 

Introduction

The introduction to a research paper serves two critical functions: it conveys the topic of the paper and illustrates how you will address it. A strong introduction will also pique the interest of the reader and make them excited to read more. Selecting a research paper topic that is meaningful, interesting, and fascinates you is an excellent first step toward creating an engaging paper that people will want to read.

Thesis Statement

A thesis statement is technically part of the introduction—generally the last sentence of it—but is so important that it merits a section of its own. The thesis statement is a declarative sentence that tells the reader what the paper is about. A strong thesis statement serves three purposes: present the topic of the paper, deliver a clear opinion on the topic, and summarize the points the paper will cover.

An example of a good thesis statement of diversity in the workforce is:

Diversity in the workplace is not just a moral imperative but also a strategic advantage for businesses, as it fosters innovation, enhances creativity, improves decision-making, and enables companies to better understand and connect with a diverse customer base.

The body is the largest section of a research paper. It’s here where you support your thesis, present your facts and research, and persuade the reader.

Each paragraph in the body of a research paper should have its own idea. The idea is presented, generally in the first sentence of the paragraph, by a topic sentence. The topic sentence acts similarly to the thesis statement, only on a smaller scale, and every sentence in the paragraph with it supports the idea it conveys.

An example of a topic sentence on how diversity in the workplace fosters innovation is:

Diversity in the workplace fosters innovation by bringing together individuals with different backgrounds, perspectives, and experiences, which stimulates creativity, encourages new ideas, and leads to the development of innovative solutions to complex problems.

The body of an engaging research paper flows smoothly from one idea to the next. Create an outline before writing and order your ideas so that each idea logically leads to another.

The conclusion of a research paper should summarize your thesis and reinforce your argument. It’s common to restate the thesis in the conclusion of a research paper.

For example, a conclusion for a paper about diversity in the workforce is:

In conclusion, diversity in the workplace is vital to success in the modern business world. By embracing diversity, companies can tap into the full potential of their workforce, promote creativity and innovation, and better connect with a diverse customer base, ultimately leading to greater success and a more prosperous future for all.

Reference Page

The reference page is normally found at the end of a research paper. It provides proof that you did research using credible sources, properly credits the originators of information, and prevents plagiarism.

There are a number of different formats of reference pages, including APA, MLA, and Chicago. Make sure to format your reference page in your teacher’s preferred style.

  • Analyze the benefits of diversity in education.
  • Are charter schools useful for the national education system?
  • How has modern technology changed teaching?
  • Discuss the pros and cons of standardized testing.
  • What are the benefits of a gap year between high school and college?
  • What funding allocations give the most benefit to students?
  • Does homeschooling set students up for success?
  • Should universities/high schools require students to be vaccinated?
  • What effect does rising college tuition have on high schoolers?
  • Do students perform better in same-sex schools?
  • Discuss and analyze the impacts of a famous musician on pop music.
  • How has pop music evolved over the past decade?
  • How has the portrayal of women in music changed in the media over the past decade?
  • How does a synthesizer work?
  • How has music evolved to feature different instruments/voices?
  • How has sound effect technology changed the music industry?
  • Analyze the benefits of music education in high schools.
  • Are rehabilitation centers more effective than prisons?
  • Are congestion taxes useful?
  • Does affirmative action help minorities?
  • Can a capitalist system effectively reduce inequality?
  • Is a three-branch government system effective?
  • What causes polarization in today’s politics?
  • Is the U.S. government racially unbiased?
  • Choose a historical invention and discuss its impact on society today.
  • Choose a famous historical leader who lost power—what led to their eventual downfall?
  • How has your country evolved over the past century?
  • What historical event has had the largest effect on the U.S.?
  • Has the government’s response to national disasters improved or declined throughout history?
  • Discuss the history of the American occupation of Iraq.
  • Explain the history of the Israel-Palestine conflict.
  • Is literature relevant in modern society?
  • Discuss how fiction can be used for propaganda.
  • How does literature teach and inform about society?
  • Explain the influence of children’s literature on adulthood.
  • How has literature addressed homosexuality?
  • Does the media portray minorities realistically?
  • Does the media reinforce stereotypes?
  • Why have podcasts become so popular?
  • Will streaming end traditional television?
  • What is a patriot?
  • What are the pros and cons of global citizenship?
  • What are the causes and effects of bullying?
  • Why has the divorce rate in the U.S. been declining in recent years?
  • Is it more important to follow social norms or religion?
  • What are the responsible limits on abortion, if any?
  • How does an MRI machine work?
  • Would the U.S. benefit from socialized healthcare?
  • Elderly populations
  • The education system
  • State tax bases
  • How do anti-vaxxers affect the health of the country?
  • Analyze the costs and benefits of diet culture.
  • Should companies allow employees to exercise on company time?
  • What is an adequate amount of exercise for an adult per week/per month/per day?
  • Discuss the effects of the obesity epidemic on American society.
  • Are students smarter since the advent of the internet?
  • What departures has the internet made from its original design?
  • Has digital downloading helped the music industry?
  • Discuss the benefits and costs of stricter internet censorship.
  • Analyze the effects of the internet on the paper news industry.
  • What would happen if the internet went out?
  • How will artificial intelligence (AI) change our lives?
  • What are the pros and cons of cryptocurrency?
  • How has social media affected the way people relate with each other?
  • Should social media have an age restriction?
  • Discuss the importance of source software.
  • What is more relevant in today’s world: mobile apps or websites?
  • How will fully autonomous vehicles change our lives?
  • How is text messaging affecting teen literacy?

Mental Health

  • What are the benefits of daily exercise?
  • How has social media affected people’s mental health?
  • What things contribute to poor mental and physical health?
  • Analyze how mental health is talked about in pop culture.
  • Discuss the pros and cons of more counselors in high schools.
  • How does stress affect the body?
  • How do emotional support animals help people?
  • What are black holes?
  • Discuss the biggest successes and failures of the EPA.
  • How has the Flint water crisis affected life in Michigan?
  • Can science help save endangered species?
  • Is the development of an anti-cancer vaccine possible?

Environment

  • What are the effects of deforestation on climate change?
  • Is climate change reversible?
  • How did the COVID-19 pandemic affect global warming and climate change?
  • Are carbon credits effective for offsetting emissions or just marketing?
  • Is nuclear power a safe alternative to fossil fuels?
  • Are hybrid vehicles helping to control pollution in the atmosphere?
  • How is plastic waste harming the environment?
  • Is entrepreneurism a trait people are born with or something they learn?
  • How much more should CEOs make than their average employee?
  • Can you start a business without money?
  • Should the U.S. raise the minimum wage?
  • Discuss how happy employees benefit businesses.
  • How important is branding for a business?
  • Discuss the ease, or difficulty, of landing a job today.
  • What is the economic impact of sporting events?
  • Are professional athletes overpaid?
  • Should male and female athletes receive equal pay?
  • What is a fair and equitable way for transgender athletes to compete in high school sports?
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Writing a paper: thesis statements, basics of thesis statements.

The thesis statement is the brief articulation of your paper's central argument and purpose. You might hear it referred to as simply a "thesis." Every scholarly paper should have a thesis statement, and strong thesis statements are concise, specific, and arguable. Concise means the thesis is short: perhaps one or two sentences for a shorter paper. Specific means the thesis deals with a narrow and focused topic, appropriate to the paper's length. Arguable means that a scholar in your field could disagree (or perhaps already has!).

Strong thesis statements address specific intellectual questions, have clear positions, and use a structure that reflects the overall structure of the paper. Read on to learn more about constructing a strong thesis statement.

Being Specific

This thesis statement has no specific argument:

Needs Improvement: In this essay, I will examine two scholarly articles to find similarities and differences.

This statement is concise, but it is neither specific nor arguable—a reader might wonder, "Which scholarly articles? What is the topic of this paper? What field is the author writing in?" Additionally, the purpose of the paper—to "examine…to find similarities and differences" is not of a scholarly level. Identifying similarities and differences is a good first step, but strong academic argument goes further, analyzing what those similarities and differences might mean or imply.

Better: In this essay, I will argue that Bowler's (2003) autocratic management style, when coupled with Smith's (2007) theory of social cognition, can reduce the expenses associated with employee turnover.

The new revision here is still concise, as well as specific and arguable.  We can see that it is specific because the writer is mentioning (a) concrete ideas and (b) exact authors.  We can also gather the field (business) and the topic (management and employee turnover). The statement is arguable because the student goes beyond merely comparing; he or she draws conclusions from that comparison ("can reduce the expenses associated with employee turnover").

Making a Unique Argument

This thesis draft repeats the language of the writing prompt without making a unique argument:

Needs Improvement: The purpose of this essay is to monitor, assess, and evaluate an educational program for its strengths and weaknesses. Then, I will provide suggestions for improvement.

You can see here that the student has simply stated the paper's assignment, without articulating specifically how he or she will address it. The student can correct this error simply by phrasing the thesis statement as a specific answer to the assignment prompt.

Better: Through a series of student interviews, I found that Kennedy High School's antibullying program was ineffective. In order to address issues of conflict between students, I argue that Kennedy High School should embrace policies outlined by the California Department of Education (2010).

Words like "ineffective" and "argue" show here that the student has clearly thought through the assignment and analyzed the material; he or she is putting forth a specific and debatable position. The concrete information ("student interviews," "antibullying") further prepares the reader for the body of the paper and demonstrates how the student has addressed the assignment prompt without just restating that language.

Creating a Debate

This thesis statement includes only obvious fact or plot summary instead of argument:

Needs Improvement: Leadership is an important quality in nurse educators.

A good strategy to determine if your thesis statement is too broad (and therefore, not arguable) is to ask yourself, "Would a scholar in my field disagree with this point?" Here, we can see easily that no scholar is likely to argue that leadership is an unimportant quality in nurse educators.  The student needs to come up with a more arguable claim, and probably a narrower one; remember that a short paper needs a more focused topic than a dissertation.

Better: Roderick's (2009) theory of participatory leadership  is particularly appropriate to nurse educators working within the emergency medicine field, where students benefit most from collegial and kinesthetic learning.

Here, the student has identified a particular type of leadership ("participatory leadership"), narrowing the topic, and has made an arguable claim (this type of leadership is "appropriate" to a specific type of nurse educator). Conceivably, a scholar in the nursing field might disagree with this approach. The student's paper can now proceed, providing specific pieces of evidence to support the arguable central claim.

Choosing the Right Words

This thesis statement uses large or scholarly-sounding words that have no real substance:

Needs Improvement: Scholars should work to seize metacognitive outcomes by harnessing discipline-based networks to empower collaborative infrastructures.

There are many words in this sentence that may be buzzwords in the student's field or key terms taken from other texts, but together they do not communicate a clear, specific meaning. Sometimes students think scholarly writing means constructing complex sentences using special language, but actually it's usually a stronger choice to write clear, simple sentences. When in doubt, remember that your ideas should be complex, not your sentence structure.

Better: Ecologists should work to educate the U.S. public on conservation methods by making use of local and national green organizations to create a widespread communication plan.

Notice in the revision that the field is now clear (ecology), and the language has been made much more field-specific ("conservation methods," "green organizations"), so the reader is able to see concretely the ideas the student is communicating.

Leaving Room for Discussion

This thesis statement is not capable of development or advancement in the paper:

Needs Improvement: There are always alternatives to illegal drug use.

This sample thesis statement makes a claim, but it is not a claim that will sustain extended discussion. This claim is the type of claim that might be appropriate for the conclusion of a paper, but in the beginning of the paper, the student is left with nowhere to go. What further points can be made? If there are "always alternatives" to the problem the student is identifying, then why bother developing a paper around that claim? Ideally, a thesis statement should be complex enough to explore over the length of the entire paper.

Better: The most effective treatment plan for methamphetamine addiction may be a combination of pharmacological and cognitive therapy, as argued by Baker (2008), Smith (2009), and Xavier (2011).

In the revised thesis, you can see the student make a specific, debatable claim that has the potential to generate several pages' worth of discussion. When drafting a thesis statement, think about the questions your thesis statement will generate: What follow-up inquiries might a reader have? In the first example, there are almost no additional questions implied, but the revised example allows for a good deal more exploration.

Thesis Mad Libs

If you are having trouble getting started, try using the models below to generate a rough model of a thesis statement! These models are intended for drafting purposes only and should not appear in your final work.

  • In this essay, I argue ____, using ______ to assert _____.
  • While scholars have often argued ______, I argue______, because_______.
  • Through an analysis of ______, I argue ______, which is important because_______.

Words to Avoid and to Embrace

When drafting your thesis statement, avoid words like explore, investigate, learn, compile, summarize , and explain to describe the main purpose of your paper. These words imply a paper that summarizes or "reports," rather than synthesizing and analyzing.

Instead of the terms above, try words like argue, critique, question , and interrogate . These more analytical words may help you begin strongly, by articulating a specific, critical, scholarly position.

Read Kayla's blog post for tips on taking a stand in a well-crafted thesis statement.

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Digital Commons @ USF > Theses and Dissertations

Secondary Education Theses and Dissertations

Theses/dissertations from 2022 2022.

High School Teachers’ Perceptions of Promoting Student Motivation and Creativity through Career Education , Kyeonghyeon Park

Theses/Dissertations from 2021 2021

Persistence Like a Mother: Nursing the Narrative toward Doctoral Completion in English Education—A Poetic Autoethnography , Krista S. Mallo

Theses/Dissertations from 2020 2020

The Effects of Augmented Reality (AR)-infused Idiom Material on Iranian Students’ Idiom Achievements, Motivation, and Perceptions , Babak Khoshnevisan

How the Use of Learner-Generated Images and Authentic Materials Affects the Comprehension and Production of Vivid Phrasal Idioms in L2 English Learners , Melissa Larsen-Walker

Explore L2 Chinese Learners' Motivation through L2MSS: Selves, Mental Imagery, and Pedagogical Implications , Yao Liu

Exploring Adult Indigenous Latinxs’ English Language Identity Expressions and Agency: A MALP®-informed Photovoice Study , Andrea Enikő Lypka

Theses/Dissertations from 2019 2019

Illuminating Changes in Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions about Teaching Elementary Mathematicsin an Introductory Methods Course , Elaine Cerrato

International Teaching Assistants’ Perceptions of English and Spanish Language Use at the University of Puerto Rico-Mayagüez , Edward G. Contreras Santiago

The Effects and Students’ Views of Teachers' Coded Written Corrective Feedback: A Multiple-Case Study of Online Multiple-draft Chinese Writing , Jining Han

Promoting L2 Idiomatic Competence among Chinese College Students via WeChat , Zhengjie Li

EFL Student Collaborative Writing in Google Docs: A Multiple Case Study , Quang Nam Pham

A New Literacy Coach and Two English Language Arts Teachers Learn Together: A Narrative Inquiry , Christiana C. Succar

Theses/Dissertations from 2017 2017

Exploring Mathematics Teacher Education Fieldwork Experiences through Storytelling , Melody Jeane Elrod

Cultivating Peace via Language Teaching: Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs and Emotions in an EFL Argentine Practicum , María Matilde Olivero

Perspectives of AP U.S. History Teachers in Title I Schools , Mark Lance Rowland

What Does It Mean to Be a Service-Learning Teacher? - An Autoethnography , Kristy Causey Verdi

Theses/Dissertations from 2016 2016

Urban English Language Arts Teachers’ Stories of Technology Use: A Narrative Inquiry , Bridget Abbas

Foreign Language College Achievement and the Infusion of Three Selected Web 2.0 Technologies: A Mixed Method Case Study , Eulises Avellaneda

Educators' Oral Histories of Tampa Bay Area Writing Project Involvement , Margaret Hoffman Saturley

Theses/Dissertations from 2015 2015

Student-teacher Interaction Through Online Reflective Journals in a High School Science Classroom: What Have We Learned? , Megan Elizabeth Ehlers

Facilitating Motivation in a Virtual World Within a Second Language Acquisition Classroom , Andrew Warren Gump

IWitness and Student Empathy: Perspectives from USC Shoah Foundation Master Teachers , Brandon Jerome Haas

Job Satisfaction of Adjunct Faculty Who Teach Standardized Online Courses , Claudia A. Ruiz

The Common Core State Standards: Its Reported Effects on the Instructional Decision Making of Middle School Social Studies Teachers , Tracy Tilotta

The Effects of Blog-supported Collaborative Writing on Writing Performance, Writing Anxiety and Perceptions of EFL College Students in Taiwan , Hui-Ju Wu

The Influence of Types of Homework on Opportunity to Learn and Students' Mathematics Achievement: Examples from the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project , Yiting Yu

Theses/Dissertations from 2014 2014

Picturing the Reader: English Education Pre-service Teachers' Beliefs About Reading Using Photovoice , Michael Dicicco

Balanced Artistry: Describing and Explaining Expert Teacher Practice as Adaptive Expertise , Nina Graham

A Phenomenological Study of the Experiences of Higher Education Students with Disabilities , Allen J. Heindel

The Effect of Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs on Practice , Milton David Huling

Presentation of Civic Identity in Online High School Social Studies Discussion Forums , Holly Mcbride

In Our Image: The Attempted Reshaping of the Cuban Education System by the United States Government, 1898-1912 , Mario John Minichino

The Effects of Emotive Reasoning on Secondary School Students' Decision-Making in the Context of Socioscientific Issues , Wardell Anthony Powell

Reflections in the Classroom: Perspectives on Teaching for Social Justice from Secondary Social Studies Educators , Gregory Lee Samuels

A Case Study of the Roles and Perceptions of Writing Coaches , Amy June Schechter

Theses/Dissertations from 2013 2013

Curriculum Gatekeeping in Global Education: Global Educators' Perspectives , Robert Wayne Bailey

An Investigation of the Effects of an Authentic Science Experience Among Urban High School Students , Angela Chapman

Social Studies Teachers in an Evaluative Role: The Peer Evaluator Experience in the Accountability Era , Martha Barnes Ford

English Language Teachers' Learning to Teach with Technology through Participation in an Online Community of Practice: A Netnography of Webheads in Action , Derya Kulavuz-Onal

Assessing Competing Demands and Charting a Course: A Phenomenological Study of Advanced Placement U.S. History Teachers' Decision Making and Course Planning , Kerry Dean Poole

School Library Media Specialists' Perceptions of Collaboration, Leadership and Technology , Jozan Maria Powell

Preparing Teachers to Apply Research to Mathematics Teaching: Using Design-Based Research to Define and Assess the Process of Evidence-Based Practice , Sarah Van Ingen

From Limited-English-Proficient to Educator: Perspectives on Three Spanish-English Biliteracy Journeys , Elizabeth Visedo

A Case Study of Peer Review Practices of Four Adolescent English Language Learners in Face-to-Face and Online Contexts , Oksana Vorobel

Intermediate-Level Chinese Language Learners' Social Communication in Chinese on Facebook: A Mixed Methods Study , Shenggao Wang

Theses/Dissertations from 2012 2012

Member Perceptions of Informal Science Institutions Graduate Certificate Program: Case Study of a Community of Practice , Lois A. Ball

Team-Teaching Experiences of a Mathematician and a Mathematics Teacher Educator: An Interpretative Phenomenological Case Study , Sarah K. Bleiler

The Impact of Socioscientific Issues Based Curriculum Involving Environmental Outdoor Education for Fourth Grade Students , Karey Burek

A Phenomenological Study of Teaching Endangered Languages Online: Perspectives from Nahua and Mayan Educators. , Dustin De Felice

"Are We Supposed to be the Guy on the Horse?" A Case Study on the Use of Political Cartoons in the American History Classroom , James Manuel Duran

Teachers' Narratives of Experience with Social Class , Natalie Elizabeth Keefer

Multiple Intelligences in the Text: Examining the Presence of MI Tasks in the Annotated Teacher's Editions of Four High School United States History Textbooks , Carey Mullican

Four English Language Learners' Experiences and Strategy Use in Learning Environments of Multiliteracies , Ho Ryong Park

Statistical Content in Middle Grades Mathematics Textbooks , Maria Consuelo (suzie) Capiral Pickle

Socioscientific Issues: A Path Towards Advanced ScientificLiteracy and Improved Conceptual Understanding of Socially Controversial Scientific Theories , Dean William Pinzino

Theses/Dissertations from 2011 2011

A Case Study of Adolescent Females' Perceptions of Identity in an After-School Book Club , Holly Atkins

The Impact of an Online Learning Community Project on University Chinese as a Foreign Language Students' Motivation , Shengrong Cai

Opportunity to Learn (OTL) and the Alignment of Upper Division Mathematics Learning Outcomes, Textbooks, and the National Assessment in Belize , Gabriel Cal

Making Meaning with "Readers" and "Texts": A Narrative Inquiry into Two Beginning English Teachers' Meaning Making from Classroom Events , Christi Underwood Edge

A Sociocultural-Theory-Based Study of the Impact of Mediation During Post-Observation Conferences on Language Teacher Learning , Jane Harvey

Role of CMC-Embedded Webquests in Enhancement of Online Students' Knowledge and Understanding of German Culture - A Case Study , Radhika Lothe

Technology Use as Transformative Pedagogy: Using Video Editing Technology to Learn About Teaching , Michelle Macy

"We Have Never Known What Death Was Before"--A Just War Doctrine Critique of U.S. History Textbooks , Mark Pearcy

El Poder / The Power: Latino/a Literature Inclusion in the Florida High School Language Arts Classroom as a Contributing Deterrent to the Latino/a Dropout Rate , Monica Adriana Sleeter

Revision And Validation Of A Culturally-Adapted Online Instructional Module Using Edmundson's CAP Model: A DBR Study , Marie A. Tapanes

Geometric Transformations in Middle School Mathematics Textbooks , Barbara Zorin

Theses/Dissertations from 2010 2010

Through the Lens of a Global Educator: Examining Personal Perceptions Regarding the Construction of World-Mindedness , Kenneth T. Carano

Concepts of Variable in Middle-Grades Mathematics Textbooks during Four Eras of Mathematics Education in the United States , James K. Dogbey

Experiences of Foreign Language Teachers and Students Using a Technology-Mediated Oral Assessment , Jeannie Ducher

Manifestations of Hidden Curriculum in a Community College Online Opticianry Program: An Ecological Approach , Barry Hubbard

Proportionality in Middle-School Mathematics Textbooks , Gwendolyn Joy Johnson

Preservice Elementary Teachers‟ Pedagogical Content Knowledge Related to Area and Perimeter: A Teacher Development Experiment Investigating Anchored Instruction With Web-Based Microworlds , Matthew S. Kellogg

Systematic Development and Validation of a Course of Instruction in Prior Learning Assessment , John D. McNally

The Dynamic Graphic Organizer and its Influence on Making Factual, Comparative, and Inferential Determinations within Comparative Content , Cameron Spears

Technology Integration For Preservice Science Teacher Educators , Nina C. Stokes

Theses/Dissertations from 2009 2009

Motivation And Instructor’s Self-Disclosure Using Facebook In A French Online Course Context , James M. Aubry

Enhancing Nature of Science Understanding, Reflective Judgment, and Argumentation through Socioscientific Issues , Brendan E. Callahan

College Students' Use of Science Content During Socioscientific Issues Negotiation: Impact of Evolution Understanding and Acceptance , Samantha R. Fowler

Teacher Self-Efficacy and the Civic Knowledge of Secondary Social Studies Teachers in a Large Urban School District: A Policy Study , Dennis Holt

Teaching social studies in an age of globalization: A case study of secondary social studies teachers' participation in the UNA-USA's Global Classrooms curriculum program , Kelly R. Miliziano

The realization of the speech act of refusal in Egyptian Arabic by American learners of Arabic as a foreign language , Nader Morkus

Exploring efficient design approaches for display of multidimensional data to facilitate interpretation of information , Chitra S. Pathiavadi

Classroom discourse and Teacher talk influences on English language learner students' mathematics experiences , Mariana M. Petkova

A Multiple Case Study Analysis of Middle Grades Social Studies Teachers' Instructional Use of Digital Technology with Academically Talented Students at Three High-Performing Middle Schools , Caroline C. Sheffield

Development and Validation of a Web-Based Module to Teach Metacognitive Learning Strategies to Students in Higher Education , Oma B. Singh

Transformational Processes and Learner Outcomes for Online Learning: An Activity Theory Case Study of Spanish Students , Joseph M. Terantino

Theses/Dissertations from 2008 2008

The Process of Change Experienced by Pre-Service and In-Service Social Studies Teachers in an Online Content Area Reading Course , Aimee L. Alexander-Shea

The Role of Image Resolution to Locomotion Tasks in Virtual Desktop Wayfinding , Lisa Dawn Anderson

Secondary Pre-Service Teachers’ Knowledge and Confidence in Dealing with Students’ First Amendment Rights in the Classroom , Ian Call

Culture Learning in Spanish Companion Book Websites: An Analysis of Tasks , Angela Cresswell

The Effects of Pre-Writing Strategy Training Guided by Computer-Based Procedural Facilitation on ESL Students’ Strategy Use, Writing Quantity, and Writing Quality , Darunee Dujsik

Ocean Literacy and Reasoning About Ocean Issues: The Influence of Content, Experience and Morality , Teresa Greely

Digitally Implemented Interactive Fiction: Systematic Development and Validation of “Mole, P.I.”, a Multimedia Adventure for Third Grade Readers , Denise Haunstetter

Personal Epistemological Growth in a College Chemistry Laboratory Environment , Linda S. Keen-Rocha

A Comparative Study of Six Decades of General Science Textbooks: Evaluating the Evolution of Science Content , Anna Lewis

The Acquisition of Procedural Skills: An Analysis of the Worked-Example Effect Using Animated Demonstrations , David Lewis

A Study of Instructional Strategies that Promote Learning Centered Synchronous Dialogue Online , Shelley Stewart

Dynamic Assessment: Towards a Model of Dialogic Engagement , Robert Summers

Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement in Ninth and Tenth Grade Reading: A Multilevel Analysis , Anete Vasquez

Theses/Dissertations from 2007 2007

High school social studies teachers' attitudes towards the inclusion of ELL students in mainstream classes , Jason L. O'Brien

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Dissertation & Thesis Outline | Example & Free Templates

Published on June 7, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on November 21, 2023.

A thesis or dissertation outline is one of the most critical early steps in your writing process . It helps you to lay out and organize your ideas and can provide you with a roadmap for deciding the specifics of your dissertation topic and showcasing its relevance to your field.

Generally, an outline contains information on the different sections included in your thesis or dissertation , such as:

  • Your anticipated title
  • Your abstract
  • Your chapters (sometimes subdivided into further topics like literature review, research methods, avenues for future research, etc.)

In the final product, you can also provide a chapter outline for your readers. This is a short paragraph at the end of your introduction to inform readers about the organizational structure of your thesis or dissertation. This chapter outline is also known as a reading guide or summary outline.

Table of contents

How to outline your thesis or dissertation, dissertation and thesis outline templates, chapter outline example, sample sentences for your chapter outline, sample verbs for variation in your chapter outline, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about thesis and dissertation outlines.

While there are some inter-institutional differences, many outlines proceed in a fairly similar fashion.

  • Working Title
  • “Elevator pitch” of your work (often written last).
  • Introduce your area of study, sharing details about your research question, problem statement , and hypotheses . Situate your research within an existing paradigm or conceptual or theoretical framework .
  • Subdivide as you see fit into main topics and sub-topics.
  • Describe your research methods (e.g., your scope , population , and data collection ).
  • Present your research findings and share about your data analysis methods.
  • Answer the research question in a concise way.
  • Interpret your findings, discuss potential limitations of your own research and speculate about future implications or related opportunities.

For a more detailed overview of chapters and other elements, be sure to check out our article on the structure of a dissertation or download our template .

To help you get started, we’ve created a full thesis or dissertation template in Word or Google Docs format. It’s easy adapt it to your own requirements.

 Download Word template    Download Google Docs template

Chapter outline example American English

It can be easy to fall into a pattern of overusing the same words or sentence constructions, which can make your work monotonous and repetitive for your readers. Consider utilizing some of the alternative constructions presented below.

Example 1: Passive construction

The passive voice is a common choice for outlines and overviews because the context makes it clear who is carrying out the action (e.g., you are conducting the research ). However, overuse of the passive voice can make your text vague and imprecise.

Example 2: IS-AV construction

You can also present your information using the “IS-AV” (inanimate subject with an active verb ) construction.

A chapter is an inanimate object, so it is not capable of taking an action itself (e.g., presenting or discussing). However, the meaning of the sentence is still easily understandable, so the IS-AV construction can be a good way to add variety to your text.

Example 3: The “I” construction

Another option is to use the “I” construction, which is often recommended by style manuals (e.g., APA Style and Chicago style ). However, depending on your field of study, this construction is not always considered professional or academic. Ask your supervisor if you’re not sure.

Example 4: Mix-and-match

To truly make the most of these options, consider mixing and matching the passive voice , IS-AV construction , and “I” construction .This can help the flow of your argument and improve the readability of your text.

As you draft the chapter outline, you may also find yourself frequently repeating the same words, such as “discuss,” “present,” “prove,” or “show.” Consider branching out to add richness and nuance to your writing. Here are some examples of synonyms you can use.

If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

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When you mention different chapters within your text, it’s considered best to use Roman numerals for most citation styles. However, the most important thing here is to remain consistent whenever using numbers in your dissertation .

The title page of your thesis or dissertation goes first, before all other content or lists that you may choose to include.

A thesis or dissertation outline is one of the most critical first steps in your writing process. It helps you to lay out and organize your ideas and can provide you with a roadmap for deciding what kind of research you’d like to undertake.

  • Your chapters (sometimes subdivided into further topics like literature review , research methods , avenues for future research, etc.)

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.

George, T. (2023, November 21). Dissertation & Thesis Outline | Example & Free Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved March 12, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/dissertation-thesis-outline/

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An thesis examples on high school is a prosaic composition of a small volume and free composition, expressing individual impressions and thoughts on a specific occasion or issue and obviously not claiming a definitive or exhaustive interpretation of the subject.

Some signs of high school thesis:

  • the presence of a specific topic or question. A work devoted to the analysis of a wide range of problems in biology, by definition, cannot be performed in the genre of high school thesis topic.
  • The thesis expresses individual impressions and thoughts on a specific occasion or issue, in this case, on high school and does not knowingly pretend to a definitive or exhaustive interpretation of the subject.
  • As a rule, an essay suggests a new, subjectively colored word about something, such a work may have a philosophical, historical, biographical, journalistic, literary, critical, popular scientific or purely fiction character.
  • in the content of an thesis samples on high school , first of all, the author’s personality is assessed - his worldview, thoughts and feelings.

The goal of an thesis in high school is to develop such skills as independent creative thinking and writing out your own thoughts.

Writing an thesis is extremely useful, because it allows the author to learn to clearly and correctly formulate thoughts, structure information, use basic concepts, highlight causal relationships, illustrate experience with relevant examples, and substantiate his conclusions.

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65 Argumentative Research Topics For High School Students [PDF Included]

In today’s world, where information is readily available at our fingertips, it’s becoming increasingly important to teach students how to think critically, evaluate sources, and develop persuasive arguments. And one of the best ways to do this is through argumentative research topics.

In high school, students are often encouraged to learn and analyze factual information. However, much like other English and biology research topics , argumentative research topics offer a different kind of challenge. Instead of simply presenting facts, these topics require students to delve into complex issues, think critically, and present their opinions in a clear and convincing manner.

In this article, we will provide a list of compelling argumentative research topics for high school students. From education and politics to social issues and environmental concerns, these topics will challenge students to think deeply, evaluate sources critically, and develop and challenge their skills!

Argumentative research topics: Persuading the student to think and reason harder

Argumentative research topics are a fascinating and exciting way for students to engage in critical thinking and persuasive writing. This type of research topic encourages students to take a stance on a controversial issue and defend it using well-reasoned arguments and evidence. By doing so, students are not only honing their analytical skills and persuasive writing skills, but they are also developing a deeper understanding of their own beliefs and assumptions.

Unlike other research topics that may simply require students to regurgitate facts or summarize existing research, argumentative topics require students to develop and defend their own ideas.

Through argumentative research, students are encouraged to question their own biases and consider alternative perspectives. This type of critical thinking is a vital skill that is essential for success in any academic or professional context. Being able to analyze and evaluate information from different perspectives is an invaluable tool that will serve students well in their future careers.

Furthermore, argumentative research topics, are like writing prompts , which are meant to encourage students to engage in civil discourse and debate. These topics often involve controversial issues that can elicit strong emotions and passionate opinions from individuals with differing viewpoints.

By engaging in respectful, fact-based discussions and debates, students can learn how to engage with people who have different beliefs and opinions

Argumentative Research Topics

  • The boundaries of free speech: where should the line be drawn?
  • Internet privacy: Should websites and apps be restricted in collecting and utilizing user data?
  • Has the internet been a force for progress or a hindrance?
  • The role of public surveillance in modern society: is it necessary or invasive?
  • Climate change and global warming: Are human activities solely responsible?
  • Mandating physical education in schools to combat childhood obesity: Is it effective?
  • The ethics of mandatory vaccination for high school students for public health reasons
  • The ethics of wearing fur and leather: Is it always unethical?
  • Keeping exotic pets: is it acceptable or inhumane?
  • The impact of social media on mental health: Is it more positive or negative?
  • Wildlife preserves: Are they suitable habitats for all species that reside there?
  • Animal fashion: Should it be prohibited?
  • Mental health services in schools: Should they be free or reduced-cost for students?
  • Quality of high school education: Should teachers undergo regular assessments to ensure it?
  • Healthy eating habits in schools: Should schools offer healthier food options in their cafeteria or allow students to bring food from home?
  • Social media addiction: Is it a significant health concern for kids?
  • Technology use and mental health problems: Is there a connection among high school students?
  • Junk food in schools: Should schools ban it from vending machines and school stores to promote healthy eating habits?
  • Dress codes in schools: Are they necessary or outdated
  • Regulating social media: Should the government regulate it to prevent cyberbullying?
  • Politicians and standardized testing: Should politicians be subject to standardized testing?
  • Art vs Science: Are they equally challenging fields?
  • School uniform and discrimination: Does it really reduce discrimination in schools?
  • Teachers and poor academic performance: Are teachers the cause of poor academic performance?
  • Physical discipline: Should teachers and parents be allowed to physically discipline their children?
  • Telling white lies: Is it acceptable to tell a white lie to spare someone’s feelings?
  • Sports in college: Should colleges promote sports as a career path?
  • Gender and education: How does gender affect education?
  • Refusing medical treatment: Is it acceptable to refuse medical treatment based on personal beliefs?
  • Children’s rights and medical treatment: Do doctors violate children’s rights if they do not provide treatment when the parents refuse to treat the child?
  • Parental influence on gender stereotypes: Do parents encourage gender stereotypes?
  • Dating in schools: Should dating be permitted in schools with supervision?
  • Human nature: Are people inherently good or evil by nature?
  • Immigration and national economy: Can immigration benefit the national economy?
  • Keeping animals in zoos: Is it appropriate?
  • Cell phone use in schools: Should cell phone use be permitted in schools?
  • Veganism: Should humans only consume vegan food?
  • Animal testing: Should it be outlawed?
  • Waste segregation: Should the government mandate waste segregation at home?
  • Technology integration in schools: Is it beneficial for traditional learning?
  • Homeschooling vs traditional schooling: Is homeschooling as effective as traditional schooling?
  • Prohibition of smoking and drinking: Should it be permanently prohibited?
  • Banning violent and aggressive video games: Should they be banned?
  • Harmful effects of beauty standards on society: Are beauty standards harmful to society?
  • The impact of advertising on consumer behavior
  • The ethical considerations of artificial intelligence and its potential impact on society
  • The impact of globalization on cultural diversity
  • The effectiveness of alternative medicine in treating various illnesses
  • The benefits and drawbacks of online learning compared to traditional classroom education
  • The role of mass media in shaping public opinion and political discourse
  • The impact of artificial intelligence on job automation and employment rates
  • The impact of fast fashion on the environment and human rights
  • The ethical considerations of using animals for entertainment purposes
  • Parents are solely responsible for their child’s behavior.
  • Is space exploration worth it or not?
  •   stricter regulations on the use of plastic and single-use products to reduce waste
  • Is capitalism the best economic system
  • Should there be limits on the amount of wealth individuals can accumulate?
  • Is it ethical to use animals for food production?
  • Is the concept of national borders outdated in the modern era?
  • Should the use of nuclear power be expanded or phased out?
  • Self-driving cars: Convenience or threat?
  • The implications of allowing influencers to advertise dietary supplements and weight loss products.
  •  Faults in the education system: need change or modification?
  • Are the intentions of “big pharma” genuinely aligned with the well-being of the public?

Argumentative research topics are an important tool for promoting critical thinking, and persuasive communication skills and preparing high school students for active engagement in society. These topics challenge students to think deeply and develop persuasive arguments by engaging with complex issues and evaluating sources. Through this process, students can become informed, engaged, and empathetic citizens who are equipped to participate actively in a democratic society.

Furthermore, argumentative research topics teach students how to engage in respectful, fact-based discussions and debates, and how to communicate effectively with people who have different beliefs and opinions. By fostering civil discourse, argumentative research topics can help bridge social, cultural, and political divides, and promote a more united and equitable society.

Overall, argumentative research topics are a crucial component of high school education, as they provide students with the skills and confidence they need to succeed in college, career, and life.

sample thesis for high school students

Having a 10+ years of experience in teaching little budding learners, I am now working as a soft skills and IELTS trainers. Having spent my share of time with high schoolers, I understand their fears about the future. At the same time, my experience has helped me foster plenty of strategies that can make their 4 years of high school blissful. Furthermore, I have worked intensely on helping these young adults bloom into successful adults by training them for their dream colleges. Through my blogs, I intend to help parents, educators and students in making these years joyful and prosperous.

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5 Common Types of High School Essays (With Examples)

  • Last modified 2023-10-18
  • Published on 2021-08-28

sample thesis for high school students

When it comes to high school essays, descriptive and narrative essays are very similar in the sense that they encourage writers to be creative in expressing their ideas. Expository and argumentative essays focus on providing clear information and making compelling points. Analytical essays require writers to present their arguments and are intended to enhance readers’ understanding of a topic, while persuasive writers try to persuade readers to accept a point of view.

In this article, we will go into details about each one to help you better define the type and the writing method when you start writing. 

1. Descriptive high school essays

A descriptive essay asks writers to describe something vividly —object, person, place, experience, emotion, situation, etc., but more commonly you will be asked to describe something abstract —emotions, experiences, or something outside of your typical experience.

A descriptive essay allows writers to be creative and have the freedom to express, especially when the topic is personal about them and what they care about, for example, their favorite food or their culture. Even though this sounds easy, this type of essay tests the writer’s ability to make appropriate word choices and have a strong creativity to help readers visualize the overall picture of what they are writing about. A descriptive essay normally starts with introducing the subject or object of description, continuing with giving an overall picture, and then going into details.

Below is an example of a descriptive essay from Yourdictionary :

I watched a thunderstorm, far out over the sea. It began quietly, and with nothing visible except tall dark clouds and a rolling tide. There was just a soft murmur of thunder as I watched the horizon from my balcony. Over the next few minutes, the clouds closed and reflected lightning set the rippling ocean aglow. The thunderheads had covered up the sun, shadowing the vista. It was peaceful for a long time.

I was looking up when the first clear thunderbolt struck. It blazed against the sky and sea; I could see its shape in perfect reverse colors when I blinked. More followed. The thunder rumbled and stuttered as if it could hardly keep up. There were openings in the cloud now, as if the sky were torn, and spots of brilliant blue shone above the shadowed sea.

I looked down then, watching the waves. Every bolt was answered by a moment of spreading light on the surface. The waves were getting rough, rising high and crashing hard enough that I could hear them.

Then came the rain. It came all at once and in sheets, soaking the sand, filling the sea. It was so dense I could only see the lightning as flashes of light. It came down so hard the thunder was drowned. Everything was rhythmic light and shadow, noise and silence, blending into a single experience of all five senses.

In an instant it stopped. The storm broke. The clouds came apart like curtains. The rain still fell, but softly now. It was as if there had never been a storm at all, except for a single signature. A rainbow, almost violently bright, spread above and across the water. I could see the horizon again.

2. Narrative Essay

A narrative high school essay is similar to a descriptive essay but focuses more on the story description rather than object description. The story can be about a personal experience that the writer has had, an event, a story, an incident. Writers can even narrate a fictional experience that they haven’t had. Narrative essays are typically written in the first person. For example, the personal statement high school students have to write for college applications.

The purpose of a narrative essay is not only to tell a story, but also to highlight the importance of the experience. Therefore, to write a perfect narrative essay, writers must include the elements of settings, context, plot, ending, and climax.

We have an example from a student’s work, which was published on the blog: People’s Republic of Creativity

Glup, glup.

I sat watching the plunger slowly make its way down the tube and into Miriam’s body. Inside the tube was a clear unknown liquid that would soon be injected into my own body. This was the third time this week, the twelfth time this month, and who knows how many times since we have been trapped in this hell on earth. Each day, we have only been given the bare minimum of food, water, and sleep. I don’t know how much longer we can survive before deemed useless by him.

Miriam fell out of her chair and onto the cold concrete floor, screaming in pain. She scrambles for something she can grasp onto to prop her malnourished body up. Then the piercing sound just suddenly stopped. Her thin arms that look only of bones and skin drop to the ground and she lay still on the floor, as if she were…dead. Please don’t tell me she’s dead! No, she couldn’t be; we promised each other to live until the day of liberation.

She needs to live.

It was my turn. He walked over with a syringe full of what had just been injected into Miriam. I try to focus on the red, black, and white badge on his left arm instead of letting the fear crawl in and take over my brain. But the unsettling tension stirs my thoughts around and around.

“Twin A1387, let’s hope what happened to your sister doesn’t happen to you.” He smirked. The needle pierced through my skin and my body was suddenly aflame. The raging blaze spread through every one of my veins, until I was shrouded in darkness.

When I opened my eyes again, I found myself in an empty confinement. The space next to me, the space for Miriam, was empty too. Where was everyone? Most importantly, where was Miriam?

I got up and set my bare foot onto the dirty, wooden floor. Suddenly, my head started spinning and along with it, the world spun too. I fell to the ground, and when I could finally lift my head, what I saw above me terrified me. It was him, death in human form, and beside him were four of his helpers. They grabbed my arms and forced me to stand up.

“Good morning A1387. I am afraid your dear twin sister couldn’t handle the injections from yesterday. Let’s hope your fragile little limbs can endure those chemicals. I wonder how many more injections it will take for you to meet your pathetic sister,” he said, patting my head. His tone was playful, but deadly.

I froze. What? Miriam…dead? That one word, “twins”, has taken away everything of what feels like my past life, and now my last hope? I felt a surge of anger, hatred, sadness, fear, devastation swirling inside me like boiling lava in a volcano, ready to erupt. I wanted to scream, to shout, to kill him, but I couldn’t. My soft limbs felt as if they would collapse merely by trying to stand up. They would be harmless and defenceless against the Angel of Death. When he saw the hatred on my face, he started laughing hysterically and simply said, “What a shame; she was only 13. I cannot wait to see how long it will take for you to fall apart!”

3. Expository Essay

According to Purdue University , the expository essay is a genre of essay that requires the student to investigate an idea, evaluate evidence, expound on the idea, and set forth an argument concerning that idea in a clear and concise manner. To accomplish this, writers use the method of comparison and contrast, definition, example, cause, and effect, etc.

Writers are not required to argue or make a personal opinion, but to present balanced and well-organized facts and figures.

In an expository essay–as the name suggests–you need to expose the particular subject in question by providing enough information. It is an informative piece of writing that provides a balanced analysis of the topic. It does not contain any personal opinion; instead, it is based on real facts and figures. Therefore, this kind of high school essay is commonly assigned in high school or college in order to test students’ familiarity with a topic and ability to convey information.

This is an example from College Board’s SAT Writing Prompt.  

In response to our world’s growing reliance on artificial light, writer Paul Bogard argues that natural darkness should be preserved in his article “Let There be dark”. He effectively builds his argument by using a personal anecdote, allusions to art and history, and rhetorical questions.

Bogard starts his article off by recounting a personal story – a summer spent on a Minnesota lake where there was “woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes.” In telling this brief anecdote, Bogard challenges the audience to remember a time where they could fully amass themselves in natural darkness void of artificial light. By drawing in his readers with a personal encounter about night darkness, the author means to establish the potential for beauty, glamour, and awe-inspiring mystery that genuine darkness can possess. He builds his argument for the preservation of natural darkness by reminiscing for his readers a first-hand encounter that proves the “irreplaceable value of darkness.” This anecdote provides a baseline of sorts for readers to find credence with the author’s claims.

Bogard’s argument is also furthered by his use of allusion to art – Van Gogh’s “Starry Night” – and modern history – Paris’ reputation as “The City of Light”. By first referencing “Starry Night”, a painting generally considered to be undoubtedly beautiful, Bogard establishes that the natural magnificence of stars in a dark sky is definite. A world absent of excess artificial light could potentially hold the key to a grand, glorious night sky like Van Gogh’s according to the writer. This urges the readers to weigh the disadvantages of our world consumed by unnatural, vapid lighting. Furthermore, Bogard’s alludes to Paris as “the famed ‘city of light’”. He then goes on to state how Paris has taken steps to exercise more sustainable lighting practices. By doing this, Bogard creates a dichotomy between Paris’ traditionally alluded-to name and the reality of what Paris is becoming – no longer “the city of light”, but moreso “the city of light…before 2 AM”. This furthers his line of argumentation because it shows how steps can be and are being taken to preserve natural darkness. It shows that even a city that is literally famous for being constantly lit can practically address light pollution in a manner that preserves the beauty of both the city itself and the universe as a whole.

Finally, Bogard makes subtle yet efficient use of rhetorical questioning to persuade his audience that natural darkness preservation is essential. He asks the readers to consider “what the vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren?” in a way that brutally plays to each of our emotions. By asking this question, Bogard draws out heartfelt ponderance from his readers about the affecting power of an untainted night sky. This rhetorical question tugs at the readers’ heartstrings; while the reader may have seen an unobscured night skyline before, the possibility that their child or grandchild will never get the chance sways them to see as Bogard sees. This strategy is definitively an appeal to pathos, forcing the audience to directly face an emotionally-charged inquiry that will surely spur some kind of response. By doing this, Bogard develops his argument, adding gutthral power to the idea that the issue of maintaining natural darkness is relevant and multifaceted.

Writing as a reaction to his disappointment that artificial light has largely permeated the presence of natural darkness, Paul Bogard argues that we must preserve true, unaffected darkness. He builds this claim by making use of a personal anecdote, allusions, and rhetorical questioning.

4. Argumentative Essay

The argumentative high school essay is similar to the expository essay, because it requires writers to present their evidence-based arguments. Writers have to present a thesis statement, gather and evaluate evidence, and establish a position on the topic. Many people think argumentative and expository essays are the same. They belong to a similar genre, but an argumentative essay requires more research than an expository essay. An expository essay is normally used in the SAT test, because test takers are required to investigate and present points from the prompts given. An argumentative essay is generally used in a final project or a capstone, which requires length and detailed research. The essay is divided into 3 parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. The introduction has a topic and thesis statement, the body has evidence and arguments, and the conclusion summarizes the arguments and potential directions for future research.

Below is an example from a GRE writing answer from ETS : 

Prompt : The best ideas arise from a passionate interest in commonplace things

Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement above and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the statement might or might not hold true and explain how those considerations shape your position.

Passion is clearly necessary for a truly great idea to take hold among a people—passion either

on the part of the original thinker, the audience, or ideally both. The claim that the most lucrative

subject matter for inspiring great ideas is “commonplace things” may seem initially to be counterintuitive. After all, aren’t great ideas usually marked by their extraordinary character? While this is true, their extraordinary character is as often as not directly derived from their insight into things that had theretofore gone unquestioned. While great ideas certainly can arise through seemingly pure innovation… say, for example, Big Bang cosmology, which developed nearly all of its own scientific and philosophical precepts through its own process of formation, it is nevertheless equally true that such groundbreaking thought was, and is, still largely

a reevaluation of previous assumptions to a radical degree… after all, the question of the ultimate nature of the universe, and man’s place in it, has been central to human thought since the dawn of time. Commonplace things are, additionally, necessary as material for the generation of “the best ideas” since certainly the success among an audience must be considered in evaluating the significance and quality of an idea.

The advent of Big Bang cosmology, which occurred in rudimentary form almost immediately upon Edwin Hubble’s first observations at the Hooker telescope in California during the early 20th century, was the most significant advance in mankind’s understanding of the universe in over 400 years. The seemingly simple fact that everything in the universe, on a very large scale, is moving away from everything else in fact betrays nearly all of our scientific knowledge of the origins and mechanics of the universe. This slight, one might even say commonplace, distortion of tint on a handful of photographic plates carried with it the greatest challenge to Man’s general, often religiously reinforced, conception of the nature of the world to an extent not seen since the days of Galileo. Not even Charles Darwin’s theory, though it created more of a stir than Big Bang cosmology, had such shattering implications for our conceptions of the nature of our reality. Yet it is not significant because it introduced the question of the nature of what lies beyond Man’s grasp. A tremendous number of megalithic ruins, including the Pyramids both of Mexico and Egypt, Stonehenge, and others, indicate that this question has been foremost on humankind’s collective mind since time immemorial. Big Bang cosmology is so incredibly significant in this line of reasoning exactly because of the degree to which it changed the direction of this generally held, constantly pondered, and very ancient train of thought.

Additionally, there is a diachronic significance to the advent of Big Bang cosmology, which is that, disregarding limitations such as the quality of optical devices available and the state of theoretical math, it could have happened at any point in time. That is to say, all evidence points to roughly the same raw intellectual capacity for homo sapiens throughout our history, our progress has merely depended upon the degree of it that a person happens to inherit, a pace that has been increasing rapidly since the industrial revolution. Yet this discovery had to happen at a certain point in time or another—it cannot have been happening constantly or have never happened yet still be present—and this point in time does have its own significance. That significance is precisely the fact that the aforementioned advent must have occurred at precisely the point in time at which it truly could have occurred—that is to say, it marks the point in our history when we had progressed sufficiently to begin examining, with remarkable substantiated acuity, the workings of the universe across distances that would take millions of human lifetimes to reach or to traverse. The point for the success of this advent must necessarily have been, additionally, the point at which the audience concerned was capable and prepared to accept such a radical line of reasoning.

Both factors, a radical, passionate interpretation of the commonplace and the preparedness to accept such an interpretation, are necessary for the formulation of a truly great idea. If the passion is absent from an inquiry by the thinker or by the bulk of an audience, the idea will die out if it comes to fruition at all. If the material is not sufficiently commonplace to be considered by an informed audience of sufficient size, the same two hazards exist. Given these two factors, the idea must still be found palatable and interesting by the audience if it is to hope to gain a foothold and eventually establish itself in a significant fashion.

5. Analytical Essay

An analytical essay is a writing genre that provides an in-depth analysis of a topic, ranging from art, music, literary text to politics, science and philosophy, etc. Analytical essays can boost a writer’s writing skills and overall comprehension of a topic, while helping readers become more educated about the subjects of importance. This type of essay is not to persuade readers to a certain point of view, but to provide a well-rounded and comprehensive analysis for the readers. The analytical essay is normally used in the GRE writing section.

A good analytical essay includes a thesis statement that states your main argument, followed by an analysis of your thesis and evidence to support it.

We will take an example from a student’s work about CRISPR, a genetic engineering method. The full essay can be accessed here , but below is the preview of the essay:

No matter how much money people are willing to pay for health care, they may still suffer terribly from incurable diseases such as AIDS and cancer because of the underdevelopment of medical technology. However, today, the advancement in human knowledge has led to the introduction of human gene-editing, turning impossibility to possibility. In particular, the recent technology for genome editing called CRISPR has been having a groundbreaking impact on research in genetic science. This is due to its remarkable potential to simply cure genetic diseases in an embryo before they have a serious effect on further developmental progression. Although currently, there have been numerous debates regarding its extension in research for widespread uses, CRISPR is a completely promising technology because of the benefits it brings to people.

CRISPR, or Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, is the newest innovation in genetic engineering. The way CRISPR works is similar to “the scissor-like action of Cas 9 to target… any specific DNA sequence” (Baylis and Rossant). By making cuts in specific locations in DNA, CRISPR can cure diseases and make alterations in an embryo’s DNA, which prevent diseases from being passed down to following generations (Baylis and Rossant). Throughout the history, governments and researchers came up with different approaches politically and scientifically in attempt to control population. They hoped to encourage the “richest, wisest and healthiest to breed like rabbits” and the “sick, stupid, and poor to take one for the empire and remain childless” (Comfort 28). The second attempt happened during the 20th century, when the U.S government passed the law preventing marriage and immigration that would threaten a perceived core American “stock.” Another more extreme example was when Nazi sterilization law further advanced this population control approach. Later in the century, a biotechnological approach was established as a safer and more humane way to manage population health (qtd in Comfort 28). “Gene surgery,” which is similar to CRISPR technology, was established and followed by contentious debates regarding ethical issues between disease treatment and human trait enhancements. Currently, there has been a halt in the use of CRISPR because of the increase in concern from the public about the pros and cons of this technology.

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This course helps students develop and improve their writing skills to prepare students for higher education courses. The methodology emphasizes the ability to read critically, think critically, and write critically. Students will learn informative, narrative, descriptive, creative, and persuasive essay writing skills. Students will learn how to brainstorm, structure and outline, form an argument, defend it, incorporate academic sources, and develop a clear, articulate writing style. The focus will be on the writing process, intended audience, consistent tenses, point of view, correct grammar uses, building vocabulary, appropriate style, and proper research and citation protocols.

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sample thesis for high school students

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The Big List of Essay Topics for High School (120+ Ideas!)

Ideas to inspire every young writer!

What one class should all high schools students be required to take and pass in order to graduate?

High school students generally do a lot of writing, learning to use language clearly, concisely, and persuasively. When it’s time to choose an essay topic, though, it’s easy to come up blank. If that’s the case, check out this huge round-up of essay topics for high school. You’ll find choices for every subject and writing style.

  • Argumentative Essay Topics
  • Cause-and-Effect Essay Topics
  • Compare-Contrast Essay Topics
  • Descriptive Essay Topics
  • Expository and Informative Essay Topics
  • Humorous Essay Topics

Literary Essay Topics

  • Narrative and Personal Essay Topics
  • Personal Essay Topics
  • Persuasive Essay Topics

Research Essay Topics

Argumentative essay topics for high school.

When writing an argumentative essay, remember to do the research and lay out the facts clearly. Your goal is not necessarily to persuade someone to agree with you, but to encourage your reader to accept your point of view as valid. Here are some possible argumentative topics to try. ( Here are 100 more compelling argumentative essay topics. )

  • The most important challenge our country is currently facing is … (e.g., immigration, gun control, economy)
  • The government should provide free internet access for every citizen.
  • All drugs should be legalized, regulated, and taxed.
  • Vaping is less harmful than smoking tobacco.
  • The best country in the world is …
  • Parents should be punished for their minor children’s crimes.
  • Should all students have the ability to attend college for free?
  • Should physical education be part of the standard high school curriculum?

Should physical education be part of the standard high school curriculum?

WeAreTeachers

  • Schools should require recommended vaccines for all students, with very limited exceptions.
  • Is it acceptable to use animals for experiments and research?
  • Does social media do more harm than good?
  • Capital punishment does/does not deter crime.
  • What one class should all high schools students be required to take and pass in order to graduate?
  • Do we really learn anything from history, or does it just repeat itself over and over?
  • Are men and women treated equally?

Cause-and-Effect Essay Topics for High School

A cause-and-effect essay is a type of argumentative essay. Your goal is to show how one specific thing directly influences another specific thing. You’ll likely need to do some research to make your point. Here are some ideas for cause-and-effect essays. ( Get a big list of 100 cause-and-effect essay topics here. )

  • Humans are causing accelerated climate change.
  • Fast-food restaurants have made human health worse over the decades.
  • What caused World War II? (Choose any conflict for this one.)
  • Describe the effects social media has on young adults.

Describe the effects social media has on young adults.

  • How does playing sports affect people?
  • What are the effects of loving to read?
  • Being an only/oldest/youngest/middle child makes you …
  • What effect does violence in movies or video games have on kids?
  • Traveling to new places opens people’s minds to new ideas.
  • Racism is caused by …

Compare-Contrast Essay Topics for High School

As the name indicates, in compare-and-contrast essays, writers show the similarities and differences between two things. They combine descriptive writing with analysis, making connections and showing dissimilarities. The following ideas work well for compare-contrast essays. ( Find 80+ compare-contrast essay topics for all ages here. )

  • Public and private schools
  • Capitalism vs. communism
  • Monarchy or democracy
  • Dogs vs. cats as pets

Dogs vs. cats as pets

  • Paper books or e-books
  • Two political candidates in a current race
  • Going to college vs. starting work full-time
  • Working your way through college as you go or taking out student loans
  • iPhone or Android
  • Instagram vs. Twitter (or choose any other two social media platforms)

Descriptive Essay Topics for High School

Bring on the adjectives! Descriptive writing is all about creating a rich picture for the reader. Take readers on a journey to far-off places, help them understand an experience, or introduce them to a new person. Remember: Show, don’t tell. These topics make excellent descriptive essays.

  • Who is the funniest person you know?
  • What is your happiest memory?
  • Tell about the most inspirational person in your life.
  • Write about your favorite place.
  • When you were little, what was your favorite thing to do?
  • Choose a piece of art or music and explain how it makes you feel.
  • What is your earliest memory?

What is your earliest memory?

  • What’s the best/worst vacation you’ve ever taken?
  • Describe your favorite pet.
  • What is the most important item in the world to you?
  • Give a tour of your bedroom (or another favorite room in your home).
  • Describe yourself to someone who has never met you.
  • Lay out your perfect day from start to finish.
  • Explain what it’s like to move to a new town or start a new school.
  • Tell what it would be like to live on the moon.

Expository and Informative Essay Topics for High School

Expository essays set out clear explanations of a particular topic. You might be defining a word or phrase or explaining how something works. Expository or informative essays are based on facts, and while you might explore different points of view, you won’t necessarily say which one is “better” or “right.” Remember: Expository essays educate the reader. Here are some expository and informative essay topics to explore. ( See 70+ expository and informative essay topics here. )

  • What makes a good leader?
  • Explain why a given school subject (math, history, science, etc.) is important for students to learn.
  • What is the “glass ceiling” and how does it affect society?
  • Describe how the internet changed the world.
  • What does it mean to be a good teacher?

What does it mean to be a good teacher?

  • Explain how we could colonize the moon or another planet.
  • Discuss why mental health is just as important as physical health.
  • Describe a healthy lifestyle for a teenager.
  • Choose an American president and explain how their time in office affected the country.
  • What does “financial responsibility” mean?

Humorous Essay Topics for High School

Humorous essays can take on any form, like narrative, persuasive, or expository. You might employ sarcasm or satire, or simply tell a story about a funny person or event. Even though these essay topics are lighthearted, they still take some skill to tackle well. Give these ideas a try.

  • What would happen if cats (or any other animal) ruled the world?
  • What do newborn babies wish their parents knew?
  • Explain the best ways to be annoying on social media.
  • Invent a wacky new sport, explain the rules, and describe a game or match.

Explain why it's important to eat dessert first.

  • Imagine a discussion between two historic figures from very different times, like Cleopatra and Queen Elizabeth I.
  • Retell a familiar story in tweets or other social media posts.
  • Describe present-day Earth from an alien’s point of view.
  • Choose a fictional character and explain why they should be the next president.
  • Describe a day when kids are in charge of everything, at school and at home.

Literary essays analyze a piece of writing, like a book or a play. In high school, students usually write literary essays about the works they study in class. These literary essay topic ideas focus on books students often read in high school, but many of them can be tweaked to fit other works as well.

  • Discuss the portrayal of women in Shakespeare’s Othello .
  • Explore the symbolism used in The Scarlet Letter .
  • Explain the importance of dreams in Of Mice and Men .
  • Compare and contrast the romantic relationships in Pride and Prejudice .

Analyze the role of the witches in Macbeth.

  • Dissect the allegory of Animal Farm and its relation to contemporary events.
  • Interpret the author’s take on society and class structure in The Great Gatsby .
  • Explore the relationship between Hamlet and Ophelia.
  • Discuss whether Shakespeare’s portrayal of young love in Romeo and Juliet is accurate.
  • Explain the imagery used in Beowulf .

Narrative and Personal Essay Topics for High School

Think of a narrative essay like telling a story. Use some of the same techniques that you would for a descriptive essay, but be sure you have a beginning, middle, and end. A narrative essay doesn’t necessarily need to be personal, but they often are. Take inspiration from these narrative and personal essay topics.

  • Describe a performance or sporting event you took part in.
  • Explain the process of cooking and eating your favorite meal.
  • Write about meeting your best friend for the first time and how your relationship developed.
  • Tell about learning to ride a bike or drive a car.
  • Describe a time in your life when you’ve been scared.

Write about a time when you or someone you know displayed courage.

  • Share the most embarrassing thing that ever happened to you.
  • Tell about a time when you overcame a big challenge.
  • Tell the story of how you learned an important life lesson.
  • Describe a time when you or someone you know experienced prejudice or oppression.
  • Explain a family tradition, how it developed, and its importance today.
  • What is your favorite holiday? How does your family celebrate it?
  • Retell a familiar story from the point of view of a different character.
  • Describe a time when you had to make a difficult decision.
  • Tell about your proudest moment.

Persuasive Essay Topics for High School

Persuasive essays are similar to argumentative , but they rely less on facts and more on emotion to sway the reader. It’s important to know your audience, so you can anticipate any counterarguments they might make and try to overcome them. Try these topics to persuade someone to come around to your point of view. ( Discover 60 more intriguing persuasive essay topics here. )

  • Do you think homework should be required, optional, or not given at all?
  • Everyone should be vegetarian or vegan.
  • What animal makes the best pet?
  • Visit an animal shelter, choose an animal that needs a home, and write an essay persuading someone to adopt that animal.
  • Who is the world’s best athlete, present or past?
  • Should little kids be allowed to play competitive sports?
  • Are professional athletes/musicians/actors overpaid?
  • The best music genre is …

What is one book that everyone should be required to read?

  • Is democracy the best form of government?
  • Is capitalism the best form of economy?
  • Students should/should not be able to use their phones during the school day.
  • Should schools have dress codes?
  • If I could change one school rule, it would be …
  • Is year-round school a good idea?

A research essay is a classic high school assignment. These papers require deep research into primary source documents, with lots of supporting facts and evidence that’s properly cited. Research essays can be in any of the styles shown above. Here are some possible topics, across a variety of subjects.

  • Which country’s style of government is best for the people who live there?
  • Choose a country and analyze its development from founding to present day.
  • Describe the causes and effects of a specific war.
  • Formulate an ideal economic plan for our country.
  • What scientific discovery has had the biggest impact on life today?

Tell the story of the development of artificial intelligence so far, and describe its impacts along the way.

  • Analyze the way mental health is viewed and treated in this country.
  • Explore the ways systemic racism impacts people in all walks of life.
  • Defend the importance of teaching music and the arts in public schools.
  • Choose one animal from the endangered species list, and propose a realistic plan to protect it.

What are some of your favorite essay topics for high school? Come share your prompts on the WeAreTeachers HELPLINE group on Facebook .

Plus, check out the ultimate guide to student writing contests .

We Are Teachers

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Who will be Pueblo's next Student of the Week? Vote here by March 14

sample thesis for high school students

Five noteworthy high school students headline the Pueblo Chieftain's latest Student of the Week feature and poll.

Nominations of students from Dutch Clark Digital Online, Pueblo County, Pueblo East, Pueblo South and Pueblo West high schools were submitted for this week's poll. Kimberly Sample, a student from Pueblo South High School, was the winner of last week's poll.

Readers can choose the next Student of Week by voting at the bottom of this page. The poll launched on March 11 and will remain open until March 14. Here are this week's nominees.

Albanie Cordova, Pueblo County High School

Albanie Cordova is a Pueblo County High School senior who is fully enrolled at Pueblo Community College. She is the first high school student to serve as PCC's Associated Student Government president. Cordova also is a 4.0 student, active community volunteer, mental health advocate and softball commit to Florida National University.

Ariana Leon-Mendoza, Pueblo East High School

Ariana Leon-Mendoza has excelled in Pueblo East High School's hospitality and food service program. Months away from completing the program, she also is a Family, Career and Community Leaders of America state placer and national qualifier. As a sophomore and junior, she was a member of the ProStart culinary arts competition team at East.

Kaylee Martinez, Dutch Clark Digital Online

Kaylee Martinez is an early-graduating senior at Dutch Clark Digital Online who aspires to travel the world as a flight attendant. She encourages her fellow to students to never give up. "Find something that is very important to you and keep that it the back of your mind for motivation," Martinez said. "Always push yourself to do better and you will be successful!"

Nkechi Onyejekwe, Pueblo West High School

Nkechi Onyejekwe has won the three consecutive state speech and debate championships in Original Oratory. Academically, she is the top-ranked student in her Pueblo West High School junior class. Onyejekwe also is one of Colorado's speediest sprinters. As a sophomore, she placed sixth in the state finals by running 100 meters in 12.53 seconds.

Alison Sample, Pueblo South High School

Alison Sample is a concurrent enrollment student who has spent three consecutive semesters with at least a 4.0 GPA. She also is a four-year academic letter winner with over 400 community service hours, a two-sport varsity athlete and a second-year vice president of South's Key Club. Murals painted by Sample can be seen in South High School's gymnasium and "snake hall."

Vote here for the Pueblo Chieftain's Student of the Week

Last week's poll: Who will be Pueblo's next Student of the Week? Vote here by March 7

Pueblo Chieftain reporter James Bartolo can be reached at [email protected]. Support local news, subscribe to The Pueblo Chieftain at subscribe.chieftain.com .

Home — Essay Samples — Education — Plans After High School — What Is A Senior Year

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These websites help students find college scholarships and get free application advice

Applying to college and figuring out how to pay for it can be tough. these websites provide a plethora of free resources for high school students..

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It can be stressful to go through the college application process and figure out how to finance that education , whether you're a high school senior applying or a parent who's supporting the process.

Even the thought of looking for scholarships or understanding how much you can earn from work-study can be daunting. It also doesn't help that all the news about the cost of college is depressing, with the total national student loan debt load at $1.388 trillion by the end of 2023, according to Experian — and that's after factoring in various loan forgiveness programs .

The College Board found that the average cost of in-state tuition and fees at a public university was $11,260 per year in 2023. Most students, though, aren't paying the full amount to go to college: The College Board also found that public university students, on average, were spending $2,730 per year on tuition and fees thanks to grant aid.

Financing your college education can be made easier if you know where to seek scholarships and how to apply for aid from the federal government.

What we'll cover

How to find college scholarships.

  • Going Merry

Fair Opportunity Project

Other ways to save, bottom line, compare offers to find the best student loan.

$100 million in scholarship funds go unawarded and over $2 billion in student grants go unclaimed each year, according to SoFi . A common misconception is that scholarships are only available for those with exceptional grades or abilities.

"There are lots of different scholarships out there and lots of different types of scholarships," says Jefferson Pestronk , executive director of the Modern States Education Alliance , a philanthropy focused on college accessibility and affordability, and a former director of special initiatives in the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Innovation and Improvement.

As a result, there are many opportunities for students to save on education, regardless of their grade point average or their standardized testing score. However, it's a double-edged sword.

"You've got to put in the legwork to find the ones that match who you are," Pestronk says. 

CNBC Select has rounded up six scholarship search services that could help you save on school. While these websites and apps are useful, many of the scholarships listed are competitive, so students should also seek out local scholarships, fill out their FAFSA, appeal their pre-existing financial aid package and look into federal student loans.

Going Merry 

Going Merry , now owned by student loan lender Earnest , was first created by Raymond Murthi and Charlie Maynard. Ray saw a gap in the market when helping his girlfriend apply for scholarships for her master's program. Charlie faced similar issues during his undergraduate and master's programs. Together, they were inspired to create an online service that not only aggregates scholarships but also allows users to apply for them directly through the website.

Rather than fill out multiple scholarship forms, high school students can set up a profile by entering some basic information about themselves. Once they've established a profile, they can apply for multiple scholarships through Going Merry. Users can alter the info for each application and may be required to answer different questions depending on the application.

Going Merry will use the information in your profile to recommend scholarships. Users can also use the search function to filter scholarships by categories like number of recipients, the deadline and competitiveness.

Eligible borrowers

Undergraduate and graduate students, parents, half-time students, international and DACA students

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Actual rate and available repayment terms will vary based on your income. Fixed rates range from 5.19% APR to 9.74% APR (excludes 0.25% Auto Pay discount). Variable rates range from 5.99% APR to 9.74% APR (excludes 0.25% Auto Pay discount). Earnest variable interest rate student loan refinance loans are based on a publicly available index, the 30-day Average Secured Overnight Financing Rate (SOFR) published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. The variable rate is based on the rate published on the 25th day, or the next business day, of the preceding calendar month, rounded to the nearest hundredth of a percent. The rate will not increase more than once per month. The maximum rate for your loan is 9.99% if your loan term is 10 years or less. For loan terms of more than 10 years to 15 years, the interest rate will never exceed 9.95%. For loan terms over 15 years, the interest rate will never exceed 11.95%. Please note, we are not able to offer variable rate loans in AK, IL, MN, NH, OH, TN, and TX. Our lowest rates are only available for our most credit qualified borrowers and contain our .25% auto pay discount from a checking or savings account.

Fastweb (Financial Aid Search Through the Web) says that it was the first scholarship search website . Founded in 1995 by Canadian businessman and entrepreneur Larry Organ, it has over 1.5 million scholarship opportunities listed. Its team of researchers decides which scholarship opportunities are posted and makes sure that none are scams. None of the scholarship applications have fees and none require you to enter personal information. 

Students can set up a profile, and Fastweb will recommend scholarships based on the information provided. There's also a database of scholarships organized by student type, whether you're Black, bilingual, a veteran, etc.

Whenever you apply for a scholarship via FastWeb, you'll be redirected to the specific scholarship website where you can apply. Unlike Going Merry, you'll have to go through the hassle of entering the same information multiple times to apply for different scholarships.

Appily (formerly Cappex) is a website that matches students up with potential scholarships and also helps them discover and learn about different colleges.

Appily, like Fastweb and Going Merry, recommends colleges for students to apply to based on their profile. It also has a comprehensive database of colleges with information about the average net price of a college, acceptance rate, application deadlines and post-grad statistics to help you choose which college is a good fit. 

The website makes a point to educate students about the college process. It has quizzes that help students understand what college majors they might be interested in and explainer articles about specific majors.

For example, the article about social work majors details what type of coursework you might take in college and info on entry-level salaries.

The scholarship search function allows students to search by different factors like ethnicity, first-generation status and the reward amount.

The Fair Opportunity Project was founded in 2016, by Harvard students Luke Heine and Cole Scanlon. They started the organization to help high school students of all socioeconomic backgrounds gain access to college application resources.

The Fair Opportunity Project works a little differently than the other sites, as it doesn't match students to scholarships. Instead, it offers a comprehensive 129-page guide , available in multiple languages, for high school students that includes information about letters of recommendation, how to compile a college list and examples of college essays that worked. 

The Fair Opportunity Project also offers a mentorship program free to students from underserved and underrepresented communities in the United States. Mentors are volunteers who are either current college students or recent college graduates. Students can meet with an advisor for about an hour at a time to get help with college applications, the financial aid process, writing and editing essays and completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) .

Mos is set up like a dating app, but for scholarships.

Students can download the app for free and create a profile by taking short quizzes that ask questions about things like desired majors, GPAs, interests and background. The app then matches students with scholarships that align with their profiles and students can swipe right to save their favorites.

The app provides a summary for each scholarship, including how long the application should take, as well as a brief list of requirements, such as whether it requires an essay. What Mos doesn't do is automatically apply for scholarships on your behalf — it's just a matching tool designed to make finding scholarships easier.

According to its website, Mos' database has over $160 billion in financial aid , some of which is exclusive to the app. Students interested in more personalized support can opt for Mos Premium membership ($9.99 per month or $49.99 per year) to get access to a financial aid advisor who can help with things like filling out scholarship applications, reviewing aid offers and drafting tuition negotiation letters.

Scholly , now owned by student loan lender Sallie Mae , is another free mobile app that matches students with scholarships based on their interests, background and accomplishments. Founder Christopher Gray won $1.3 million in college scholarships and realized how time-consuming the scholarship hunt could be, so he started Scholly to make the process easier.

Students have used the platform to earn over $100 million in scholarships, according to its website. The platform has also provided access to exclusive scholarships from major companies like Amazon and Google.

Users share information about their interests and qualifications, and Scholly provides them with a tailored list of relevant scholarships to consider. Thousands of scholarships are added to its database every month so even long-time users can find new scholarships easily.

Sallie Mae Student Loan

Undergraduate and graduate students, borrowers seeking career training

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Between high tuition costs, housing, food and supplies, a degree's sticker price may seem scary. Pestronk recommends finding someone who has been through the college application and financial aid process before to help you better understand your options and plan ahead. 

Students often forget they don't necessarily have to be at an expensive institution for four years to get a bachelor's degree. Students can get college credit through approved classes or college-level examination programs, which can allow students to start their college careers even a year ahead of schedule. 

"That 25% is going to make the difference for a lot of students who otherwise can't afford it," Pestronk says. 

He also highlights College Promise , a non-profit organization that provides "last dollar scholarships" to students who already qualify for financial aid and grants. College Promise programs, which are available in certain geographic areas across the country, then cover the remainder of the student's out-of-pocket costs to allow that student to attend college without cost.

Pestronk recommends that students use tools that estimate how much attending a certain college will cost them and how that translates into loan debt. If you're looking for a private student loan , CNBC Select named College Ave as a top low-interest student loan lender thanks to its competitive interest rates, as well as no application, origination or prepayment fees. Eligible borrowers also receive hardship protections like deferment, forbearance and grace period options.

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Undergraduate and graduate students, parents

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Financing your college education doesn't have to be stressful. Scholarships are one way to keep your student loans low, and they may be more attainable than you think. There are thousands of scholarships out there, many of which go unclaimed. You just have to know where to look. 

Money matters — so make the most of it. Get expert tips, strategies, news and everything else you need to maximize your money, right to your inbox.  Sign up here .

Meet our experts

At CNBC Select, we work with experts who have specialized knowledge and authority based on relevant training and/or experience. For this story, we interviewed Jefferson Pestronk, an expert on education affordability. Pestronk is the director of the Modern States Education Alliance , a philanthropy dedicated to making college more affordable and accessible. He has nearly two decades of experience working in education, notably as the vice president for strategy and development at a non-profit organization focused on improving public education in New York City, and as the director of special initiatives in the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Innovation and Improvement .

Why trust CNBC Select?

At CNBC Select, our mission is to provide our readers with high-quality service journalism and comprehensive consumer advice so they can make informed decisions with their money. Every college scholarship guide is based on rigorous reporting by our team of expert writers and editors with extensive knowledge of financial products .  While CNBC Select earns a commission from affiliate partners on many offers and links, we create all our content without input from our commercial team or any outside third parties, and we pride ourselves on our journalistic standards and ethics.

Catch up on CNBC Select's in-depth coverage of  credit cards ,  banking  and  money , and follow us on  TikTok ,  Facebook ,  Instagram  and  Twitter  to stay up to date.

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Study of the Deformation during Turning of Brass Sheets on a Two-High Mill by Rolling Methods and Computer Simulation

  • PLATE ROLLING
  • Published: 11 January 2022
  • Volume 2021 , pages 1771–1776, ( 2021 )

Cite this article

  • R. L. Shatalov 1 ,
  • A. S. Kalmykov 1 &
  • I. M. Taupek 2  

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The quality of sheet billets for deep drawing must meet high requirements not only in terms of size and flatness, but also in terms of structure and mechanical properties. A fine-grained structure and a uniform distribution of mechanical properties over the thickness, length and width of rolled brass sheets allows rolled brass products to be used for deep drawing on stamping complex shaped products. One of the ways to decrease the anisotropy of the properties is to turn a sheet before the second pass. The effect of changing the direction of sheet rolling by turning on the structure and mechanical properties of brass L63 is studied on a laboratory two-high 150 × 235 mill. A computer simulation of the cold rolling process is carried out using the DEFORM-3D software package. A comparison of the simulation results with the results of a laboratory experiment on a sheet mill demonstrates the possibility of using DEFORM-3D to predict the stress distribution in the deformation zone in rolling depending on the metal forming conditions. The DEFORM-3D software package is found not to estimate the effect of changes in the grain size and shape on stresses during rolling with turning. The experimental results show that rolling of sheets with turning can decrease the anisotropy of properties, and the efficiency of rolling with turning increases when the reduction increases to 30–40%.

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N. N. Dovzhenko, I. N. Dovzhenko, S. B. Sidel’nikov, and G. V. Arkhipov, “3D-modeling of rolling of large-sized steel–copper billets for the cathode rods of electrolyzers,” Tsvetn. Met., No. 12, 74–78 (2016).

Y. Xin-bing et al., “Continuous extrusion and rolling forming velocity of copper strip,” Trans. Nonferr. Met. Soc. China 23 , 1108–1113 (2013).

I. M. Taupek, E. G. Kabulova, K. A. Polozhentsev, A. V. Lisovskii, and A. V. Makarov, General Guide to Working with the DEFORM Engineering Software Package (Kirillitsa, Staryi Oskol, 2015).

R. L. Shatalov, A. S. Kalmykov, Yu. Yu. Antonov, and N. N. Litvinova, “Influence of reduction and changes in the rolling direction on the structure and properties of brass sheets,” Izv. TulGU. Tekh. Nauki, No. 11-1, 154–160 (2017).

V. S. Parshin, A. P. Karamyshev, I. I. Nekrasov, A. I. Pugin, and A. A. Fedulov, Practical Guide to the DEFORM-3D Software Package (UrFU, Yekaterinburg, 2010).

GOST 9013–59. Metals. Rockwell Hardness Measurement Method.

GOST 9012–59. Metals. Brinell Hardness Measurement Method (with Changes nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5) .

R. L. Shatalov, A. S. Lukash, V. L. Zisel’man, “Determination of the mechanical properties of copper and brass strips from hardness indicators during cold rolling,” Tsvetn. Met., No. 5, 61–65 (2014).

A. V. Zinov’ev, A. N. Koshmin, and A. Ya. Chasnikov, “Formation of the microstructure of M1 alloy in the deformation zone during continuous tire pressing,” Tsvetn. Met., No. 10(910), 81–85 (2018).

Yu. Hirsh, A. F. Grechnikova, E. V. Aryshenskii, and A. M. Drits, “Evolution of microstructure and crystallographic texture in the manufacture of aluminum strips for the production of food containers. Part 1,” Tsvetn. Met., No. 10, 74–81 (2018).

G. A. Tkachuk, V. A. Mal’tsev, V. V. Shimov, and O. A. Chikova, “Microstructure of the defects of technological origin in industrial brass and copper billets,” Tsvetn. Met., No. 11, 70–75 (2018).

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Shatalov, R.L., Kalmykov, A.S. & Taupek, I.M. Study of the Deformation during Turning of Brass Sheets on a Two-High Mill by Rolling Methods and Computer Simulation. Russ. Metall. 2021 , 1771–1776 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0036029521130267

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Received : 18 March 2020

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DOI : https://doi.org/10.1134/S0036029521130267

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newham a level geography case study

Mrs conrad's kis i-alevel geography support.

As settlement.

images (3)

This topic is split into 4 sections

  • Changes in rural settlements
  • Urban trends and issues of urbanisation
  • The changing structure of urban settlements
  • The management of urban settlements

Click on the link below to download a revision checklist for this topic

Settlement checklist

 A settlement is just the name for an area where people live. At IGCSE we learnt that they can be urban or rural.

Urban = Refers to a built up area/ town or city

Rural = Refers to an area of countryside/ villages, hamlets or isolated houses

At I-A level this is too simple, we need to consider that most settlement exist somewhere on a rural-urban continuum.  This means that settlements will not always be simply urban or rural, but exist along a continuum.

Picture2

RURAL SETTLEMENTS- LEDCs

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Rural settlements are changing in both LEDCs and MEDCs (called settlement dynamics )

  • -Migration (rural-urban and urban-rural)
  • -Urban growth
  • -Technological change
  • -Rural planning policies
  • -Government funding

Change in rural areas in LEDCs

Most changes in rural areas in LEDCs are mainly due to rural to urban migration. See below for some of the positive and negative changes that have occurred. They are also categorised into social (blue), environmental (green) and economic (red) changes.

Picture4

  Changes in rural areas in MEDCs

  • The rural idyll is an idea that people have in their head of the perfect countryside area in an MEDC
  • Rural society is perceived to be distinctly different from urban society

E.g. – Close community, strong family ties, agricultural, less crime, peaceful

This rural idyll is not as true now as it may once have been due to various changes affecting the countryside in MEDCs

Main changes in rural settlements in MEDCs (UK)

  • Rural population has changed in character (gentrification) – the countryside has been repopulated by middle class groups who took advantage of cheaper housing in the countryside in the 1960’s and 70’s and who now exert a strong influence over the areas they have moved to in terms of the types of services provided.

2. The economy is  no longer dominated by agriculture and employment in agriculture reduced –  Although farmland takes up 73% of the land area of the UK, less than 2% of the workforce are now employed in agriculture! This is down from 6.1% in 1950. This is mainly due to the increase in mechanization on farms.

3. Farm diversification- As many farmers have struggled to make a living from traditional agricultural practices, a growing number have begun to diversify. This is where they create activities on their land to gain additional income e.g. tourism and recreation such as rent out land for camping or have a farm visitor centre.

4. Higher house prices and lack of affordable housing- As richer middle classes have moved to rural areas, this has increased demand for housing and therefore the house prices have risen in some rural areas. This has meant some original families can no longer afford the housing.

5. Formation of metropolitan/suburbanised villages (due to counterurbanisation) – As counterurbanisation has occurred with people moving out of cities to the countryside, there has been a growth of some villages around the city where people have moved to enjoy the rural areas but still be able to commute to work in the city. These larger villages are often called suburbanised or metropolitan villages

6. Rural depopulation – This was occuring in the past when people began to leave rural areas to move to the city, however this process is being reversed with the process of counterurbanisation .

7. Decline of rural services –  Services such as shops, healthcare and education have been declining in rural areas in MEDCs for a number of decades. This has had a massive impact on people in rural areas, particularly those without a car. They have begun to shut due to the increase in large supermarkets close to villages which those with a car can access so they no longer use village shops, and also due to new residents in rural areas still using services from the urban areas they came from.

8. Reduction of public transport- The increase in car ownership in recent decades has meant that public transport such as buses have reduced as less people were using it. However , this means people without a car have become isolated

CASE STUDY: The Isle of Purbeck, UK: Decline of a rural area in an MEDC

Picture2

Where is the Isle of Purbeck?

Picture4

Read the summary below of the issues that the area faces.

Picture1

CASE STUDY: How are the government trying to solve the problems in the Isle of Purbeck?

Picture2

A summary of some of the solutions they have come up with are shown below. You will never be able to remember all these ideas! But you should be able to explain at least one from each section.

Picture1

URBAN SETTLEMENTS

Urbanisation

Urbanisation = The growth in the proportion of people living in towns or cities

Picture1

 Top ten cities by size in 1960 and 2008

In the exam you may be asked to compare data in a table like the one you see below. Have a think about the following question and then jot down your ideas. You can then check you answer in the information below the table.

How have the top 10 largest cities in the world changed since 1960? (4m)

Picture7

  •  The top ten cities have grown larger since the 1960’s. In 1960 the largest city was New York at 14.2 million whereas in 2008 it was Tokyo with 34.4 million.
  • In 1960 there were 3 cities on the top ten list in the continent of Europe whereas in 2008 there were no cities from Europe on the top ten list
  • In 2008 the number of Asian cities had increased on the list from 3 in 1960 to 7 in 2008
  • The number of cities from LEDC countries has increased

The cycle of urbanisation

Picture4

Regeneration of urban areas and gentrification

Some urban areas in MEDCs have become derelict and run down. To try to improve these areas, government have attempted urban regeneration.

Urban regeneration is when you try to improve an urban area in decline with a mixture of urban redevelopment and urban renewal

Urban redevelopment is the complete clearance of existing buildings and site infrastructure and construction of new buildings, often for a different purpose, from scratch.

Urban renewal is keeping the best elements of the existing urban environment and adapting them to new usages.

CASE STUDY OF URBAN REGENERATION: London Olympic Park in Newham, London

_72609476_72609475

  • Newham was chosen as the location for the Olympic Park regeneration because it is, one of London’s most deprived areas.

Picture5

  • The hope was that the 2012 Games would leave a legacy of housing and sports facilities for people there.
  • Newham has one of the largest proportions of population living in social housing which are overcrowded.
  •  Before clearance in 2007, the area within the proposed Olympic Park had land that was contaminated from previous industrial pollution. The River Lea and its canals were polluted with chemicals and waste.

How did the Olympic Park being built in Newham help to regenerate it?

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  •  The Olympic Park  has been renamed the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park after the Games – and has become a fantastic new focal point for the capital.
  •  The local community have a new world-class sporting venues to train and compete in.
  • Visitors will enjoy the new parklands that will reconnect the communities surrounding the Park
  • The Olympic and Paralympic Village are being converted into thousands of new homes for sale and rent, half of which will be affordable housing.
  • There is also a new educational campus, a community health centre and new developments elsewhere within the Park, the Village – to be known as East Village – will form a whole new community in this part of east London.
  • New transport connections and a brand new infrastructure of energy, water, telecommunications was built for the Games.
  • In fact, 75p of every £1 the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) spent was an investment in the long-term transformation of the area.

To read more on this, click on the link below

Geo Case Study for A – Level

Gentrification

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Gentrification is the in-migration of people from higher socioeconomic groups into areas where the existing population is generally of a lower socio-economic group compared to the newcomers.

before-and-after-gentrification

Why does gentrification happen in some areas of a city?

– An area which was once a low -income area can become fashionable through gentrification normally because it has certain features which draw higher social groups towards it

e.g. an attractive park, larger than average housing, close proximity to a railway station or the city centre

What changes occur in an area due to gentrification?

– House prices rise as demand rises for them

– Many derelict or deteriorating housing is renovated

– Trendier shops and restaurants open in the area

– Working classes are displaced by middle classes as house prices become too high

– Social housing is replaced by owner occupied housing

An example of an area in which gentrification has occurred is Brooklyn in New York.

What problems can gentrification cause?

– Lower classes feel pushed out by middle classes

– House prices are too expensive for low income groups to afford

– Often ethnic minorities in lower income groups are dispersed from the area and the area becomes “white middle class”

Global (World) Cities

Picture2

“Alpha” cities are deemed to be the most important and have the most influence over the global economy, culture and politics.

In 2008 there were only two Alpha ++ cities – London and New York

After Alpha cities come various ranks of Gamma and then Beta cities.

Picture1

These levels are based on their business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, political engagement

Africa is so far unrepresented on the Alpha list but Lagos, Cairo and Johannesburg may soon get there

Other cities may decline in importance and fall off the alpha list

 Can you remember an example for each level of Alpha city and consider a reasons for its designation?

Global Cities should not be confused with Mega Cities

World city = a city judged important for its part in the global economy, politics or culture

Mega city = a city with more than 10 million residents.

The structure of urban settlements

Within a city, there are acticites continuing which occur in all cities across the world. These are shown below

Picture2

Where are these activities located and why?

Their location in an urban area is dictated by factors

  • Market forces (supply and demand for service)
  • Government planning (policies)

Picture3

Functional Zonation in urban areas

Function = what something is for

 Zonation = the area it is found in

So Functional Zonation = where set areas in an urban settlement have a set function e.g. Offices (function) are found in the centre of a city (zone)

There are several models (diagrams) of where different functions are found in a city. Remember they are just models (ideas) not always true to life!

1)Burgess- Concentric Zone Model

2) Hoyt- Sector Model

3) Harris and Ullmann- Multiple Nuclei Model

4) Alonso’s theory of Bid-rent

5) Griffin and Fords- Models of cities in LEDCs

Picture1

  • Business activity is in the central business district )CBD) as this is the point that most people have access to
  • Around this is the “zone of transition” where you find older houses being converted in light industry and flats. In-migrants tend to be drawn to this zone for cheap housing
  • As you move further out you would find area of better housing as people could afford to move out of the centre of the city
  • High class residential is occupied by middle class with it newer and larger houses.

Picture2

  • Business activity is still the central business district )CBD) as this is the point that most people have access to
  • Industry was noted to follow particular transport routes
  • High class residential often develops  where there are distinct physical or social attractions (e.g. river)
  • Low class residential was therefore confined to unfavorable locations (ugly, less transport links)

Picture3

  • CBD still exists but not always at centre of settlement
  • Low class residential housing tends to be in areas of cheaper land around industry (heavy and light)
  • High class residential and medium class residential can afford to avoid living next to industrial areas so these are normally on a different side of the city to industry
  • There are areas of development outside of the main settlement around new nuclei like out of town shopping centres.

Picture4

  • CBD in centre as normal
  • Industry starts in centre and develops out around transport and water routes
  • Zone of maturity is where there is a mixture of old and newer housing occupied by middle classes
  • High class  (elite) residential often develops in a spine out from the city centre
  • Zone of in situ accretion is a wide range of housing but in the process of improvement e.g. government improvement projects
  • Zone of squatter settlements is often on the most undesirable land at the periphery of a city

The Central Business District

Key questions to consider…..

  • What are the key features of a CBD?
  • How are CBDs changing?

cbd729-620x349

The CBD is the commercial core of an urban areas normally with the highest land values. In theory it is the most accessible area of a city, A high level of accessibility results in high land values and rents which in turn encourages vertical development.

CBDs originally developed as market squares in ancient towns and villages where farmers met to sell and buy produce.

Most CBDs have a core and a frame surrounding them.

The key features of a CBD core and frame

Picture1

How have CBDs changed over time and why?

  • Pedestrianized zones have been made to make it easier and safer for shoppers to move from shop to shop
  • Indoor shopping centres have increased to allow people to shop in comfort away from the variable weather conditions
  • Public tranport has often been coordinated to allow more consumers to enter the CBD
  • Multi-story car parks have increased to allow more parking space
  • Some areas of a CBD may decline and others may expand meaning a CBDs’ location can change from time to time
  • Redevelopment of some areas of a city can mean the CBD moves also to a new area of redevelopment.

Residential segregation

Residential segregation is where different groups of people live in different areas of a city or town.

Different groups could refer to difference in ethnicities or income groups

Residential Segregation in London

Picture1

Residential Mosaic of London’s Deprivation- (Darker areas are more deprived)

Picture2

A summary of London’s Residential Segregation

  • The most intense deprivation is concentrated in the inner London boroughs, particularly in the East End

Statistics to show this segregation

  • Eight outer London Boroughs have 75% of people of more owning a car or van, whereas 8 inner London boroughs have less than 50% of people owning a car.
  • In Tower Hamlets Inner London Borough in the East End only 29% of people own their houses whereas in Havering OUter London Borough 79% of people own their own houses
  • In Hackeny Inner London Borough 5.7% of people are unemployed whereas in Sutton Outer London Borough 2% of people were unemployed

Why does this segregation exist?

  • People with a high income have a wide choice of where to live. People tend to choose the best houses in the best locations they can afford, wheras  people on low incomes have little choice. This results in large areas of poorer housing.
  • People in certain ethnic groups tend of cluster together in areas sometimes called “ethnic villages”

20121215_BRM920

  • Residential segregation can also be seen by age. People tend to move around a city throughout their life cycle , meaning that the inner city is sometimes younger than the outer city.

Squatter Settlements/ Shanty Towns/ Slums

A squatter settlement is an area of slum housing constructed from makeshift materials and lacking in amenities such as water supply, sewerage and electricity. They often develop spontaneously and illegally (as squatter settlements) in LEDC cities.

They can also be known as slums or shanty towns

Case study of a squatter settlement: Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya

  • Nairobi is Kenya’s capital city

Picture1

  • Just like in other LEDCs, rural to urban migration has led to many migrants turning up in the city every day
  • When new migrants from rural areas turn up in Nairobi, they can not afford housing in the city centre (there is an affordable housing shortage)
  • So they build their own housing on the outskirts of Nairobi. This has developed into a slum/shanty town called Kibera

Picture2

  • It is Africa’s 2nd largest slum

Picture4

 Case study: Solutions to squatter settlements in Sao Paulo, Brazil

Sao Paulo has the largest slum population in South America

Urban poverty is concentrated in two types of housing:

  • -Favelas (squatter settlements)
  • -Corticos ( decaying formal housing in inner city)
  • The rapid growth of favelas began in 1980 with their share of the population jumping from 5% to 20% since then.
  •  Sao Paulo has 18 million people and has a very high population density at 8110 people per km2
  • There is a huge wealth inequality between the richest and poorest in the city\

Marsilac (poorest district)                  Moema (richest district)

marsilac01 001

Two million people live in favelas in Sao Paulo

Favelas are located across the city in areas that were empty or unprotected, such as:

  • -On flood plains
  • -Along railways
  • -On river banks
  • -Beside main roads
  • -Next to industrial areas

Several attempts have been made to reduce the number of people living in favelas, or improve the housing within them.

Picture2

Case Study: Improving Cairo’s infrastructure (Egypt)

Picture1

Key questions to consider:

  • What is soft and hard infrastructure?
  • What makes providing infrastructure difficult in Cairo?
  • How have Cairo tried to solve their problems with infrastructure?

Hard infrastructure = Transportation, communication, sewerage, water and electric systems

Soft infrastructure = Housing, education, health and leisure facilities

What problems does Cairo have?

  • Cairo is Egypt’s capital city on the banks of the river Nile
  • Largest city in Africa
  • 30,000 people per km squared – 17 million in total
  • Housing is overcrowded
  • All infrastructure is under pressure from large population as it was only designed with 2 million in mind
  • Housing is overcrowded and in short supply
  • Getting sufficient funds to improve infrastructure is a challenge

Picture1

Case study: Inner city London: Problems and a possible solution

Some key facts about Inner city London

Inner London is more deprived than Outer London

Picture1

Why are inner cities often deprived?

Picture5

Has the London Olympics helped to regenerate Newham in Inner London?

Read the following article that has been higlighted in green for successes of the Olympics and red for failures.

Olympics legacy highlighted document complete

Now decide- was it successful or not?

Case study: China- Strategies for reducing urbanisation

1) The Hukou System

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For many years the Chinese government followed a very strict policy towards urbanisation, by trying to limit rural-urban migration. This was known as the hukou system. However, as you know from our migration topic, this has not necessarily worked, and has recently been relaxed.

The Hukou System was a population register system which identified people as either “urban” or “rural” . Permission was required to leave the countryside and was only given if potential migrants had evidence of a job in the urban area.

  • Food rations, healthcare and education were also used to restrict movement from the countryside to the city, as food rations, healthcare and education were only made available to people in urban areas with the urban registration documents.
  • This meant that illegal migrants from the rural areas were often very disadvantaged in the cities.

 2) “Back to villages” movement

Since the 1950s the government has periodically encouraged large numbers of people to leave the cities for rural areas. Sometimes voluntarily, but sometimes through force.

1950s and 60s- Large numbers of people were sent from urban areas to develop oilfields in northern China

Oil workers drilling a new oil well in the Daqing oil field in Northern China

1960s – The government wanted to increase population in sparsely populated western provinces in order to encourage balanced development across the whole country. E.g. to Quinghai province in the west

1969-1973- 10-15 million urban school leavers were resettled in rural areas top relieve urban pressure and improve rural productivity

This unpopular process continued until the late 1970s when it was revered to support industrialization.

The relaxation of controls on rural-urban migration in 1980 led to massive urbanisation which you studied in your migration topic!

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newham a level geography case study

Changing places: investigating regeneration at London's Olympic Park

Changing places: investigating regeneration at london’s olympic park.

Studying East London’s Olympic Park is both an excellent case study for Changing Places and a popular area to investigate for the independent investigation. In this unit you’ll look at how the area has changed since 2012 and its impact on different groups, and what needs to be considered when evaluating success.

When you’ve worked through the web unit, try the ‘ Investigating regeneration at London’s Olympic Park’ quiz to see how much you know.

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10 Changing Places Case Studies - AQA AS/A Level

10 Changing Places Case Studies - AQA AS/A Level

Subject: Geography

Age range: 16+

Resource type: Worksheet/Activity

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Podcast: Is taking A-Level Geography worth it?

UCL Research Fellow Abbie Chapman answers the question 'Is taking A-Level Geography worth it?' She tells Ask The Expert podcast host Roberta Livingston about her experience.

Waves from the sea smashing into a rock

22 February 2024

Image credit: UCL Imagestore

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ROBERTA LIVINGSTON:

Hello and welcome to Ask The Expert, where you ask the questions and UCL’s finest experts answer them. I’m your host Roberta Livingston, a schools engagement assistant at UCL East. In this episode we hear from Abbie Chapman. A research fellow at UCL who did a PhD in Deep Sea Ecology. Abbie is going to be answering the question ‘Is taking A-Level Geography worth it?’ Let’s hear what Abbie has to say.

ABBIE CHAPMAN:

I’m Abbie Chapman, I’m a research fellow at University College London and all that means is that I did a Phd so a longer period of study that was quite specialised, I did that in deep sea ecology actually so I studied life on the sea floor in the bottom of the oceans, where there’s no light. But when I joined UCL, I started researching life on land. And so what I look at now is I spend time mostly on the computer mapping and modelling. So I’m using coding languages, but also other computer programmes. And to look at effectively what the impacts of our food systems are on biodiversity, so the wildlife around us. Particularly in South Africa, India and the UK, but also other countries, I'm compiling to now as well.

So yeah. You're asking is a level geography worth it? Well, my biassed first answer would be yes, definitely, but I'm aware that the answer to this actually really varies depending on who you are and what you want to do and what you love. So the first question I'll be asking you to ask yourself is what do you actually love and enjoy? The reason I say that is because at the end of the day, it sounds really obvious, but you're going to be sitting in the classroom sitting, listening to lessons, reading things, doing the homework, doing your exams, and it's going to be on a certain subject. And it'll be really much, much easier for you to commit yourself to that, to motivate yourself for that, if you actually enjoy it. So I would really think about that before choosing your A levels because there's a lot of advice that goes around about what's the best a level and what's what's not such a good a level. And I have to be honest, in my experience, since all those conversations happened to me too. It's actually not been so important. In the end. I think a lot of the advice I got at school sometimes was a bit biassed towards what would look good at a university, but I'm not entirely sure that's always the best advice. I would, I think mostly about what you enjoy and what you might want to do in the future.

One thing I would flag is if you have a really specific career in mind now some people do. I didn't, but some people do. I would just maybe investigate if you want. If you have courses that you would need to do at a university or a college after your A levels, that would maybe you to start that career. They want specific subjects. Make sure you're doing those. So for instance, if you wanted to be a medical doctor or a vet or a dentist, and there are other careers too, where there's to be important to consider, just make sure you've got a levels that align for that, because maybe geography won't fit by the time you've got the sciences, they might be asking for, for instance, if you don't have a specific career in mind, geography can be really, really even even better than other subjects for a specific reason, really. And that it's sort of more than one subject captured in in geography.

So under geography you have a really rare opportunity to study a real breadth of areas or fields as they sometimes call it university. So universities split things into social sciences and life sciences, but what they're actually talking about there is things that you cover in geography. So in your social sciences, you'll be considering things like how people are living, how cities are built, which communities are more vulnerable in the world, how developing, how developing nations are developing and how they're moving forward in things like agriculture and things like urbanisation.

You'll also look at economics. You'll consider things like development are considered under that, but you'll also look at the impacts of different industries on different groups of people and then under life and physical and even chemical sciences, you do things like bits of geology. They won't be called this. They'll be called geography at school, but they'll be split when you go to university. So you do things like geology and study rock formations. You might study a bit of oceanography, actually, you'll learn about coastal erosion, but if you went to university to study oceanography, you'd learn about that process too.

So your rocks, your volcanoes, your coasts, your rivers, your flooding, that's often what people think of with geography. That's physical geography. There's also the human geography side that you tend to cover in A level geography as well. So you're you're getting a real breadth of understanding. And I also want a flag. I was, I was on a workshop recently with the British Ecological Society. They were asking us to try and make sure how we can capture climate change and what we need to know about climate change in the school curriculum. And when we were doing this, we actually found that most of the climate change science, most of the most up to date research on climate change is taught under geography. A level isn't actually captured so much under biology like they thought it might be, and so if you're interested in climate change and how the world's responding to it, how ecological communities say the wildlife's responding to it, you might find you get to do a bit of that under geography as well.

So I'd always say I'd also say if you find you started an A level like geography and you weren't so sure it was for you longer term, you didn't want to do geography at university or something like that. I mean, it opens up other doors. So I did it and then I actually did do geography at university because I did really enjoy it. But I did end up also doing oceanography because the university I was at was offering that as something I could do alongside. So I got to study the oceans as well as the land and which I particularly enjoyed. And a lot of the people I worked with left to completely different careers as well. It's a really good one for getting into teaching. I find a lot of a lot of my friends and stuff doing that, but others work. For big companies, so some of them work using the mapping skills they developed in geography at university. So basically decide where for instance, you could decide where the next big supermarket is going to be, or where this town needs to be, and considering how it's going to impact nature, how it's going to impact people, and where then next based place to use some land is.

It's becoming a really important subject and really important skill sets that you learn through it for the future of land use in the UK, for instance, or across the world. So I'd say if you if you're thinking thanks to geography about how the world works across space in different subjects in different fields, you're getting what are called interdisciplinary skills and you might not have come across this word yet, but I promise you it's a word you'll see a lot in the future. They want people these days in many jobs.That don't just think about one really narrow subject. You can be really passionate about, really one narrow subject, but it's really helpful if you can talk to people who are passionate about other ones too.

And that might sound really simple, but it can actually be really quite a difficult thing to do if you're not used to having to learn terminology from other subjects, or having to think in different ways and geography prepares you really quite well for that. And also, if you're into things like I was describing, you'll learn something called geographic information systems. That's something you learn at university level, probably not so much during an A level unless you want to explore it all. That means is you're doing some nice mapping really. So you're mapping out different things and seeing what overlaps with what, what's causing problems for what. Where can things go? Where can rivers flow? Where might flooding happen? There's lots of opportunities that are made possible by maps.

And I'd also say that I think part of the was I was looking at the curriculum now because I'm aware that I went a while ago and I didn't want to be misgiving, misleading information. And I noticed there still seems to be an aspect of field work which is great to see. Yes, you might get muddy or you might choose a city based project and not get to say muddy. But field work is brilliant for your CV regardless of what you want to do next because it if you didn't know this already and you're thinking of how to write  a CV for the future, it's an example of teamwork.

For example, you can organise yourself and to be honest it gives the really impression that you probably have a really good attitude and say putting field work on your CV. As always, I believe going to be a really good thing that employers in all sorts of industries. And academia and other types of jobs are going to really appreciate. So I'd also say bear that in mind. So yeah, putting your wellies on or donning your clipboard to go on and interview some people is always going to be well worth doing. So do enjoy that part of your project if you do decide to take the geography a level as well.

And so there you have it! For Abbie taking A-Level Geography was worth it as it opened up many doors for her including the opportunity to study Oceanography. A-Level Geography is almost like a gateway to specific subjects that are available at UCL and other universities so if for instance you wanted to study Geology, taking A-Level Geography would be a requirement. 

And that is the end of this episode, I hope it was helpful! If you wish to submit your own question for an expert to answer just type in Ask The Expert UCL on your search engine and our website should be the first to pop up.

Til next time! Thank you.

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  • Created by: Eloise Smith
  • Created on: 03-06-13 11:32
  • 5 miles east of city of London
  • North bank of River Thames
  • The borough contains Stratford and Canning Town
  • Second most deprived area in England
  • Unemployment Rate in Canning Town south is 6.7%, the average in England is 3.4%
  • Percentage of people who have no qualifications are 33.6%
  • In Canning Town 74.6% of the people living there rent their property
  • Was very cultural area, meaning it was main source of income
  • Thousands of people moved in to take up the jobs that were created
  • Within a generation industries declined, bring unemployment on a large scale
  • During the war heavy bombing bought devastation to the south of borough
  • New council houses were built to replace the houses that had been bombed
  • Olympic Park contains Olympic stadium, aquatics centre, hockey centre and velopark
  • Olympic Village will become home to people of Stratford.
  • New Plants will be planted
  • Buildings will be left for schools or public use, moved or recycled and re-used
  • Westfield Stratford City provides over 1000 new jobs
  • 600 Commercial and 500 Leisure Jobs
  • 2500 jobs created by redevelopment
  • Channel Tunnel Rail Link and Stratford International Station

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newham a level geography case study

Newham. Borough in the NE of London. Population roughly 360,000. Demographics. Non-white make up 72% of population. 76.2 years life expectancy for males, 80.5 for females. Socioeconomics. 6.72% unemployment rate. 120,000 properties. Endogenous Factors. - Land use - urban.

Urbanisation: Mumbai - Case Study for AQA A-Level Geography. 30 terms. Gubfree. Preview. Mercutio quotes. 5 terms. melissa_phillipson. Preview. CONSTRUCTION DOC EXAM 1. 41 terms. aubradens2022. Preview. Sixth Grade QR 23.A. ... Urban Regeneration CASE STUDY - Newham. Canning Town, Newham London UK 2nd most deprived area in England 5 miles east ...

17 terms Hiragawa_kanna Preview Terms in this set (21) location of Stratford and Newham 1. London Borough of Newham is located in east London, 5 miles east of the City of London and North of the River Thames 2. Stratford is a district within Newham, located towards the north-west border of the borough (Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park is located here)

Case Study: London 2012 Olympics. London won the bid to host the 2012 olympic games in 2005, with the proposal stating that it would create a sustainable and social legacy, unlike other olympic games where the stadium has been left abandoned. The site for the stadium and infrastructure to be built was in the east, and is spread across 6 ...

CASE STUDY OF URBAN REGENERATION: London Olympic Park in Newham, London . Newham was chosen as the location for the Olympic Park regeneration because it is, one of London's most deprived areas. The hope was that the 2012 Games would leave a legacy of housing and sports facilities for people there.

The location for the games was the Lower Lea Valley in East London, situated north of the London Docklands and mainly within the Borough of Newham. The River Lea, a tributary of the River Thames, flows through the Olympic Park. Before the Olympics, the region was in dire need of urban regeneration. The location of the Lower Lea Valley.

2 of 20 endogenous factors of Stratford TOPOGRAPHY - flat land, located on a flood plain. Average topography is around 46ft above sea level PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY -River Lea flows near to the Olympic Village in the west and centre of Stratford. The area is mostly urbanised with some green areas

• Newham is where one in four families live in overcrowded properties and which in 2015 had over 16,000 households on its housing waiting list. • The redevelopment of the Lea river decontaminated the land, improving local health, and made a once derelict inaccessible area a pleasant and attractive place to be. pmteducation

Studying East London's Olympic Park is both an excellent case study for Changing Places and a popular area to investigate for the independent investigation. In this unit you'll look at how the area has changed since 2012 and its impact on different groups, and what needs to be considered when evaluating success. When you've worked through ...

Last updated 24 August 2023 Not quite what you were looking for? Search by keyword to find the right resource: 10 Case Studies suitable for AS/A-Level Geography AQA. Stratford/Newham can be used for 20 mark questions.

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Some urban areas, such as Newham, are still seen as undesirable and threatening by residents/outsiders because of high crime rates, low environmental quality, high deprivation rates and poor population characteristics and reputation. This is gathered through quantitative data, media representation and from those who have lived experiences.

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A-level Geography human Changing places case studies. State 3 key facts regarding Newham's legacy story. Click the card to flip 👆. 1) Bought £9 billion investment to East London. 2) £4 billion investment in Westfield, 2500 out of 4000 jobs given to locals. 3) 'Affordable rents' of 2800 new homes unaffordable to Newham's poorest residents.

For Abbie taking A-Level Geography was worth it as it opened up many doors for her including the opportunity to study Oceanography. A-Level Geography is almost like a gateway to specific subjects that are available at UCL and other universities so if for instance you wanted to study Geology, taking A-Level Geography would be a requirement.

Geography A level case study: Global systems and global governance- World trade in bananas Fall 2023 Week 8 jeff_strack ESL Rooms in a House - Narrow down some facts in specific regions of stratford (mainly for Birmingham in other f.c set) - population of over 10,000 Contrasting place study -Stratford = 12% never been employed

Physical Geography: Tectonic hazards, coastal systems, water and energy security. Human Geography: Globalisation, Regenerating places, superpowers and development. You will. develop your fieldwork research skills. take part in an individual investigation fieldwork assessed task. have the opportunity to go on a residential field trip in the ...

analysis of why this is the case and how well it would work elsewhere ( evaluation : a higher level geographic skill). Social progress can be measured by looking at the reductions in inequalities between and within areas. Social progress can be measured through scores within the multiple deprivation

AlexFennn Case Study for the Changing Places setup Terms in this set (16) Where is the Carpenters Estate? -London Borough of Newham -10km East of the Centre of London -De-industrialisation set in during the 1960's What percentage of Stratford's jobs in the Carpenters Estate area are underpaid? 29%

Case Study of Newham ? Geography GCSE AQA Created by: Eloise Smith Created on: 03-06-13 11:32 View mindmap Access mindmap features Share: Similar Geography resources: london- case study Hazards Case Studies notes Geography GCSE Geography- Unit 1A- The restless Earth Living World - Thar Desert Case Study (LEDC) THEME 1 Globalisation natural hazards

Changing Places Guide to Place Studies - Physics & Maths TutorThis pdf document provides a comprehensive guide to conducting place studies for the AQA Geography A-level unit on changing places. It covers the key concepts, methods, and skills involved in researching and analysing how places are shaped by various factors and how they change over time. It also includes examples of place studies ...

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