Speech on Cyber Crime

Cyber crime is a fast-growing threat in our digital world. It’s when someone uses a computer to harm others, steal information, or commit illegal acts.

You might have heard about it in the news. Cyber crime can affect anyone who uses the internet, so it’s important to understand what it is.

1-minute Speech on Cyber Crime

Good day to everyone listening. Today, I want to talk about a very important topic – cyber crime. Cyber crime is when someone does something wrong or illegal on the internet. Like stealing money from online bank accounts or spreading harmful computer viruses.

In our first point, let’s talk about why cyber crime is a big problem. Imagine if someone stole your hard-earned money from your bank account without your knowledge. Or, if they shared your private photos or messages with the world. That’s scary, right? That’s why it’s important to understand and fight against cyber crime.

Now, let’s look at how cyber crime happens. Sometimes, wrongdoers trick us by sending fake emails or messages. They pretend to be our friends or a trusted company. When we click on their links or share our details, they get a chance to do bad things.

So, what can we do to protect ourselves? We can be careful about what we click on. We should never share our passwords. Always remember, if something seems too good to be true on the internet, it probably is.

Lastly, let’s talk about what we should do if we become victims of cyber crime. Don’t feel ashamed or scared. Report it to your parents, teachers, or the police. They can help you and stop the bad guys.

Remember, the internet is a great place, full of knowledge and fun. But, like the real world, it has some bad parts too. If we learn about cyber crime and how to stay safe, we can enjoy the good parts without worry. Thank you for your attention.

Also check:

  • Essay on Cyber Crime
  • 10-lines on Cyber Crime

2-minute Speech on Cyber Crime

Ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls, let’s talk about something serious today – cyber crime. You might have heard this term before. It’s a kind of crime that happens on the internet.

First, let’s understand what cyber crime is. Imagine you have a toy and someone takes it without asking. That’s stealing, right? Cyber crime is similar, but it happens online. It could be someone stealing your personal information like your name, address, or even your passwords. It’s like a thief in the digital world.

Now, why should we worry about cyber crime? It’s because we all use the internet. We play games, learn new things, chat with friends, and even do our homework online. But while we’re having fun, cyber criminals might be trying to steal our information. It’s like playing in a park but not knowing that a bully is hiding somewhere, waiting to take away our toys.

So how does cyber crime happen? Sometimes, it’s through emails or messages that trick us into sharing our personal information. Other times, it’s through harmful software that sneaks into our computers or phones. It’s like a wolf in sheep’s clothing, pretending to be something good but actually wanting to harm us.

But don’t worry, we can protect ourselves from cyber crime. Here’s how. First, we should be careful about what we share online. We wouldn’t tell a stranger our home address, would we? The same goes for the internet. Second, we should always check emails or messages before clicking on any links. If something seems strange, it’s better to ignore it. Remember, it’s better to be safe than sorry.

Lastly, we need to keep our devices safe. We should use strong passwords and update our software regularly. Think of it as locking our doors and windows at night to keep thieves away.

In conclusion, cyber crime is a serious issue. It’s like a digital thief or a bully. But by being careful and smart, we can keep ourselves safe. Remember, the internet is a wonderful place, full of exciting things to learn and explore. But just like in the real world, we need to be aware of the dangers and know how to protect ourselves.

Thank you for listening. Let’s all promise to be safe and smart internet users.

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February 12, 2024

Cybercrime Security Gap Leaves People Who Aren’t Proficient in English Poorly Protected

Our research finds that language is often a barrier for people dealing with cybercrime issues and that it’s important to close this security gap

By Fawn Ngo & The Conversation US

Asian man at desk with laptop holding a credit card

People in the U.S. with limited English proficiency are particularly vulnerable to cybercrime.

LPETTET/Getty Images

In the United States, the Internet Crime Complaint Center serves as a critical component in the FBI’s efforts to combat cybercrime. The center’s website provides educational resources to help individuals and businesses protect themselves from cyberthreats and also allows them to report their victimization by submitting complaints related to internet crimes. The Internet Crime Complaint Center also publishes annual reports summarizing the current state of internet crime, trends and notable cases.

However, the information and resources, including the reporting form, posted on the center’s website are only available in English. This excludes a substantial number of internet users and victims of cybercrime: people with limited English proficiency. In addition to leaving out many people who are more vulnerable to cyberthreats, one consequence is that the Internet Crime Complaint Center’s annual Internet Crime Reports are incomplete and inaccurate.

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The lack of information and resources on cybersecurity and internet safety in languages other than English on the Internet Crime Complaint Center website further widens the “ security gap ,” a divide that has emerged between those who can manage and mitigate potential cybersecurity threats and those who cannot. Because there isn’t an appropriate reporting mechanism and structure for people with limited English proficiency to report their victimization, data and statistics on cyber victimization within this population are severely limited.

Cybercrime and prevention

I’m a criminologist . My colleagues and I conducted focus groups with a sample of adult internet users with limited English proficiency to examine their experiences with nine forms of cybercrime and explore their knowledge of cybersecurity. The study is slated to be published in a forthcoming issue of the International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime .

We recruited 18 Spanish- and six Vietnamese-speaking internet users for the study based on the evidence that limited English proficiency individuals in the U.S. tend to be Latino or Asian , and among the Asian ethnic groups Vietnamese Americans are the least proficient in English .

We asked participants whether they had encountered any of the following during the previous 12 months:

  • They received a phishing email, which is a deceptive message with the intent of tricking them into divulging sensitive information such as login credentials, personal details or financial information.
  • Their computer was infected with a computer virus.
  • They received online harassment; for example, a message from someone that threatened, insulted or harassed them.
  • They were the victim of an online scam; for example, they sent money to an individual or organization that they encountered online and later found to have misrepresented themselves.
  • They were notified that their financial account had been hacked.
  • They were notified that their email, social media, shopping or other account had been hacked.

Study participants encountered all nine types of cybercrime. The most common types of cyber victimization they experienced were computer virus, reported by seven participants; phishing emails, reported by six participants; notification that their financial account had been hacked and their personal data was at risk, reported by six participants; and notification that another type of account had been hacked, reported by six participants.

We asked participants whether they had engaged in the following cybersecurity measures during the previous 12 months:

  • Have antivirus, anti-spyware, or firewall software installed on their computer and laptop.
  • Create strong passwords for their online accounts.
  • Employ two-factor authentication procedure.
  • Avoid unsecured wireless networks such as free Wi-Fi at airports.
  • Avoid websites that are not protected by Secure Sockets Layer, or SSL, encryption, meaning look for URLs to begin with https rather than http.
  • Use a strong password or encryption to secure their home’s wireless network.
  • Employ email filters to block suspicious senders and attachments.
  • Check email senders and attachments to avoid phishing and online scams.
  • Be cautious when providing personal information to a third party.
  • Take extra steps such as shredding documents with personal information to prevent data theft.

The answer choices were yes, no and I don’t know. In all cases except creating strong passwords, more participants reported “no” than “yes,” and in all cases, the combination of participants who reported “no” and “I don’t know” significantly exceeded the number of participants who reported “yes.”

Closing the security gap

Executive Order 13166, signed in 2000, requires federal agencies to improve access to services for people with limited English proficiency. U.S. Attorney General Merrick Garland issued a memorandum on Nov. 21, 2022, directing the Justice Department’s Civil Rights Division to share best practices and exchange information about language access with other federal agencies.

I believe that it’s important to close the security gap and attain accurate data and statistics on cyber victimization. Internet- and computer-based crime is one of the fastest-growing security threats in the U.S.

Getting a full and accurate picture of the problem requires that data and statistics on cybercrime and cyber victimization include victims who have limited English proficiency as well as those who are English-proficient.

And just as public campaigns related to health and safety tend to be available in multiple languages to reach diverse audiences, I believe all users, regardless of their language skills, should have the knowledge and skills to protect themselves from cybercrime.

This article was originally published on The Conversation . Read the original article .

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speech on cyber crime in english

  • Crime, justice and law

Security Minister CYBERUK speech

The Security Minister Tom Tugendhat delivered a speech at the CYBERUK Conference in Belfast on cyber threats.

The Rt Hon Tom Tugendhat MBE VR MP

Thank you. It’s an enormous pleasure to be here with you today in Belfast.

It is also an incredible honour to be here in Belfast on this auspicious occasion. Not just to be here at this conference, but 25 years ago there was the extraordinary moment of the signing of the Good Friday agreement. That wonderful moment that gave hope to a new generation and demonstrated this country, the whole of the UK and the whole of these islands can move on from a difficult past to a much better future.

It’s a reminder that peace can never be taken for granted, and that service, debate and compromise define what is at the heart of our peaceful and democratic system, and together they must never be neglected.

It also makes me particularly mindful of my role today. I stand before you as Security Minister of the UK.

In one respect, that is quite a simple job: keep Britain safe. Of course, that clarity marks a complexity of the challenges we face from terrorism and state threats to organised crime and distributed attacks.

Those attacks are more your field and its there in the cyber world that the UK faces some of its sternest tests.

A quick look at the basic figures is enough to bring home the scale and severity of the issue we face.

New findings released just yesterday from the Cyber Security Breaches Survey show that 32% of businesses experienced at least one cyber breach in the last 12 months.

This year, for the first time, the survey also tells us how many of these breaches resulted in a cybercrime being committed.

We can now estimate that 11% of businesses were victim to at least one cybercrime. That cost each of them around £15,000 in the past year.

We must never lose sight of the fact that behind each of these online statistics is a real-world victim.

Each is a grandparent defrauded, and stripped of their savings.

Each is a small business held to ransom, and jobs lost.

Each is public money stolen, and the taxpayer short-changed.

The cyber-threat doesn’t just come from criminals. The ongoing war in Ukraine is a constant reminder of the threat we face from hostile actors. Russia has been trying to invade Ukraine’s cyberspace as much as its physical space, threatening critical information, critical services, and critical infrastructure.

The threat of further cyber fallout from conflict is very real to the United Kingdom and to all our allies.

At home we are seeing the overlap of state threats, terrorism and organised crime brought together online and off.

Against this troubling background our mission is clear. We must crack down on cybercrime, we must protect the United Kingdom from the most capable cyber adversaries - states, criminals and terrorists – all are trying to hurt us and all have made the online world work for them, delivering offline political gain and criminal profit.

That is no small brief, and it is not one any department, certainly not one Minister, can achieve alone.

That’s why this event is so important to me. This is why I’m so grateful to Lindy for inviting me and so grateful for the opportunity to speak to you. Because what we can achieve together is an all round ecosystem of cyber security built on the UK’s world class foundations of education, expertise, technology and capability.

The task of cyber security falls to government of course, but also to individuals, law enforcement, and to you, business.

Now today, I’d like to reflect on how far we’ve come, and where we need to go. Above all, I want to stress the core message, exemplified by those extraordinary events of 25 years ago - that only by working together can we collectively be safe.

I’d like to briefly outline my priorities in cyber policy, before affirming areas in which government and industry partnerships must go further if we are all going to succeed.

The government has already made phenomenal progress in building resilience and countering the threat from our adversaries.

The latest iteration of the National Cyber Strategy set out the UK’s role as a responsible and democratic cyber power, and laid down the framework on which the UK’s security and prosperity can depend.

It’s the bedrock of everything we do to keep the UK cyber safe.

It also important that our laws, the software of our society, are updated.

That’s why we recently published a consultation on improving the Computer Misuse Act, which is an important part of deterring those who would commit crime, and equipping law enforcement to carry out their duties.

That consultation is for you to contribute to and I look forward to hearing your thoughts.

We are proposing to include powers to take control of domains and IP addresses used by criminals and enable action against individuals in possession of or using data obtained through the criminal actions of others.

But I say again, your thoughts matter and I’m looking forward to your input.

We’re building the National Cyber Crime Unit to take on serious cyber criminals.

Its operational resources must deliver arrests and disruption, and build on the NCA’s enhanced intelligence picture to target criminals where they are most vulnerable.

We recently helped to dismantle Genesis Market - one of the biggest online marketplaces selling stolen logins and passwords to criminals across the world.

We’ve built a network of Regional Cyber Crime Units, ensuring that police units have access to specialists and capabilities.

I must also mention Ransomware attacks, where the National Cyber Security Centre assesses to be in the top tier of online threats to the UK.

Ransomware criminals cause harm and hurt. They cost more than cash. Hospitals and their patients in a pandemic were targeted, putting people and lives at risk.

Now this is a global problem, we are working with global partners.

With the US and others, the UK is a leading member of the international Counter Ransomware Initiative, and together we are going after these criminals.

Recently we sanctioned seven Russian cyber criminals who were behind some of the most damaging ransomware attacks in the UK in recent years.

With those priorities in mind, let me now turn to your role in the cyber community. Against this array of challenges, collaboration between government, law enforcement and industry is key.

I’d like to propose three areas where we must go further and faster, together.

First, prevention is always better than a cure.

Sometimes cyberattacks are sophisticated - but the vast majority are in fact simple, and can be easily prevented by a few simple steps.

Our aim is to make the UK the safest place to be online, and that starts with all of us working to ensure that everyone understands how to protect themselves.

The NCSC’s Cyber Aware campaign and the work of City of London Police leading this work, is I hope, of use to you all in providing advice that is simple, consistent and based on our collective latest understanding of the threat picture.

This room is filled with experts so please be active in shaping the guidance so that your staff and customers can avoid becoming victims in the first place.

Second, our most capable adversaries will only get better.

Malign states and crime gangs will look for chances in an open internet. We’ve got to do the same to protect ourselves.

Five years ago, WannaCry wreaked havoc in the NHS, leading to cancelled appointments and postponed operations on a huge scale.

North Korea’s cyber weapon was heralded in a new business model for criminals around the world.

Today, Ransomware is a chronic threat and is sold as a service to groups without cyber skills. The barriers to entry have come down. This is a democratisation of crime, just as much as any other.

The question that we should all be asking is: what next?

Breaking the future cyber-criminal business model – and understanding tomorrow’s state action in cyber space is key to pushing for more responsible, democratic behaviour.

The enemy will evolve and so must we.

Third, new technology will change the world we think we know.

Dawn has broken on the age of Artificial Intelligence. We’ve only just begun to wake up to the opportunities that will be unlocked in the coming years, and can only guess at the ways in which they’ll transform our world.

This speech wasn’t written by ChatGPT as you can probably tell. You’re not supposed to laugh at that. Very soon we are going to see Large Language Models such as Open AI’s ChatGPT which are already able to ace the bar exam and indeed write better speeches than this, and suggest new avenues for drug discovery. They’re not thinking yet, it is more pattern recognition and repetition than real thought, but the game is changing already.

The goal that many are working towards - an Artificial General Intelligence, or AGI – is looking more open and more possible.

It’s difficult to overstate what this would mean to all of us. Super intelligent computers that learn and develop autonomously would transform our society and our world, and more than almost any other advancement in human history.

Even in these early stages, AI can enhance our security but it can also threaten it. Our AI capabilities will be at the heart of our mission to protect the UK.

In Ukraine, AI is already being used to identify malicious Russian behaviour by analysing patterns of activity at huge scale, they are not just finding needles in the haystack but finding out what the haystack itself is saying.

At home and across our homes in the UK, AI could protect children from predators, unlocking advanced tools and techniques to identify potential grooming behaviour at scale and uncover rings of offenders right across the net.

However, in our line of work opportunity often comes hand in hand with risk, and AI is no different.

We already know because we’ve seen it, the cost of the advancement of technology and the challenge it has brought in biological space and we know because we’ve seen it the risks that a pathogen can cause to our world. We need to make sure that we do not see the same risk from AI.

It’s not hard to see future AGI coding weapons, even now there are threats we must guard against.

Cyberattacks work when they find vulnerabilities. AI will cut the cost and complication of cyber attacks by automating the hunt for the chinks in our armour.

Already AI can confuse and copy, spreading lies and committing fraud. Natural language models can mimic credible news sources, pushing disingenuous narratives at huge scale. And AI image and video generation will get better – so called ‘deepfakes’ – which make the danger to our democracy even greater.

Given the stakes, we can all understand the calls to stop AI development altogether. But the genie won’t go back in the bottle anymore than we can write laws against maths.

As Robert Oppenheimer once said, ‘technology happens because it is possible’.

Putin has a longstanding strategic interest in AI, and has commented that ‘whoever becomes leader in this sphere will rule the world’. And China, with its vast data sets and fierce determination is a strong rival.

But AI also threatens authoritarian control.

Other than the United States, the UK is one of the only a handful liberal democratic countries that can credibly help lead the world in AI development.

We can stay ahead but it will demand investment and cooperation and not just by government. Only by working together can we keep Britain in the front rank of AI powers and protect ourselves and our businesses.

As for the safety of the technology itself, it’s essential that by the time we reach the development of AGI we are confident that it can be safely controlled, and aligned to our values and interests.

Solving this issue of alignment is where our efforts must lie – not in some King Canute like attempt to stop the inevitable, but in a national mission to ensure that when super intelligent computers do arrive, they make the world safer and more secure.

Before I finish let me say again what a huge pleasure it is to join you for this outstanding event.

Last night at dinner I wasn’t with you in the Titanic Hall but instead at Hillsborough castle hearing those that had negotiated the complexity of the Good Friday agreement. I heard about the uncertainty and recriminations and the fear but I also heard about hope and the individual efforts by millions across Northern Ireland, and indeed across the islands of Ireland and Great Britain that changed our lives for the better.

This morning I’ve heard from others who are taking on a different challenge with its own complexity and uncertainty and indeed its own risk. But I’ve also heard the hope for a better future for us all. As we can cooperate to contain and confront the challenges, I am grateful to you all for everything you have done and continue to do in the name of keeping people safe online.

This is a ferociously difficult task. But I am constantly inspired and reassured by your talent, expertise and dedication.

I am very grateful for everything you do and I look forward to us working together to make sure that this revolution, the next revolution, serves us all and keeps us all safe.

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Cybercrime and freedom of speech – A counterproductive entanglement

Published on June 14, 2017 by Gene Burrus


As cybercrime becomes ever more pervasive, the need for states to devote law enforcement resources to battling the problem is apparent. However, states should beware using cybercrime legislation and enforcement resources as a vehicle for restricting speech or controlling content. Doing so risks complicating essential international cooperation and will risk de-legitimizing cybercrime legislation and enforcement. With the growing need for enforcement to thwart cybercriminals, without which the economic and social opportunities of the Internet may well flounder, using “cybercrime” as a label for attacking speech and controlling content may only serve to dilute support, divert resources, and make international cooperation more difficult.

At present over 95 countries either have or are working on cybercrime legislation. This is a good thing, as the more states that have cybercrime laws, especially laws that are largely harmonized to better enable international cooperation, the better for everyone (except the criminals). Cybercrime thrives across borders and between jurisdictions, relying on the internet’s global reach and anonymity, but if cybercriminals are based in a country without adequate cybercrime laws, it becomes even harder to bring them to justice. But defining cybercrime properly is important.

Cybercrime is a word we have all encountered more of in recent years. It tends, rightly so, to bring to mind “hackers”, infiltrating computer systems and disrupting them or stealing from them. However , most cybercrime statutes are actually broader than that. They also cover a whole slew of criminal activity mediated by information communication technology (ICT). They deal with the theft of personal information, from credit card details to social security numbers, which can be used for fraud. It includes acts against property, albeit virtual property, from simple vandalism to sophisticated ransomware. (If “virtual property” sounds too abstract to be a concern, bear in mind that this is the form in which many of our most valuable ideas, from patented designs and trade secrets to copyrighted creative material, are now to be found.) It will increasingly bleed into the real world too, thanks to devices connected to the Internet (will cybercriminals soon be stealing self-drive cars through the Internet of Things?) and due to attacks on critical infrastructures such as power grids (which will also affect issues of national security).

This broad swathe of cybercrime is widely accepted to be “a bad thing” by most governments and on that basis, cooperation among and between governments in pursuing cybercriminals is possible.

However, many countries’ cybercrime legislation also categorizes publishing or transmission of illegal content in a particular country via computer networks or the internet as “cybercrime”. And on this, countries are not in wide agreement. When state’s laws criminalize content that other countries don’t recognize as criminal, and then devote cybercrime enforcement resources to chasing this kind of “crime” rather than what people generally think of as cybercrime, it complicates or prevents international cooperation, discredits cybercrime legislation and enforcement efforts, and diverts resources from solving the serious problem of cybercrime. While there is certainly content that is universally reviled, i.e. child pornography, there are many disagreements about the creation and dissemination of other content, e.g. political materials or art work. For some states, free speech is an exceptionally important principle. For others, the control of offensive or dangerous content is essential. Achieving agreement on how to approach these differences is, frankly, going to be a challenge. Once again the Budapest Convention provides a salient example. In 2006, the Convention was added to by a  Protocol  that criminalized acts spreading racist and xenophobic content. Even some states that signed up to and ratified the original Convention have proved reluctant to add themselves to the Protocol. This is almost certainly not because of they approve of racist or xenophobic content, it’s simply a complicated issue in the context of their own laws or their perspectives on free speech or legal sovereignty.

If these kinds of disagreements are expanded across other types of content and then brought into the heart of global cooperation against cybercrime, the whole process runs a serious risk of breaking down. States may well be unwilling to cooperate in cybercrime investigations, fearing they might expose people whose actions are in no way criminal by their own standards. And, once again, the only ones to benefit will be the cybercriminals who can play off jurisdictions against one another, ducking and diving across borders and through gaps in legal enforcement.

In many ways, the “cyber” in these “content crimes” is just about distribution and they do not have to be included in cybercrime statutes and enforcement efforts. Because states have different types of speech they want to regulate and different levels free speech they are willing to tolerate, these issues need to be kept separate from efforts to address what everyone agrees on as cybercrime: attacks on data, on property, on infrastructure. Crimes of content creation and distribution, beyond the most universally reviled such as child exploitation, should be dealt with outside of the essential cooperation on cybercrime itself. This will allow governments to work together globally to protect citizens, businesses and their own national security from cybercriminals.

About the Author

Gene Burrus

Assistant General Counsel

Gene is Assistant General Counsel for Cybercrime Legislation and Enforcement. He has been at Microsoft since 2002, and has had a long career in antitrust counseling and litigation at Microsoft, and prior to that, at American Airlines in Fort Worth, Texas, and in private practice in Los Angeles, California. Gene has bachelor's degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Oklahoma, and his law degree from the University of Virginia.


About Microsoft's Cybersecurity Policy Team

Microsoft’s cybersecurity policy team partners with governments and policymakers around the world, blending technical acumen with legal and policy expertise. By identifying strategic issues, assessing the impacts of policies and regulations, leading by example, and driving groundbreaking research, we help to promote a more secure online environment.

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  • Cyber Crime Essay


Essay on Cyber Crime

Cyber crime is the most discussed issue of the 21st century. The technology sector world wide is witnessing  a boom in the consumer of smartphones and the internet which is raising concerns with regard to the privacy and security of the users. Owing to this reason, it is highly essential for all the users to know about cyber crime  & security.  As a result, thi topic has become the most favorite topic of the examiner and can often be seen asked in the exams.  In this view, students must have information on cyber crime and stay prepared to tackle such topics in the essay question in the English paper.


Cybercrime is a dangerous attack a company or an individual may face. There are many cases where the cyber attack has brought massive loss to the company and individuals due to the data hack. We live in a technology-driven era, and every piece of information is now fed on computers. Cybercrime involves an attack on computers and digital devices. These cyber-attacks can prove hazardous not just for the organization, but also for the nation. To date, there are many digital attack cases in India and global, pushing for more security measures. These attacks are also affecting the economy of the country if not controlled in the initial stage.

What is Cybercrime?

Cybercrime or attack is defined as the systematic criminal activity occurring digitally

and done by attackers. There are many examples of cybercrime, including fraud,

malware viruses, cyberstalking and others. Due to these, government agencies and

companies are investing more in the maintenance and hiring of cybercrime experts. 

Earlier, cybercrime was committed only by individuals or by small groups. However, now a highly complex cybercriminals network work on attacking the system for data


Three groups of cybercrimes-

This is the form of cyberstalking, trafficking, and grooming. Over the years, this

This type of cybercrime has been taken seriously by law enforcement agencies. It is

now keeping a track over every such attack on an individual.

Similar to the real world where criminals steal the property, in the cyber world,

attackers steal data. Here, the attacker steals a person's bank details and

misuse the credit card for online purchase. By using malicious software, the

attacker attacks the property to disrupt the system of the organization.

These types of crimes are denoted as cyber terrorism. This can be a terror because

the attacker can get hold of essential documents related to government

projects. An enemy nation or terrorist usually makes such attacks. There are

many cases globally where a terrorist hacks government data.

Apart from these, there is a financial crime where the hacker steals the money of the

user account holder. Moreover, they steal company data and finance.

In this type, the computer system of the person is hacked to get personal

information. In many countries, including India, hacking is a punishable act.

It is quite different from ethical hacking. In normal hacking, illegal use

different types of software to enter the system of the target person. Hacker is

then able to monitor every activity done by the person.

This Cybercrime is about violating copyright and downloading music or movies. In

India, many movies before their releases are leaked on the movie download

sites. In other words , theft is also called privacy, which can bring a huge

loss to the organization.

Cyber Stalking

It is online harassment by an individual or a group of people. Normally, these

stalkers target an individual and harass online. There are many cases of

cyberstalking in India, resulting in the target person ending up taking

Malicious Software

These are computer-based cybercrimes where virus-based software is installed in the

target people or organization computers. This is to damage the system and

corrupt the data of the target.

Laws Related to Cybercrime

In India, there are many cybercrime laws enacted to stop this threat. Be it for

the individual or the organization; these laws help to either bring down the

number of cases or eliminate these digital crimes.

Apart from these laws, as an individual, you also need to take steps to stop these

crimes. Like, not providing your login details, installing trust anti-virus

software and keeping your online profile private can help to act against such

Cybercrime is a significant threat that can bring huge loss to the individual and the

organization. It is essential to follow basic online rules to ensure the safety

of self and the organization.

Benefits of Cyber Crime Essay in English provided by Vedantu

The essay on cybercrime provided by Vedantu is prepared by highly qualified teachers which makes it a reliable source of information. This information could be utilized for a variety of reasons. Being a reliable piece of information the essay will benefit everyone curious to know about the topic.

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Comprehensive and analytical. The  article digs in the depth of the issue and analyzes it through a 360 degree perspective.

The essay could also be used by the students for preparing themselves for the essay question in the English paper. This essay is an excellent guide to understand what the examiner is looking for in the exam. Moreover, the topic of cybercrime is quite a recurrent one in the exam. So the students use this essay to deal with the same topic.

The Essay on Cyber Crime is an excellent guide on averting any possibilities of a cyber attack. On today's date, one is mostly on the internet for a variety of reasons. It becomes essential for one to know important tips that can keep one safe from cyberbullies, thieves, or blackmailers. It is also important for one to understand the right course of actions to be taken in an eventuality of such an incident.

Download the cybercrime essay for students in English on the Vedantu website.


FAQs on Cyber Crime Essay

1. How Does Cybercrime Work?

Group of people or an individual commits most of these cyber-crimes. These criminals use a systematic process to hack and commit these acts. These criminal communities share strategies and tools to launch attacks. Some of the cybercrime techniques

Fast Flux - In this method, the hacker moves data quickly among computers in a botnet, making it challenging to find the right source.

Social Engineering - This method includes using lies and manipulation to trick people into revealing their personal information.

Skimmers - This involves installing a skimming tool in an ATM and stealing the information. You may find such skimming devices in ATMs.

There are some digital criminals targeting organizations to steal personal information.

2. How Cybercrime Affects Society?

Cybercrime can hugely affect society. In 2018, the US faced a loss of $600 billion. As consumers are increasingly allowing technologies to get into their lives, cyber attackers are getting better access. Some of the essential information available are-

Personal health data, sleep schedules, and geo-locations Shopping history, account information, and passive conversations noticed voice-controlled devices, Private conversations on social media accounts.

Your entire life is now available on social media, making it vulnerable to hack or cyber-attack. Attackers use different techniques including- installing malware, virus, phishing, cyberstalking, etc. These can certainly bring loss of lives and data for individuals and organizations. For society, this is a significant loss in the long run.  One needs to be very careful when presenting himself socially.

3. How to stay secure in times of cybercrime?

Cybercrime is a real threat posing to society. It is the 21st-century version of theft and blackmailing. There are certain ways one should adopt to prevent any possibilities of cybercrime. Do not disclose the banking details to random people or fill the CVV of your debit or credit cards on an unknown and unverified website. Keep your passwords always discrete. The camera of the laptop should always be covered.

4. Where can I get a cybercrime essay?

One can find a good quality cyber crime essay on Vedantu's website. The essay which is prepared by the expert teachers describes everything that one needs to know about cybercrime. It is the one-stop solution for all your requirements on the topic. Their essay is available in PDF format on the website and could be downloaded on any device. One downloaded essay could be used in offline mode too. If one finds it feasible, the printout of the PDF could also be taken out.

Why some cyber-attacks hit harder than others

  • Published 2 hours ago

An entrance to the British Library, January 12, 2024

The British Library used to be my unofficial office. Once I even argued that for writers, the British Library was the best aspect of living in London .

But the UK's national library now feels a bit like a throwback to pre-internet times. Books have to be ordered in person, using paper slips. Much of its digital content is inaccessible.

The problems trace back to a ransomware attack in October 2023, which paralysed IT systems.

The Russian hacker group Rhysida claimed responsibility, and demanded a ransom of 20 bitcoin (equivalent to £600,000 at the time). After the British Library refused to pay up, and following an online auction of stolen data, the hackers leaked the nearly 600 GB of private information on the dark web.

It wasn't until January 2024 that the online catalogue became useable again , and even this was an incomplete version.

The organisation has prepared users for a lengthy recovery process, noting that it could take several months just to analyse the leaked data. The library has not specified a timeframe for further recovery, but outside observers believe that it could take a year .

The British Library declined to comment for this article.

Warning sign over British Library services

The good news is that this is an unusually long timeframe for recovery from a cyber-attack. According to the data site Statista , from 2020 to mid-2022, the average amount of downtime following a ransomware attack in the US was 24 days.

A UK government survey conducted in 2022-23 found that 88% of businesses and 84% of charities had been able to restore their operations within 24 hours of their most devastating cyber breach or attack.

But protracted recovery isn't unheard of. From identifying affected IT systems to decrypting servers, uninstalling non-functional applications, blocking connections, disabling accounts, and restoring uninfected backups, each step can create bottlenecks.

To some extent the longer-term recovery depends on the amount of rebuilding, or new system construction, an organisation does following a cyber-attack.

For the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA), which was hit by a ransomware attack back in December 2020, this process is continuing today. "SEPA made the decision to build back better from new rather than re-establish legacy systems," according to a spokesperson for the agency.

There are many variables determining the length of cyber-attack recovery. These include the type and number of systems affected, the quality and quantity of backups, the experience of IT staff, and the sophistication of both the attack and the initial response.

For instance, with the rise of cloud computing, it's become increasingly common for companies to use hypervisors, which basically generate digital versions (virtual machines) of physical computer systems.

Ransomeware attackers can encrypt the hypervisor - locking up multiple systems and programs in one go. It's a trend being seen by Mandiant, a cyber security firm that is now a subsidiary of Google Cloud.

In a situation where a hypervisor is running many programs critical to business operations, "the impact is more significant and in some cases can actually impact the underlying infrastructure that the organisation would use to be able to get back up and running more quickly," says Kimberly Moody, the head of cyber crime analysis at Mandiant.

Kimberly Goody, the head of cyber crime analysis at Mandiant

The size of the organisation could also be a factor. "A larger organisation could take a longer time to recover because when you look at the staff to systems ratio, it could be much higher than a smaller organisation," Ms Goody says.

In the anomalous cases where recovery drags on into months or even years, one potential reason is that an organisation's "backups might have been encrypted and they haven't been able to restore them," Ms Goody comments. For instance, it may be a painfully slow process to obtain a decryption key.

Ensuring that backups are created and tested frequently is one way that organisations can make themselves more resilient to cyber attack.

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Another is to avoid reliance on a single type of prevention. Just one reason that antivirus fails, Ms Goody says, is because "today there is a whole underground marketplace" where criminals can cheaply test out malware samples against different antivirus programmes. If they see that their malware isn't detected by a particular antivirus product, they can target an organisation with those weak defences.

Shoring up defences would include investing in cyber-security staff and tools. Ms Goody also offers some advice to organisations overwhelmed by the array of cyber-security products on the market. "The only way to know how effective they are for you, and how relevant they're going to be for you and your team, is to test that in your own environment," she emphasises.

Even well-prepared organisations may fall victim to cyber-attacks. In these cases, cyber-risk insurance can help to absorb financial losses. Ms Goody calls this "a really valuable component of an organisation's broader risk plan given the evolving nature of cyber-attacks".

Financial losses from disrupted operations can dwarf the initial ransom demand. "The majority of the costs can be on the business interruption side of the things, not actually the extortion," says Simon West, the cyber-advisory lead at Resilience.

This is the case for the British Library, whose digital rebuilding will cost millions of pounds , requiring the organisation to use its reserves.

Simon West, the cyber-advisory lead at Resilience

Preparation is essential given the inevitability of future cyber-attacks. Ciaran Martin, the former head of the UK's National Cyber Security Centre, has predicted that a cyber-attack as severe as the one that has debilitated the British Library is likely for every one of the next five years .

Mr West says, "Even though our research shows that the ransom amounts are decreasing, it's still very lucrative for criminals. It's now easier than it ever was before" - with cyber-attackers able to outsource phishing attacks and other services to third parties, and with AI presenting them with new opportunities .

"While the going's good for them, I don't see it stopping."

Related Topics

  • Cyber-crime
  • Cyber-attacks
  • Technology of Business

English Summary

5 Minute Speech on Cyber Security in English for Students

Cyber security is also known as computer security. This is very important for the safety of the individual as well as the safety of the country. With the coming of the internet, the world has improved to a whole range. However, it has also brought in a lot of dangers of a process called hacking. This is how other people get through the data and important files illegally as they use them to blackmail the country or the person or they would also destroy very important and sensitive documents. There are so many and there have been so many reasons for doing so. This is called cyberattacks. It is very common in today’s world. Therefore, the governments in all countries have upgraded their cyber security and have been doing so every year. It was only in the 1970s that it was brought into serious notice with higher demand. A man named Bob Thomas is credited for inventing cyber security. He was a computer scientist. This is a very important knowledge. The US, Finland, UK and others are known for their very strong cyber security. This is a very important subject for everyone and should be made aware of by students. 

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Doha Declaration

Education for justice.

  • Agenda Day 1
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  • Criminal Justice & Crime Prevention
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  • Introduction & Learning Outcomes
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  • Manifestations of corruption in education
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  • Core terms and concepts
  • The role of citizens in fighting corruption
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  • Access to information: a condition for citizen participation
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  • Teaching Guide
  • Brief History of Terrorism
  • 19th Century Terrorism
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  • Defining Terrorism
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  • Extra-territorial Application of Right to Life
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  • Investigative Phase
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  • Principle of Non-Discrimination
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  • Topic 1. Contemporary issues relating to conditions conducive both to the spread of terrorism and the rule of law
  • Topic 2. Contemporary issues relating to the right to life
  • Topic 3. Contemporary issues relating to foreign terrorist fighters
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  • Module 16: Linkages between Organized Crime and Terrorism
  • Thematic Areas
  • Content Breakdown
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  • Acknowledgements
  • 1. Introducing United Nations Standards & Norms on CPCJ vis-à-vis International Law
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  • 1. Definition of Crime Prevention
  • 2. Key Crime Prevention Typologies
  • 2. (cont.) Tonry & Farrington’s Typology
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  • United Nations Entities
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  • Systematic Reviews
  • 1. Introduction to International Standards & Norms
  • 2. Identifying the Need for Legal Aid
  • 3. Key Components of the Right of Access to Legal Aid
  • 4. Access to Legal Aid for Those with Specific Needs
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  • 6. Models for Delivering Legal Aid Services
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  • 1. Context for Use of Force by Law Enforcement Officials
  • 2. Legal Framework
  • 3. General Principles of Use of Force in Law Enforcement
  • 4. Use of Firearms
  • 5. Use of “Less-Lethal” Weapons
  • 6. Protection of Especially Vulnerable Groups
  • 7. Use of Force during Assemblies
  • 1. Policing in democracies & need for accountability, integrity, oversight
  • 2. Key mechanisms & actors in police accountability, oversight
  • 3. Crosscutting & contemporary issues in police accountability
  • 1. Introducing Aims of Punishment, Imprisonment & Prison Reform
  • 2. Current Trends, Challenges & Human Rights
  • 3. Towards Humane Prisons & Alternative Sanctions
  • 1. Aims and Significance of Alternatives to Imprisonment
  • 2. Justifying Punishment in the Community
  • 3. Pretrial Alternatives
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  • 5. Evaluating Alternatives
  • 1. Concept, Values and Origin of Restorative Justice
  • 2. Overview of Restorative Justice Processes
  • 3. How Cost Effective is Restorative Justice?
  • 4. Issues in Implementing Restorative Justice
  • 1. Gender-Based Discrimination & Women in Conflict with the Law
  • 2. Vulnerabilities of Girls in Conflict with the Law
  • 3. Discrimination and Violence against LGBTI Individuals
  • 4. Gender Diversity in Criminal Justice Workforce
  • 1. Ending Violence against Women
  • 2. Human Rights Approaches to Violence against Women
  • 3. Who Has Rights in this Situation?
  • 4. What about the Men?
  • 5. Local, Regional & Global Solutions to Violence against Women & Girls
  • 1. Understanding the Concept of Victims of Crime
  • 2. Impact of Crime, including Trauma
  • 3. Right of Victims to Adequate Response to their Needs
  • 4. Collecting Victim Data
  • 5. Victims and their Participation in Criminal Justice Process
  • 6. Victim Services: Institutional and Non-Governmental Organizations
  • 7. Outlook on Current Developments Regarding Victims
  • 8. Victims of Crime and International Law
  • 1. The Many Forms of Violence against Children
  • 2. The Impact of Violence on Children
  • 3. States' Obligations to Prevent VAC and Protect Child Victims
  • 4. Improving the Prevention of Violence against Children
  • 5. Improving the Criminal Justice Response to VAC
  • 6. Addressing Violence against Children within the Justice System
  • 1. The Role of the Justice System
  • 2. Convention on the Rights of the Child & International Legal Framework on Children's Rights
  • 3. Justice for Children
  • 4. Justice for Children in Conflict with the Law
  • 5. Realizing Justice for Children
  • 1a. Judicial Independence as Fundamental Value of Rule of Law & of Constitutionalism
  • 1b. Main Factors Aimed at Securing Judicial Independence
  • 2a. Public Prosecutors as ‘Gate Keepers’ of Criminal Justice
  • 2b. Institutional and Functional Role of Prosecutors
  • 2c. Other Factors Affecting the Role of Prosecutors
  • Basics of Computing
  • Global Connectivity and Technology Usage Trends
  • Cybercrime in Brief
  • Cybercrime Trends
  • Cybercrime Prevention
  • Offences against computer data and systems
  • Computer-related offences
  • Content-related offences
  • The Role of Cybercrime Law
  • Harmonization of Laws
  • International and Regional Instruments
  • International Human Rights and Cybercrime Law
  • Digital Evidence
  • Digital Forensics
  • Standards and Best Practices for Digital Forensics
  • Reporting Cybercrime
  • Who Conducts Cybercrime Investigations?
  • Obstacles to Cybercrime Investigations
  • Knowledge Management
  • Legal and Ethical Obligations
  • Handling of Digital Evidence
  • Digital Evidence Admissibility
  • Sovereignty and Jurisdiction
  • Formal International Cooperation Mechanisms
  • Informal International Cooperation Mechanisms
  • Data Retention, Preservation and Access
  • Challenges Relating to Extraterritorial Evidence
  • National Capacity and International Cooperation
  • Internet Governance
  • Cybersecurity Strategies: Basic Features
  • National Cybersecurity Strategies
  • International Cooperation on Cybersecurity Matters
  • Cybersecurity Posture
  • Assets, Vulnerabilities and Threats
  • Vulnerability Disclosure
  • Cybersecurity Measures and Usability
  • Situational Crime Prevention
  • Incident Detection, Response, Recovery & Preparedness
  • Privacy: What it is and Why it is Important
  • Privacy and Security
  • Cybercrime that Compromises Privacy
  • Data Protection Legislation
  • Data Breach Notification Laws
  • Enforcement of Privacy and Data Protection Laws
  • Intellectual Property: What it is
  • Types of Intellectual Property
  • Causes for Cyber-Enabled Copyright & Trademark Offences
  • Protection & Prevention Efforts
  • Online Child Sexual Exploitation and Abuse
  • Cyberstalking and Cyberharassment
  • Cyberbullying
  • Gender-Based Interpersonal Cybercrime
  • Interpersonal Cybercrime Prevention
  • Cyber Organized Crime: What is it?
  • Conceptualizing Organized Crime & Defining Actors Involved
  • Criminal Groups Engaging in Cyber Organized Crime
  • Cyber Organized Crime Activities
  • Preventing & Countering Cyber Organized Crime
  • Cyberespionage
  • Cyberterrorism
  • Cyberwarfare
  • Information Warfare, Disinformation & Electoral Fraud
  • Responses to Cyberinterventions
  • Framing the Issue of Firearms
  • Direct Impact of Firearms
  • Indirect Impacts of Firearms on States or Communities
  • International and National Responses
  • Typology and Classification of Firearms
  • Common Firearms Types
  • 'Other' Types of Firearms
  • Parts and Components
  • History of the Legitimate Arms Market
  • Need for a Legitimate Market
  • Key Actors in the Legitimate Market
  • Authorized & Unauthorized Arms Transfers
  • Illegal Firearms in Social, Cultural & Political Context
  • Supply, Demand & Criminal Motivations
  • Larger Scale Firearms Trafficking Activities
  • Smaller Scale Trafficking Activities
  • Sources of Illicit Firearms
  • Consequences of Illicit Markets
  • International Public Law & Transnational Law
  • International Instruments with Global Outreach
  • Commonalities, Differences & Complementarity between Global Instruments
  • Tools to Support Implementation of Global Instruments
  • Other United Nations Processes
  • The Sustainable Development Goals
  • Multilateral & Regional Instruments
  • Scope of National Firearms Regulations
  • National Firearms Strategies & Action Plans
  • Harmonization of National Legislation with International Firearms Instruments
  • Assistance for Development of National Firearms Legislation
  • Firearms Trafficking as a Cross-Cutting Element
  • Organized Crime and Organized Criminal Groups
  • Criminal Gangs
  • Terrorist Groups
  • Interconnections between Organized Criminal Groups & Terrorist Groups
  • Gangs - Organized Crime & Terrorism: An Evolving Continuum
  • International Response
  • International and National Legal Framework
  • Firearms Related Offences
  • Role of Law Enforcement
  • Firearms as Evidence
  • Use of Special Investigative Techniques
  • International Cooperation and Information Exchange
  • Prosecution and Adjudication of Firearms Trafficking
  • Teaching Methods & Principles
  • Ethical Learning Environments
  • Overview of Modules
  • Module Adaption & Design Guidelines
  • Table of Exercises
  • Basic Terms
  • Forms of Gender Discrimination
  • Ethics of Care
  • Case Studies for Professional Ethics
  • Case Studies for Role Morality
  • Additional Exercises
  • Defining Organized Crime
  • Definition in Convention
  • Similarities & Differences
  • Activities, Organization, Composition
  • Thinking Critically Through Fiction
  • Excerpts of Legislation
  • Research & Independent Study Questions
  • Legal Definitions of Organized Crimes
  • Criminal Association
  • Definitions in the Organized Crime Convention
  • Criminal Organizations and Enterprise Laws
  • Enabling Offence: Obstruction of Justice
  • Drug Trafficking
  • Wildlife & Forest Crime
  • Counterfeit Products Trafficking
  • Falsified Medical Products
  • Trafficking in Cultural Property
  • Trafficking in Persons
  • Case Studies & Exercises
  • Extortion Racketeering
  • Loansharking
  • Links to Corruption
  • Bribery versus Extortion
  • Money-Laundering
  • Liability of Legal Persons
  • How much Organized Crime is there?
  • Alternative Ways for Measuring
  • Measuring Product Markets
  • Risk Assessment
  • Key Concepts of Risk Assessment
  • Risk Assessment of Organized Crime Groups
  • Risk Assessment of Product Markets
  • Risk Assessment in Practice
  • Positivism: Environmental Influences
  • Classical: Pain-Pleasure Decisions
  • Structural Factors
  • Ethical Perspective
  • Crime Causes & Facilitating Factors
  • Models and Structure
  • Hierarchical Model
  • Local, Cultural Model
  • Enterprise or Business Model
  • Groups vs Activities
  • Networked Structure
  • Jurisdiction
  • Investigators of Organized Crime
  • Controlled Deliveries
  • Physical & Electronic Surveillance
  • Undercover Operations
  • Financial Analysis
  • Use of Informants
  • Rights of Victims & Witnesses
  • Role of Prosecutors
  • Adversarial vs Inquisitorial Legal Systems
  • Mitigating Punishment
  • Granting Immunity from Prosecution
  • Witness Protection
  • Aggravating & Mitigating Factors
  • Sentencing Options
  • Alternatives to Imprisonment
  • Death Penalty & Organized Crime
  • Backgrounds of Convicted Offenders
  • Confiscation
  • Confiscation in Practice
  • Mutual Legal Assistance (MLA)
  • Extradition
  • Transfer of Criminal Proceedings
  • Transfer of Sentenced Persons
  • Module 12: Prevention of Organized Crime
  • Adoption of Organized Crime Convention
  • Historical Context
  • Features of the Convention
  • Related international instruments
  • Conference of the Parties
  • Roles of Participants
  • Structure and Flow
  • Recommended Topics
  • Background Materials
  • What is Sex / Gender / Intersectionality?
  • Knowledge about Gender in Organized Crime
  • Gender and Organized Crime
  • Gender and Different Types of Organized Crime
  • Definitions and Terminology
  • Organized crime and Terrorism - International Legal Framework
  • International Terrorism-related Conventions
  • UNSC Resolutions on Terrorism
  • Organized Crime Convention and its Protocols
  • Theoretical Frameworks on Linkages between Organized Crime and Terrorism
  • Typologies of Criminal Behaviour Associated with Terrorism
  • Terrorism and Drug Trafficking
  • Terrorism and Trafficking in Weapons
  • Terrorism, Crime and Trafficking in Cultural Property
  • Trafficking in Persons and Terrorism
  • Intellectual Property Crime and Terrorism
  • Kidnapping for Ransom and Terrorism
  • Exploitation of Natural Resources and Terrorism
  • Review and Assessment Questions
  • Research and Independent Study Questions
  • Criminalization of Smuggling of Migrants
  • UNTOC & the Protocol against Smuggling of Migrants
  • Offences under the Protocol
  • Financial & Other Material Benefits
  • Aggravating Circumstances
  • Criminal Liability
  • Non-Criminalization of Smuggled Migrants
  • Scope of the Protocol
  • Humanitarian Exemption
  • Migrant Smuggling v. Irregular Migration
  • Migrant Smuggling vis-a-vis Other Crime Types
  • Other Resources
  • Assistance and Protection in the Protocol
  • International Human Rights and Refugee Law
  • Vulnerable groups
  • Positive and Negative Obligations of the State
  • Identification of Smuggled Migrants
  • Participation in Legal Proceedings
  • Role of Non-Governmental Organizations
  • Smuggled Migrants & Other Categories of Migrants
  • Short-, Mid- and Long-Term Measures
  • Criminal Justice Reponse: Scope
  • Investigative & Prosecutorial Approaches
  • Different Relevant Actors & Their Roles
  • Testimonial Evidence
  • Financial Investigations
  • Non-Governmental Organizations
  • ‘Outside the Box’ Methodologies
  • Intra- and Inter-Agency Coordination
  • Admissibility of Evidence
  • International Cooperation
  • Exchange of Information
  • Non-Criminal Law Relevant to Smuggling of Migrants
  • Administrative Approach
  • Complementary Activities & Role of Non-criminal Justice Actors
  • Macro-Perspective in Addressing Smuggling of Migrants
  • Human Security
  • International Aid and Cooperation
  • Migration & Migrant Smuggling
  • Mixed Migration Flows
  • Social Politics of Migrant Smuggling
  • Vulnerability
  • Profile of Smugglers
  • Role of Organized Criminal Groups
  • Humanitarianism, Security and Migrant Smuggling
  • Crime of Trafficking in Persons
  • The Issue of Consent
  • The Purpose of Exploitation
  • The abuse of a position of vulnerability
  • Indicators of Trafficking in Persons
  • Distinction between Trafficking in Persons and Other Crimes
  • Misconceptions Regarding Trafficking in Persons
  • Root Causes
  • Supply Side Prevention Strategies
  • Demand Side Prevention Strategies
  • Role of the Media
  • Safe Migration Channels
  • Crime Prevention Strategies
  • Monitoring, Evaluating & Reporting on Effectiveness of Prevention
  • Trafficked Persons as Victims
  • Protection under the Protocol against Trafficking in Persons
  • Broader International Framework
  • State Responsibility for Trafficking in Persons
  • Identification of Victims
  • Principle of Non-Criminalization of Victims
  • Criminal Justice Duties Imposed on States
  • Role of the Criminal Justice System
  • Current Low Levels of Prosecutions and Convictions
  • Challenges to an Effective Criminal Justice Response
  • Rights of Victims to Justice and Protection
  • Potential Strategies to “Turn the Tide”
  • State Cooperation with Civil Society
  • Civil Society Actors
  • The Private Sector
  • Comparing SOM and TIP
  • Differences and Commonalities
  • Vulnerability and Continuum between SOM & TIP
  • Labour Exploitation
  • Forced Marriage
  • Other Examples
  • Children on the Move
  • Protecting Smuggled and Trafficked Children
  • Protection in Practice
  • Children Alleged as Having Committed Smuggling or Trafficking Offences
  • Basic Terms - Gender and Gender Stereotypes
  • International Legal Frameworks and Definitions of TIP and SOM
  • Global Overview on TIP and SOM
  • Gender and Migration
  • Key Debates in the Scholarship on TIP and SOM
  • Gender and TIP and SOM Offenders
  • Responses to TIP and SOM
  • Use of Technology to Facilitate TIP and SOM
  • Technology Facilitating Trafficking in Persons
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  • Emerging Trends
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  • Supply and Demand
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  • Purposes for which Wild Flora is Illegally Targeted
  • How is it Done and Who is Involved?
  • Consequences of Harms to Wild Flora
  • Terminology
  • Background: Communities and conservation: A history of disenfranchisement
  • Incentives for communities to get involved in illegal wildlife trafficking: the cost of conservation
  • Incentives to participate in illegal wildlife, logging and fishing economies
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Module 10: Privacy and Data Protection

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E4J University Module Series: Cybercrime

Introduction and learning outcomes.

  • Privacy: what it is and why it is important
  • Privacy and security
  • Cybercrime that compromises privacy
  • Data protection legislation
  • Data breach notification laws
  • Enforcement of privacy and data protection laws

Possible class structure

Core reading, advanced reading, student assessment, additional teaching tools.

  • First published in March 2019 , updated in February 2020

  This module is a resource for lecturers  

Data plays an integral role in the commission of many cybercrimes and vulnerabilities to cybercrime. Even though data provides users of it (individuals, private companies, organizations, and governments) with innumerable opportunities, these benefits can be (and have been) exploited by some for criminal purposes. Specifically, data collection, storage, analysis, and sharing both enables many cybercrimes and the vast collection, storage, use, and distribution of data without users' informed consent and choice and necessary legal and security protections. What is more, data aggregation, analysis, and transfer occur at scales that governments and organizations are unprepared for, creating a slew of cybersecurity risks. Privacy, data protection, and security of systems, networks, and data are interdependent. In view of that, to protect against cybercrime, security measures are needed that are designed to protect data and user's privacy.

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Cyber Crime Essay for Students and Children

500+ words essay on cyber crime.

Cyber Crime Essay – Everybody thinks that only stealing someone’s private data is Cyber Crime. But in defining terms we can say that ‘Cyber Crime refers to the use of an electronic device (computer, laptop, etc.) for stealing someone’s data or trying to harm them using a computer.

Besides, it is an illegal activity that involves a series of issues ranging from theft to using your system or IP address as a tool for committing a crime.

Cyber Crime Essay

Types of Cyber Crime

Speaking in a broadway we can say that Cyber Crime are categorized into four major types. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism.

The financial crime they steal the money of user or account holders. Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government.

Privacy crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.

In, hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value.

Modern-day terrorism has grown way beyond what it was 10-20 years ago. But cyber terrorism is not just related to terrorists or terrorist organizations. But to threat some person or property to the level of creating fear is also Cyber Terrorism.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Cyber Crime in India

Web world or cyberspace is a massive community of millions and billions of users and websites. Also, people access it for different uses like shopping, movies, music, video games, transactions, and e-commerce, etc.

speech on cyber crime in english

In this Age of Technology and easy access to the internet, anyone can easily reach it. Because of this fast pace growth from the previous decade. Besides, the internet has opened a world of information on which anyone can connect.

Due to, this the rate of crime especially the rate of Cyber Crime has increased much fold. Moreover, the rate of circulation of data is also increased much fold due to the higher speed of internet. Above all, due to all these issues, the Cybersecurity has become a major concern for society.

Laws related to Cyber Crimes

To stop the spread of Cyber Crime and to safeguard the interest of people the government has made several laws related to Cyber Crimes. Also, these laws serve as protection against Cyber Crime. Apart from that, the government has also introduced cyber cells in police stations to counter the problem of Cyber Crime as fast as they can.

Ways of stopping Cyber Crime

Cyber Crime is not something which we cannot deal with our self. Likewise, with little use of our common sense and logic, we can stop Cyber Crimes from happening.

To conclude, we can say that Cyber Crime is a dangerous offense to someone’s privacy or any material. Also, we can avoid Cyber Crime by following some basic logical things and using our common sense. Above all, Cyber Crime is a violation of not only law but of human rights too.

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Speech on Cyber Crime [1, 2, 3, 5 Minutes]

1, 2, 3 minutes speech on cyber crime.

Dear teachers and students!

Greetings to all. and thank you to all of your to give me a chance to give a speech on Cyber Crime.

Ladies and gentlemen, I want to talk to you today about the expanding issue of cybercrime. As technology develops at a rapid rate, so does the sophistication of those looking to utilise it for nefarious purposes.

Cybercrime may take many different forms, from breaking into computer systems at homes and businesses to steal sensitive data to utilising the internet to perpetrate fraud or spread malware. Additionally, it can refer to child pornography production and dissemination, cyberstalking, and online abuse.

The consequences of cybercrime can be serious and far-reaching. Personal and financial data loss can result in identity theft and financial loss for individuals. Both financial losses and reputational harm to businesses are possible outcomes.

It is crucial that people and organisations take precautions to safeguard themselves in order to prevent cybercrime. We can safeguard by creating secure passwords We can safeguard by updating software We can safeguard by maintaining security measures We can safeguard by avoiding irrelevant and unauthentic software installations We can safeguard by exercising caution while dealing with unsolicited emails and messages

It’s critical to aid law enforcement organisations in their fight against cybercrime. This includes alerting authorities to any suspicious conduct and supporting laws aimed at enhancing cyber security and punishing offenders. I want to tell that cybercrime is a significant issue in the society and it has an impact on everyone. We can jointly fight this rising threat by taking precautions for our own safety and assisting law enforcement. I’m grateful.

5 Minutes Speech on Cyber Crime

Both the number of occurrences and the severity of them indicate that cybercrime is a rising concern. Over 6 billion records were stolen from US businesses in 2016 alone.

Cybercrime can be brought on by a variety of factors. One of the most frequent reasons is when people unintentionally provide private information to a third party while using their personal devices for work-related tasks. Other reasons are more nefarious, such when a hacker infiltrates your system and takes your data for ransom or financial gain.

Today’s society is facing a serious challenge with cybercrime. More than 1.3 million incidences of cybercrime were documented in the United States alone in 2016, according to the FBI. As technology develops and more people go online, this number will only increase.

There are various methods to defend yourself against cybercrime, but it’s vital to keep in mind that no strategy is failsafe since hackers always devise new ways to steal data or do harm. Typical defence strategies include:

  • Using unique passwords for each account and keeping passwords secretAvoiding opening email attachments from
  • unknown senders or clicking on dubious links
  • Using antivirus software and constantly upgrading it
  • Using a mix of letters, numbers, and symbols in h2 passwords

Cybercrime has become more prevalent in recent years. Cybercrime is currently a global threat, and hackers are becoming increasingly skilled.

Cybercrime is becoming a bigger issue for both organisations and people. Massive losses in money, reputation, and consumer trust may result from it. An organisation may suffer catastrophic consequences as a result of a cyberattack.

Examples of sentences that can be used in starting of this speech

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Cyber Crime Essay

The unlawful act of gaining unauthorised access to computer systems or digital devices is known as cybercrime. A detailed grasp of how to stop or recover from cyberattacks is provided by cyber security. Online courses offer guidance on how to avoid, safeguard against, and recover from cybercrime risks. Here are a few sample essays on the topic ‘Cyber Crime’.

100 Words Essay on Cyber Crime

200 words essay on cyber crime, 500 words essay on cyber crime.

Cyber Crime Essay

Cybercrime is the most discussed problem in the twenty-first century. The usage of cellphones and the internet is increasing dramatically over the world, which is generating questions about consumers' security and privacy. Because of this, it is crucial for all users to understand cybercrime and security. Cybercrime is defined as organised criminal conduct carried out by attackers online. Cybercrime comes in numerous forms, such as fraud, computer viruses, cyberstalking, and others. Due to these, businesses and government organisations are spending more on maintaining and employing professionals in cybercrime.

There are millions and billions of users and websites in the vast community known as cyberspace. People utilise it for a variety of activities including e-commerce, transactions, shopping, movies, music, and video games. Anyone can simply access anything online in the current technological era owing to accessible internet connection. As a result, crime in general and cybercrime in particular have surged dramatically. Additionally, the faster internet connection has greatly boosted the rate of data circulation. All of these problems are responsible as to why cyber security has grown to be a significant issue for society.

The government has created a number of cybercrime-related laws in an effort to curb the spread of the crime and to protect people's interests. These laws also provide defence against cybercrime. Aside from that, the government has established cyber cells in police stations to combat cybercrime as quickly as possible.

Cybercrime is an attack that can be harmful to both an individual and a business. There have been several instances where a cyber attack led to a data leak that caused a significant loss for a business or a person. These cyber-attacks could have negative effects on the country and the business. The countless instances of cyberattacks that have taken place in India and other nations have necessitated increased security measures. There are four main categories of cybercrime, according to a popular definition—hacking, money, privacy, and cyber terrorism.

Cybercrime is a type of crime in which illegal activities are carried out online or using computers. Cybercrime comes in a variety of forms which involves harassing online users. Cybercrime is the most serious and rapidly expanding type of crime in this day and age. Any person's life may be negatively impacted for a very long time by becoming a cyber victim. Cybercrimes have a wide range of repercussions on financial and investment activity in digital organisations.

One typical tactic used by criminals is to lure online users in by creating attractive websites and sending phoney emails purporting to be from banks or other organisations and asking for personal information. It makes it easier for criminals to access a person's bank account and personal data. Due to viruses, mail fraud, account hacking, and software piracy, people have been victims of cybercrimes. They also run into problems with unauthorised access mailing, threats from pornographic emails, and video transmission.

Types of Cyber Crime

Cyberstalking | It is the use of electronic communication to track down a person or to make repeated attempts to get in touch with them in order to foster personal interaction despite their blatant lack of interest. Anyone who monitors the internet, email, or any other form of electronic communication is guilty of stalking.

Phishing | It is a sort of fraud that includes collecting personal data from recipients of emails that seem to be coming from a reliable source, including Customer ID, IPIN, Credit/Debit Card number, Card expiration date, CVV number, etc.

Vishing | It is an attempt when criminals attempt to obtain personal information over the phone, such as Customer ID, Net Banking password, ATM PIN, OTP, Card expiration date, CVV, etc.

Smishing | It is a sort of fraud that employs text messages sent to mobile devices to entice victims into dialling a fake phone number, going to a fake website, or downloading harmful software.

Impersonation And Identity Theft | This includes the dishonest or fraudulent use of another person's electronic signature, password, or other distinctive identification trait.

Virus, Worms, Trojan | A computer virus is a programme designed to infiltrate your computer, corrupt your files and data, and spread itself. Worms are malicious software applications that repeatedly duplicate themselves on local drives, network shares, etc. Trojan is a malicious programme that mimics a legitimate application. Trojans offer unauthorised people and applications access to your computer through a backdoor entry, allowing them to steal sensitive data.

How to Prevent Cyber Crime

Backup every piece of information—data, systems, and considerations—to make it easier for businesses to recover from unforeseen events with the help of prior data.

Pick a firewall that offers protection from viruses, malware, and dishonest hackers.

Never divulge private information to a stranger since they might exploit it for fraud.

To avoid cybercrime, check your security settings—in order to determine if someone has logged into your computer, a cyber firewall analyses your network settings.

Antivirus software aids in identifying potential threats and malware before they infect a computer system. Never use software that has been cracked since it poses a serious risk of data loss or malware attack.

Keep your information protected when accessing untrusted websites—information can readily bypass the data through phishing websites.

Explore Career Options (By Industry)

  • Construction
  • Entertainment
  • Manufacturing
  • Information Technology

Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 

Operations Manager

Individuals in the operations manager jobs are responsible for ensuring the efficiency of each department to acquire its optimal goal. They plan the use of resources and distribution of materials. The operations manager's job description includes managing budgets, negotiating contracts, and performing administrative tasks.


How fascinating it is to represent the whole world on just a piece of paper or a sphere. With the help of maps, we are able to represent the real world on a much smaller scale. Individuals who opt for a career as a cartographer are those who make maps. But, cartography is not just limited to maps, it is about a mixture of art , science , and technology. As a cartographer, not only you will create maps but use various geodetic surveys and remote sensing systems to measure, analyse, and create different maps for political, cultural or educational purposes.

GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.

Remote Sensing Technician

Individuals who opt for a career as a remote sensing technician possess unique personalities. Remote sensing analysts seem to be rational human beings, they are strong, independent, persistent, sincere, realistic and resourceful. Some of them are analytical as well, which means they are intelligent, introspective and inquisitive. 

Remote sensing scientists use remote sensing technology to support scientists in fields such as community planning, flight planning or the management of natural resources. Analysing data collected from aircraft, satellites or ground-based platforms using statistical analysis software, image analysis software or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a significant part of their work. Do you want to learn how to become remote sensing technician? There's no need to be concerned; we've devised a simple remote sensing technician career path for you. Scroll through the pages and read.

Database Architect

If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi . 

Budget Analyst

Budget analysis, in a nutshell, entails thoroughly analyzing the details of a financial budget. The budget analysis aims to better understand and manage revenue. Budget analysts assist in the achievement of financial targets, the preservation of profitability, and the pursuit of long-term growth for a business. Budget analysts generally have a bachelor's degree in accounting, finance, economics, or a closely related field. Knowledge of Financial Management is of prime importance in this career.

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

A career as financial advisor is all about assessing one’s financial situation, understanding what one wants to do with his or her money, and helping in creating a plan to reach one’s financial objectives. An Individual who opts for a career as financial advisor helps individuals and corporations reduce spending, pay off their debt, and save and invest for the future. The financial advisor job description includes working closely with both individuals and corporations to help them attain their financial objectives.

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Conservation Architect

A Conservation Architect is a professional responsible for conserving and restoring buildings or monuments having a historic value. He or she applies techniques to document and stabilise the object’s state without any further damage. A Conservation Architect restores the monuments and heritage buildings to bring them back to their original state.

Safety Manager

A Safety Manager is a professional responsible for employee’s safety at work. He or she plans, implements and oversees the company’s employee safety. A Safety Manager ensures compliance and adherence to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) guidelines.

A Team Leader is a professional responsible for guiding, monitoring and leading the entire group. He or she is responsible for motivating team members by providing a pleasant work environment to them and inspiring positive communication. A Team Leader contributes to the achievement of the organisation’s goals. He or she improves the confidence, product knowledge and communication skills of the team members and empowers them.

Structural Engineer

A Structural Engineer designs buildings, bridges, and other related structures. He or she analyzes the structures and makes sure the structures are strong enough to be used by the people. A career as a Structural Engineer requires working in the construction process. It comes under the civil engineering discipline. A Structure Engineer creates structural models with the help of computer-aided design software. 

Individuals in the architecture career are the building designers who plan the whole construction keeping the safety and requirements of the people. Individuals in architect career in India provides professional services for new constructions, alterations, renovations and several other activities. Individuals in architectural careers in India visit site locations to visualize their projects and prepare scaled drawings to submit to a client or employer as a design. Individuals in architecture careers also estimate build costs, materials needed, and the projected time frame to complete a build.

Landscape Architect

Having a landscape architecture career, you are involved in site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, stormwater management, suitable design, and construction specification. Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York introduced the title “landscape architect”. The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) proclaims that "Landscape Architects research, plan, design and advise on the stewardship, conservation and sustainability of development of the environment and spaces, both within and beyond the built environment". Therefore, individuals who opt for a career as a landscape architect are those who are educated and experienced in landscape architecture. Students need to pursue various landscape architecture degrees, such as  M.Des , M.Plan to become landscape architects. If you have more questions regarding a career as a landscape architect or how to become a landscape architect then you can read the article to get your doubts cleared. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.

Speech Therapist


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

An oncologist is a specialised doctor responsible for providing medical care to patients diagnosed with cancer. He or she uses several therapies to control the cancer and its effect on the human body such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy and biopsy. An oncologist designs a treatment plan based on a pathology report after diagnosing the type of cancer and where it is spreading inside the body.


The audiologist career involves audiology professionals who are responsible to treat hearing loss and proactively preventing the relevant damage. Individuals who opt for a career as an audiologist use various testing strategies with the aim to determine if someone has a normal sensitivity to sounds or not. After the identification of hearing loss, a hearing doctor is required to determine which sections of the hearing are affected, to what extent they are affected, and where the wound causing the hearing loss is found. As soon as the hearing loss is identified, the patients are provided with recommendations for interventions and rehabilitation such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, and appropriate medical referrals. While audiology is a branch of science that studies and researches hearing, balance, and related disorders.

Dental Surgeon

A Dental Surgeon is a professional who possesses specialisation in advanced dental procedures and aesthetics. Dental surgeon duties and responsibilities may include fitting dental prosthetics such as crowns, caps, bridges, veneers, dentures and implants following apicoectomy and other surgical procedures.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages.

Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.


Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media , Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

An individual who is pursuing a career as a producer is responsible for managing the business aspects of production. They are involved in each aspect of production from its inception to deception. Famous movie producers review the script, recommend changes and visualise the story. 

They are responsible for overseeing the finance involved in the project and distributing the film for broadcasting on various platforms. A career as a producer is quite fulfilling as well as exhaustive in terms of playing different roles in order for a production to be successful. Famous movie producers are responsible for hiring creative and technical personnel on contract basis.

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. 

Ever since internet costs got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, a career as a vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the Vlogger eligibility, roles and responsibilities then continue reading the article. 

Travel Journalist

The career of a travel journalist is full of passion, excitement and responsibility. Journalism as a career could be challenging at times, but if you're someone who has been genuinely enthusiastic about all this, then it is the best decision for you. Travel journalism jobs are all about insightful, artfully written, informative narratives designed to cover the travel industry. Travel Journalist is someone who explores, gathers and presents information as a news article.

SEO Analyst

An SEO Analyst is a web professional who is proficient in the implementation of SEO strategies to target more keywords to improve the reach of the content on search engines. He or she provides support to acquire the goals and success of the client’s campaigns. 

Quality Controller

A quality controller plays a crucial role in an organisation. He or she is responsible for performing quality checks on manufactured products. He or she identifies the defects in a product and rejects the product. 

A quality controller records detailed information about products with defects and sends it to the supervisor or plant manager to take necessary actions to improve the production process.

Production Manager

Reliability engineer.

Are you searching for a Reliability Engineer job description? A Reliability Engineer is responsible for ensuring long lasting and high quality products. He or she ensures that materials, manufacturing equipment, components and processes are error free. A Reliability Engineer role comes with the responsibility of minimising risks and effectiveness of processes and equipment. 

Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

AWS Solution Architect

An AWS Solution Architect is someone who specializes in developing and implementing cloud computing systems. He or she has a good understanding of the various aspects of cloud computing and can confidently deploy and manage their systems. He or she troubleshoots the issues and evaluates the risk from the third party. 

Azure Administrator

An Azure Administrator is a professional responsible for implementing, monitoring, and maintaining Azure Solutions. He or she manages cloud infrastructure service instances and various cloud servers as well as sets up public and private cloud systems. 

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

ITSM Manager

.net developer.

.NET Developer Job Description: A .NET Developer is a professional responsible for producing code using .NET languages. He or she is a software developer who uses the .NET technologies platform to create various applications. Dot NET Developer job comes with the responsibility of  creating, designing and developing applications using .NET languages such as VB and C#. 

Applications for Admissions are open.

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Speech On Cyber Security [1,2,3 Minutes]

Cyberspace or the internet world is growing in size day by day. With this, it has also become a platform for crime. In this article, we shared an example of a speech on cyber security for students. By delivering this speech, they can spread awareness about this.

Short Speech On Cyber Security

Hello and welcome everyone. Today I am here to share some knowledge about cybersecurity. This is one of the most important topics to be discussed and spread awareness about.

Cyberspace is a space where people share information, interact with each other, use social media, shop for products etc. People use it on its front end while on its back end, cyberspace involves networking, programming, encoding, decoding, data transfer etc. One defect in back-end operations can get us in trouble.

Cybersecurity is the name of ensuring the security of back-end operations. It also prevents unauthorized or unattended access, destruction or change of information. Although cybersecurity is related to I. T. industry, the life of a common can be affected by cyber threats like cybercrime and cyberwarfare.

As we live in the information age, information works as a resource for each industry today. A data breach can leak our private information to cybercriminals which can be misused and we end up with heavy losses. Therefore, cybersecurity is one of the most important priorities for everyone.

Apart from an individual, cybersecurity is also needed for the protection of countries. You might have listened to news related to cyberattacks on military computers or parliamentary information sources. It can lead to cyber warfare- wars where computers and the internet are used, not missiles or guns.

It is good to tell you that I.T. companies are busy improving the security of cyberspace. They are putting continuous efforts to find the weaknesses in the systems and fix them. On the other hand, a common man must need to know about his responsibilities to safeguard his online life.

People can use paid security tools like firewalls, antivirus software etc. Nevertheless, I have gathered some simple and cost-efficient ways to prevent cyber threats. Here is the list.

  • Keep operating systems, programmes and applications updated to the latest versions,
  • Do not keep similar passwords for different platforms,
  • Only use authorised apps and websites,
  • Do not use an unknown Wifi connection
  • Charge your devices at reliable places only
  • Do not click any link sent in emails, messages
  • Talk to techies about cybersecurity etc.

To sum it up, cyberspace or the internet world is growing in size day by day. With this, it has also become a platform for crime. With a little awareness, people can bypass various cyber threats. So, everyone must be aware of this important aspect. Also, we must also spread awareness to others.

Thank You! for listening to me attentively. I hope this speech was helpful.

Short Speech on Cyber Security

1 Minute Speech on Cybersecurity

Good morning everyone. I am here to discuss an important topic- Cybersecurity. Before I start, I want to thank you for your special presence.

The internet has become an inseparable part of our life. The use of the internet is growing day by day. Despite being a virtual space, we spend a large fraction of our time using the internet. Parallelly, it has also become a space for committing crimes.

Cybersecurity is a method of protection from cyber threats such as data breaches, theft of information and other types of cyber crimes. As we the people are the users, cybersecurity is very important for all of us. On the other hand, it should also be the topmost priority for a country.

An individual can follow some simple tips to avoid being a victim of cyber crimes . First of all, as criminals exploit the weaknesses in software, programmes and applications; we must keep them up to date. Second, we must not use public Wifi connections.

Third, always use authorised websites and software. Four, never click a link sent in the mailbox from an unknown sender, it can install malware on your device. Most importantly, do not plug in your device for charging at an unknown place.

Thank you! for listening. I hope my words are helpful.

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Secretary Mayorkas Delivers Keynote Remarks at Munich Cyber Security Conference

Secretary Mayorkas delivered the following remarks in his keynote address to the Munich Cyber Security Conference in Munich, Germany. 

Good morning, and thank you very much.

In 1996, the prominent activist John Perry Barlow published his “Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace”, a foundational document in this new realm’s history. Its preamble began: “Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather.” Barlow’s sentiment carried the day at the inception of the digital revolution, where the rapid development of the information superhighway, unconstrained by geography and government, heralded a more democratic, egalitarian world.

Twenty-eight years later, the cyber landscape has changed dramatically: the technological advances are exponential, society is more connected, information is more accessible, and productivity has increased. So too, however, has the cyber threat landscape changed dramatically, humbling our initial idealism. Today, individual lapses in cybersecurity vigilance can have grave consequence – the nationwide disruption America experienced in the wake of the Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack signaled that quite clearly; computer viruses have changed the face of warfare; ransomware can cripple healthcare systems; foreign adversaries have weaponized cyberspace to undermine domestic stability; and much more.

Now, as we gather here in Munich, the rapid evolution and accessibility of artificial intelligence technology promises to accelerate both the development and risk of cyberspace. The world is on the cusp of a new era in the digital revolution. As both the public and private sectors prepare to enter it, our collective commitment to security must be on equal footing with our collective commitment to growth.

Industry must be a part of that collective. The failure of the past to address the social and security implications of raw technological progress will, with the advent of generative artificial intelligence, have dire consequences.

We must answer the question of how security and governance should be exercised on this modern digital landscape, in service of the world’s economic and social well-being. I am grateful to the Board and Directors of the Munich Cyber Security Conference for the opportunity to share my thoughts in response to this seminal question.

There are advocates who argue that the hands-off approach of nearly three decades ago, wherein technology progressed with remarkably little regulation, and individual actors subsequently shouldered immense levels of risk, has proven too dangerous. They argue that cyberspace today is a public good of incalculable value, with extraordinary potential to do harm – and that, like nuclear power or the automobile industry, a compulsory regulatory framework is required to ensure its continued security, trustworthiness, and usefulness. They also point out, correctly, that a laissez-faire model is not in the offing regardless. Both the United States and Europe have enacted, and are moving toward, greater cybersecurity-related regulation.

Conversely, there are those who contend that an approach that pits regulators against companies as adversaries, no matter how well-intentioned, risks stifling innovation and world-altering progress. They argue that the market is the best determinant of how important consumers and users view security. They, too, correctly point out that attempting to regulate every element of the design, development, and production process will quickly prove unproductive and unsustainable.

Neither approach is without merit, but neither approach is sufficient in-and-of itself to meet this moment. Instead, both are required.

We need to build a cyber ecosystem that balances and harmonizes the responsibility for security across both its regulatory and voluntary elements.

We need a new cyber-social compact – an agreement among all members of the digital society that our shared interest in security demands both regulation and individual responsibility, and a reciprocal commitment to meeting both imperatives. There is much the private sector, and the government, do not know, but a compact grounded in humility and cooperation can help light the way.

The cyber-social compact I envision is defined by three broad principles.

The first is burden-sharing.

For decades, while many companies focused on developing products with an understanding of and a responsibility for their security and societal implications, others did not devote enough time or attention during the design phase to mitigating vulnerabilities or considering the long-term implications of their products and services. Those responsibilities and risks, sometimes geopolitical in nature, are instead devolved downwards. In this mode, the customer winds up shouldering a disproportionate burden to keep all of us safe. This approach is unfair and unsustainable, and it will only grow more so in the years ahead.

Our cyber-social compact must address the disproportionate burden that the current system places on individuals and end users, and move the burden upstream, to developers. It is imperative that every company prioritizes security and resilience in their hardware manufacturing and software development – even when that priority runs counter to quick profitability.

This is the principle of “Secure by Design.” We in the Department of Homeland Security and across the federal government have worked proactively with technology providers and executives to entrench, but not compel, such design as an industry-wide obligation and goal to reach. But only government has the ability to establish a “Secure by Design” standard. Such an approach is essential to enabling all consumers to trust the safety and integrity of whatever technology they use, and to prevent companies from undermining crucial security measures for the sake of profit.

The second principle is baselining, the setting of minimum-security standards.

Under this approach, government works directly with the private sector to set a minimum acceptable threshold of requirements for cybersecurity. This enhances the security of the entire cyber ecosystem by relieving the individual consumer, who is often ill-equipped or unaware, of the sole responsibility – and it ensures that the long-term approach to regulation is adaptable, comprehensive, and feasible, while lowering the risk of destabilization.

The minimum-security standards should be principles- and performance- or outcome-based, rather than prescriptive — with respect to design. Designs can too rapidly change. They should also be set cognizant of the reality that a one-size-fits-all approach is unworkable and ill-fitting, especially given variations in use, structure, capabilities, and resources.

One way to inform a baseline is by leveraging common frameworks published by the International Standards Organization, the National Institute for Standards and Technology, and our Department’s Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, or CISA.

The Department of Homeland Security has utilized these frameworks as tools to inform voluntary cybersecurity practices as well as regulatory requirements. Our United States Transportation Security Administration, or TSA, for example, utilizes both regulatory and non-regulatory approaches to working with stakeholders to strengthen their cybersecurity posture. Following extensive collaboration with aviation partners, rapport-building with industry, and feedback from stakeholders, TSA issued cybersecurity requirements for airport and aircraft operators, and passenger and freight railroad carriers, as part of our Department’s efforts to increase the cybersecurity resilience of U.S. critical infrastructure – an effort that we work very closely with [Deputy National Security Advisor] Anne Neuberger on. These require TSA-regulated entities to develop and take measures to improve their cybersecurity resilience, and prevent disruption and degradation to their infrastructure. The regulations are performance based and variable according to the risk profile and capability of the entity.

These steps can work: a 2022 report by the cybersecurity company Dragos cited TSA Security Directives as likely having a direct correlation to a significant improvement in the security of our country’s oil and natural gas sector.

The final principle of the cyber-social compact is a commitment to move at the speed of business.

Back in 1996, Barlow disparaged the governments of the industrial world as “weary giants of flesh and steel.” In the modern cyber landscape, government must instead be agile and adaptive.

The correctly-held concern with regulatory action is that it can stifle innovation and progress. Advances are being achieved at such a fast pace, yet the regulatory apparatus is slow, cumbersome, and certainly not nimble.

Yet, need that be so? Why are we complacent with a regulatory architecture that was designed decades ago; that is fundamentally not tailored to a specific industry, and is, instead, too much a one-size-fits-all model of governance?

I propose that we design a new regulatory architecture for the technology sector – one that has, among others, the following qualities:

First, the regulations are promulgated in line with the social compact, the product of intense engagement and partnership with the technology companies themselves.

Second, the speed with which they can be implemented is vastly accelerated, so that they can more ably meet the moment in a rapidly-evolving and dynamic environment.

Third, and relatedly, that they be easily adaptable and modified to address the changes afoot or imminent.

And, fourth, and leveraging the baseline approach I spoke of earlier, the regulations need not be unduly prescriptive but rather advance the security framework that will guide our security forward.

If government is to be a valuable and valued partner, a force for progress in all regards necessary, it must prove itself — in this case, build itself — as capable of keeping pace with the companies and their technologies that are helping to design the future.

I realize that some may favor a more prescriptive, even a more aggressive, approach to government regulation. I do not think that is an effective approach. It is one that will undermine the key foundation of the social compact that is required to succeed: in a world in which we cannot regulate, or prescribe, every aspect of technological development, one must rely on voluntary investments and commitments as well. Undue compulsion risks breeding adversity between the public and private sectors, and adversity chills the very volunteerism upon which we rely. Fundamentally, to succeed in innovating and in securing our cyber ecosystem, we must be partners.

At the same time, we also cannot afford to be laissez-faire about the future. That has been our general approach for the past three decades, and the results are clear: despite years of effort, our cyber systems are still too unsecured, too prone to attack, too dependent on the actions of each individual user – and cybersecurity is only as good as its weakest link. Government has an essential role to play in raising that bar. Industry has proven it will not do it alone.

A hybrid, collaborative approach, built upon our shared interest in security, is essential to building and sustaining a cyber ecosystem that is able to evolve and expand, yet remain trustworthy and therefore useful. A new cyber social compact is required.

Forums like this – the Munich Cyber Security Conference – provide an important opportunity to discuss and refine these approaches, respectfully and as allies. I look forward to this critical work with all of you.

But we all need to step up, and step up now. I leave you with this final point: the imperative of dual responsibility is not a matter of the future. It is a matter of the present, of now. The pace of innovation is accelerating, and each of us — industry and government alike — must fulfill our respective responsibilities immediately in order to guard against a future that we will have built but did not intend. Government has its role to play, and industry has its own. Responsible citizenship extends to both.

Together, we can continue to build the safe, secure society all of our constituents and customers deserve and require.

  • Secretary of Homeland Security
  • Cybersecurity
  • Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas
  • Open access
  • Published: 10 February 2024

Online hate speech victimization: consequences for victims’ feelings of insecurity

  • Arne Dreißigacker   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-4393-0171 1 ,
  • Philipp Müller   ORCID: orcid.org/0009-0003-8500-9388 1 ,
  • Anna Isenhardt   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-6766-909X 2 &
  • Jonas Schemmel   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003-1656-1825 3  

Crime Science volume  13 , Article number:  4 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

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This paper addresses the question whether and to what extent the experience of online hate speech affects victims’ sense of security. Studies on hate crime in general show that such crimes are associated with a significantly higher feeling of insecurity, but there is little evidence concerning feeling of insecurity due to online hate speech. Based on a secondary data analysis of a representative population survey in Lower Saxony, Germany, on the topic of cybercrime in 2020 (N = 4,102), we tested three hypotheses regarding the effect of offline and online hate speech on feelings of insecurity. As a result, compared to non-victims, victims of online hate speech exhibit a more pronounced feeling of insecurity outside the Internet, while victims of other forms of cybercrime do not differ in this regard from non-victims. We found no effect for offline hate speech when relevant control variables were included in the statistical model. Possible reasons for this finding are assumed to lie in the characteristics of the phenomenon of online hate speech, for example, because the hateful content spreads uncontrollably on the Internet and reaches its victims even in protected private spheres.


While the Internet has become a seemingly indispensable part of our lives, its digital landscape has also given rise to new challenges. With the growing importance of digital communication, online hate speech has increased sharply in recent years (Costello et al., 2017 ; Ștefăniță & Buf, 2021 ). Hate speech is defined as a verbal attack against a certain group of people with a common characteristic, such as race, gender, ethnic group, religion, or political preference (Castaño-Pulgarín et al., 2021 ). Due to the perpetrators' (perceived) prejudicial motives, hate speech is a form of "Group-Related Misanthropy" (Zick et al., 2008 ). Depending on the respective legal provisions, acts of hate speech can be hate crimes (Sheppard et al., 2021 ) and online hate speech can be a form of cyber-enabled crime. Footnote 1 Regardless of its legal assessment, hate speech can have serious consequences for those affected. Therefore, we use criminological terms such as “victim” or “victimization” in reference to hate speech although not all acts of hate speech are necessarily illegal.

With the increasing rise in online hate speech, it has become the focus of scientific interest in various disciplines (Benier, 2017 ; Paz et al., 2020 ). There is a large body of studies and literature that discusses the consequences of being exposed to online hate, with the conclusion that the experience of online hate has a negative effect on the mental health and well-being of both victim and observer (Näsi et al., 2015 ; Stahel & Baier, 2023 ; Tynes, 2006 ; Tynes et al., 2016 ; Walther, 2022 ). Hence, the exposure and experience of online hate have a negative impact on levels of depression, anxiety, self-doubt and/or confidence. Nevertheless, recent articles have highlighted that some consequences of online hate speech remain insufficiently researched from a victimological perspective (i.e., Wachs et al., 2022 ). Here, we focus on feelings of insecurity as studies have shown that prejudice-motivated crimes outside the Internet are associated with increased feelings of insecurity among the victims (Benier, 2017 ; Dreißigacker et al., 2020 ; Gelber & McNamara, 2016 ; McDevitt et al., 2001 ). This gives rise to the question whether hate speech as a form of online prejudice-motivated incidence has similar consequences. Since the Internet and more specifically, the growing meaning of social media as everyday means of communication, makes one vulnerable to hate speech almost constantly, an influence on insecurity feelings outside the Internet would suggest far-reaching significance of hate speech in the daily lives of those affected. Also, understanding the consequences of online hate speech is crucial not only for the mental and emotional well-being of individuals but also on a social level. A more nuanced understanding of the impact on different demographic groups can help to identify specific minorities or marginalized groups which are disproportionately affected by online hate speech and develop targeted interventions and policies that aim to protect the rights and well-being of all victims. Therefore, the question whether online hate speech also influences feelings of insecurity outside the Internet is highly relevant.

State of research

Hate crime and feelings of insecurity.

As already explained above, some acts of hate speech qualify as criminal acts in the legal systems of some countries, and therefore as a form of hate crime. There are several studies on the impact of hate crime on the victims. However, these studies mostly refer to incidences outside the Internet or do not differentiate between online and offline acts. A common finding is that victims of hate crimes experience more severe psychological consequences, such as anger, stress, and fear, compared to those affected by crimes not motivated by prejudice (Barnes & Ephross, 1994 ; Ehrlich et al., 2003 ; Herek et al., 1999 ; Iganski, 2019 ; Iganski & Lagou, 2016 ; McDevitt et al., 2001 ).

In addition, victims of hate crime have a greater sense of insecurity than non-hate crime victims (Benier, 2017 ; Gelber & McNamara, 2016 ). For example, in the survey by McDevitt et al. ( 2001 ), over two-fifths of hate crime victims reported feeling unsafe when alone in their neighborhood at night, compared to just under one-third of non-hate crime victims. Similar differences have also been reported in numerous studies in Germany (Church & Coester, 2021 ; Dreißigacker, 2018 ; Dreißigacker et al., 2020 ; Groß et al., 2018 ). An increased feeling of insecurity is related to lower trust in state institutions such as the police (Blanco & Ruiz, 2013 ) and lower generalized trust in other people. It affects the assessment of the personal risk of becoming a victim of similarly motivated acts outside the Internet (Dreißigacker et al., 2020 ; Groß et al., 2018 ), the avoidance of certain places as well as behavioral changes (Iganski, 2019 ; Mellgren et al.,  2017 ).

Online hate speech and feelings of insecurity

Regarding online hate speech as a potentially criminal form of prejudice-motivated online harassment, there have been various studies on detection (Qian et al., 2021 ; Schmidt & Wiegand, 2017 ; Warner & Hirschberg, 2012 ), prevalence (Dreißigacker et al., 2020 ; Geschke et al., 2019 ; Kansok-Dusche et al., 2022 ; Saha et al., 2019 ), the consequences for society (Bilewicz & Soral, 2020 ), regulation (Bleich, 2011 ; Judge & Nel, 2018 ; Reed, 2009 ; Sheppard et al., 2021 ), and possible risk and protective factors for potential victims (Costello et al., 2017 ; Garland et al., 2022 ; Hinduja & Patchin, 2022 ; Wright et al., 2021 ). However, the impact of online hate speech on the lives of victims, specifically on the feeling of insecurity outside the Internet, has hardly been studied so far (Berg & Johansson, 2016 ; Salmi et al., 2007 ). A positive correlation was found between victimization of adolescents and depressive symptoms (Wachs et al., 2022 ) and population surveys indicate that experiencing online hate speech is positively associated with loneliness (Stahel & Baier, 2023 ) and negatively associated with psychological well-being (Geschke et al., 2019 ; Waldron, 2012 ) and life satisfaction (Stahel & Baier, 2023 ). Nevertheless, there is no empirical evidence on the relationship between experiencing hate speech online and feelings of insecurity offline.

Moreover, even though the specifics of online hate speech compared to offline hate speech are increasingly being discussed (Brown, 2018 ; Citron, 2014 ; Cohen-Almagor, 2011 ), the existing empirical studies on the consequences of online hate speech hardly make systematic comparisons to those affected by (cyber)crime without a hate motive. Moreover, they mostly refer only to specific victim groups, such as the LGBTQ + community (Herek et al., 1999 , 2002 ; Ștefăniță & Buf, 2021 ), religious groups (Awan & Zempi, 2016 ), or to youth and adolescents or young adults (Hawdon et al., 2014 ; Keipi et al., 2017 ; Saha et al., 2019 ; Wachs et al., 2022 ). This study contributes to the existing literature by providing insights into the impact of hate speech on feelings of insecurity in comparison to cybercrimes in a representative sample of the general population.

Theoretical considerations

Janoff-Bulman and Hanson Frieze ( 1983 ) noted that a crime victimization can shatter victim’s perception of basic assumptions about themselves and the world. Consequently, they may no longer be able to see the world as a safe place and feel unsafe and vulnerable. Therefore, a criminal victimization can have serious consequences and can affect the feelings of safety, particularly if victims are unable to cope with their victimization and such experiences cannot be integrated into one’s own worldview. This leads to the question how victims of hate speech deal with the victimization. Following Sykes and Matza’ neutralization thesis (Sykes & Matza, 1957 ), crime victims in general use various neutralization techniques and social support (Green & Pomeroy, 2007 ) to reduce negative reactions or emotions such as fear, insecurity, guilt, and shame (Agnew, 1985 ; Ferraro & Johnson, 1983 ; Maruna & Copes, 2005 ; Weiss, 2011 ). These techniques include victimization denial, vulnerability denial, denial of one's innocence, or denial of (serious) harm. According to Agnew ( 1985 ), such rationalizations may explain the low global correlation between general victimization and fear of crime and feelings of insecurity that has frequently been found in various victimization surveys (DuBow et al., 1979 ).

However, the effectiveness of such neutralization techniques may vary as a function of the characteristics of the victimized person (like age, gender, or education) (Agnew, 1985 ), the level of social support (for example from family and friends) (Green & Pomeroy, 2007 ; Wright et al., 2021 ), and, most importantly here, the type of victimization (such as delict type/severity).

Based on the neutralization thesis on the processing and effects of crime, we not only assume that those affected by hate speech have difficulties to deny their own vulnerability, but contrary, the perceived prejudice motive of the perpetrators is likely to even increase perceived vulnerability and thus the feeling of insecurity. Hate crime in general has been said to convey a "message character" (Bannenberg et al., 2006 ). It degrades all members of a certain social group and thus suggests further victimization in the future. It is also associated with an "incitement character" (Bannenberg et al., 2006 ), meaning the assault can be perceived as an appeal to be imitated by all like-minded people with a similar ideology. We assume that hate speech, too, is strongly associated with a message and an incitement character. Thus, who are affected by hate speech, it indicates that they should expect similarly motivated acts, which are not specified in terms of the type of incidence. Hate speech experiences occur based on personal characteristics that cannot simply be changed or hidden. In this respect, those affected by hate crime or hate speech may find it difficult to avoid it through their own behavior, which is likely to increase their perceived vulnerability (McDevitt et al., 2001 ).

Moreover, we assume that hate speech experienced online rather than outside the internet should have an even higher impact on subjective vulnerability and perceived feelings of insecurity. Brown ( 2018 ) points out that online hate speech is more spontaneous and immediate, more widespread via social media, and permanently present. While a verbal attack on the street may fade away, the attack on social media remains present for both the victim and the perpetrator's peers. It can be called up again at any time and spread uncontrollably. In addition, those potentially affected by hate speech can also be reached in their own homes if they do not avoid digital communication. Both aspects showed in a qualitative interview study in which those affected by cyberbullying reported an increased burden due to the feeling of being permanently exposed to cyberbullying, even in their own homes (Müller et al., 2022 ).

In summary, we assume that neutralization techniques are less effective in the context of hate speech victimization. Given their message and inciting character, instances of it should therefore increase feelings of insecurity among those affected. This should be particularly the case in the context of online experiences as these are more permanent, less controllable and harder to avoid.

Based on our theoretical considerations and the state of research on the connection between hate speech and feelings of insecurity, and the considerations regarding more severe consequences of online hate speech compared to offline hate speech, the following hypotheses will be tested:

H1: Having experienced offline hate speech increases feelings of insecurity outside the Internet compared to not having experienced crime.

H2: Having experienced online hate speech increases feelings of insecurity outside the Internet compared to not having experienced crime, and the effect is likely to be even stronger than for offline hate speech.

H3: Having experienced offline and online hate speech increases feelings of insecurity outside the Internet compared to not having experienced crime cumulatively, thus more than online hate speech and offline hate speech each individually.

Based on previous findings and to exclude confounding variables and increase test strength, gender, age, migration background, urban or rural living environment, and social support are included as control variables. On average, women feel more insecure than men (Smith & Torstensson, 1997 ). Increasing age may also be associated with higher insecurity due to decreasing mental and physical capacity and associated higher vulnerability in case of victimization (Parker & Ray, 1990 ). People with a migration background may feel more insecure due to their status in the majority society (Ortega & Myles, 1987 ) and residents from urban areas also show higher feelings of insecurity compared to residents from less anonymous rural areas (Belyea & Zingraff, 1988 ; Scarborough et al., 2010 ; Snedker, 2015 ). Finally, various studies show that social support can be a protective factor regarding the consequences of different types of crime for victims (Hardyns et al., 2018 ; Kimpe et al., 2020 ; Leets, 2002 ; Wachs et al., 2022 ).

Data collection

The following analysis is based on the data from a representative population survey (16 years and older) in Lower Saxony (N = 10,000), a German federal state, regarding the experiences and consequences of cybercrime and other potentially harmful online experiences that are not (yet) criminal offenses in Germany. Footnote 2 The paper–pencil survey was conducted between August and October 2020 based on a two-stage sampling procedure. First, a sample of 73 municipalities was selected by GESIS—Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences. In a second step, the target persons to be interviewed were randomly selected from the registers of the respective residents' registration offices. The selected persons were then contacted and sent a 16-page questionnaire, with the option to complete the survey either in writing and return it via a pre-stamped envelope or answer the questionnaire online. In addition, a monetary incentive of a five Euro note attached to the questionnaire was used. After 2 weeks, all survey participants were sent a reminder/thank-you letter. Overall, 9636 questionnaires could be delivered. Of these, 4102 people participated, 511 of them online. This resulted in a response rate of 42.6%.

Cases with missing values and respondents who stated that they did not use the Internet for private purposes were excluded. After the data cleansing (e.g., excluding speeders with a completion time less than 5 min of the online questionnaire and implausible/contradictory answers), this resulted in a final sample of N = 3,293.

A total of 52.0% of the respondents were female (Table  1 ). The cases of non-binary respondents were not included in this analysis since their number was in the low single digits and could not be meaningfully evaluated separately. The average age of the respondents was 49.2 years with a standard deviation of 17.7 years. A total of 14.5% had a migration background, meaning they or at least one parent was not born in Germany. In terms of location, 27.1% of the respondents lived in a municipality/town with more than 50,000 inhabitants (50,000 to 1,000,000 inhabitants), and the rest of the respondents lived in a municipality/town with fewer than 50,000 inhabitants. Footnote 3


Dependent variable.

Following Groß et al. ( 2018 ), McDevitt et al. ( 2001 ), and Tseloni and Zarafonitou ( 2008 ), the following items were used to measure feelings of insecurity outside the Internet: "In general, how safe do you feel in your neighborhood?" "… in your apartment/house?" "… alone in your neighborhood at night?" "… alone in your neighborhood at night when you meet a stranger?". Response options ranged from 1: "Very safe," 2: "Safe," 3: "Somewhat safe," 4: " Somewhat unsafe," 5: "Unsafe," to 6: " Very unsafe ." The individual items were combined into a mean index (Table  1 ). The internal consistency of the items was good (Cronbach’s α = 0.83).

Independent variables

Assignments to different (non-)victim groups served as independent variables. Following Wachs and Wright ( 2018 ), online hate speech victims (online HSVs) included those who at some point experienced at least one of the following items (lifetime prevalence): "Someone has insulted (me online) or sent me other unpleasant messages online…", "Someone has spread lies or rumors about me online", "Someone has excluded me from online groups, chats, or online games", "Someone has threatened or bullied me online…" and "Someone has made fun of me online because of my gender, national origin, race, religious affiliation, or sexual orientation”. Similar items were used for experiences of offline hate speech. Thus, in addition to online hate speech victims (n = 51), two further groups were distinguished: offline hate speech victims (n = 202) and both online and offline hate speech victims (n = 71). Note that not all items cover criminal acts but may nevertheless seriously impair those affected.

Cybercrime victims (CVs) who were not online hate speech victims (n = 1282) included those who had not experienced hate speech online or offline but had experienced at least one of the other cybercrime types surveyed in their life, for example online fraud or a ransomware attack. The non-victims (NVs) included those who had never experienced any of the surveyed offense types (n = 1687).

Each of the three constructs CV, online HSV and offline HSV were questioned separately in the questionnaire. For CV, the participants were informed that the following questions are related to specific experiences with cybercrime. Before asking about an online hate speech victimization, participants were given a definition of online hate speech. They were told that online hate speech refers to insults or hurtful posts, comments, videos or images because of their gender, national origin, race, religious affiliation, or sexual orientation on the Internet. For offline HSV, the participants were asked at the end of the questionnaire whether they had experienced the respective incidents outside the Internet.

The detailed operationalization of all victimization forms (Online Hate Speech, Offline Hate Speech, Cybercrime) is shown in Table  3 in the Appendix.

Control variables

In addition to the control variables age, gender, migration background, and number of inhabitants in the home municipality/city, the degree of social support was assessed with a short scale based on Fydrich et al. ( 2009 ) and Kliem et al. ( 2015 ). The following items were used and combined into a mean index: "I receive a lot of understanding and security from others," "There is someone very close to me whose help I can always count on," "I have friends/relatives who will definitely take time to listen if I need someone to talk to," "If I’m very depressed, I know whom I can turn to." The response options ranged from 1: "Does not apply at all," 2: "Does not apply," 3: "Does not really apply," 4: " Rather applies," 5: "Applies," to 6: " Applies completely ." The internal consistency of these items was also good (Cronbach’s α = 0.85).

Descriptive statistics

In the descriptive evaluation in Fig.  1 , online hate speech victims stand out. The correlation of social support with the feeling of insecurity deviates most clearly in this group from the non-victims (red reference line: male non-victims), especially among male online hate speech victims with little social support. As expected, feelings of insecurity among women exceed those of men in all groups but are most pronounced among online hate speech victims. In contrast, the level of insecurity among female offline hate speech victims hardly differs from female non-victims or cybercrime victims. For the group of women, both online and offline hate speech victims, social support seems to have at best a minor influence on feelings of insecurity.

figure 1

Scatterplot matrix (red reference line: male NVs)

Hypothesis testing

The association of victimization types and feelings of insecurity were estimated using two multiple linear regression models (Table  2 ), with the independent variables introduced simultaneously. Footnote 4 In the first model (Model 1), only (non-)victim groups were included as independent variables. Compared to non-victims, hate speech victims (whether online, offline, or online and offline) tend to have significantly higher feelings of insecurity outside the Internet, while cybercrime have no statistically relevant coefficient in this regard. The two largest coefficients come from online and offline hate speech victims with b = 0.30 (β = 0.04) and b = 0.29 (β = 0.04) from online hate speech victims, followed by offline hate speech victims with b = 0.14 (β = 0.03). The included victim groups alone can account for about 1% of the variance in feelings of insecurity (R 2  = 0.01).

In the second model, to determine whether the association with the types of victimization remain stable, the control variables described above were included. The coefficient of an online hate speech victimization hardly changes in Model 2 (b = 0.27), whereas the coefficient of respondents who were victims of both online and offline hate speech becomes slightly smaller (b = 0.22). The coefficient of an offline hate speech victimization is no longer significantly different from zero at b = 0.08. The latter is related to controlling for respondent gender. Once gender is included in the model, the significant coefficient of an offline hate speech victimization disappears.

As expected, increased social support is associated with significantly decreased feelings of insecurity, women have stronger feelings of insecurity than men, and those in larger municipalities/towns (50,000 inhabitants or more) feel more insecure than those in smaller municipalities/towns. In contrast, age and migration background have no independent correlations with feelings of insecurity. When comparing the standardized coefficients within Model 2, social support (β = − 0.19) and gender (β = 0.17) have the greatest explanatory power. With the variables included in Model 2, about 10% of the variance of the feelings of insecurity can be explained (R 2  = 0.10). Footnote 5

Ultimately, our data could only confirm H2: online hate speech increases feelings of insecurity outside the Internet both in comparison to non-victims and to victims of offline hate speech. In contrast, H1 and H3 could not be confirmed: victims of offline hate speech did report stronger feelings of insecurity than non-victims. However, this relationship disappeared when controlling for various sociodemographic characteristics, especially gender (H1). Moreover, there was no cumulative correlation between online and offline hate speech and feelings of insecurity as hypothesized in H3: Victims who had been victimized by both online and offline hate speech at least once in their lives had significantly stronger feelings of insecurity compared to non-victims but not compared to victims of online-only hate speech.

Using a representative dataset of the resident population in Lower Saxony, Germany, we explored the question of whether online hate speech victimization affects feelings of insecurity outside the Internet. For this purpose, we tested three hypotheses using multiple linear regression. We confirmed that online hate speech increases feelings of insecurity outside the Internet compared to non-victims and victims of offline hate speech (H2), which speaks for differences in coping with different types of victimization in terms of our assumptions based on the neutralization thesis (Sykes & Matza, 1957 ). One possible explanation is that online hate speech is associated with messages to victims and incitements to like-minded potential perpetrators, which spread uncontrollably via the Internet and affect their victims even in protected private spheres (Brown, 2018 ). In addition, the harmful contents may remain visible for the victim and a large audience because the incident does not necessarily have to violate laws or the terms of use of the communication platforms. Also, subjectively, it may be harder to escape the digital space than to terminate a stressful hate speech situation outside the Internet as smartphones keep people online almost all the time. Another important aspect may be that online hate speech often happens in the digital public and cannot be easily removed from platforms. Moreover, hurtful messages are at least temporarily stored in inboxes and mobile phones which may be perceived as intrusion of personal space, especially since those affected may be “victimized” everywhere they use their phone—even at home (Müller et al., 2022 ). All these factors combined might increase the vulnerability of online hate speech victims, especially since recognizable personal characteristics that motivated the perpetrators cannot be easily discarded, and a similar motivated attack may be possible in other contexts and outside the Internet. Although the effect size of the association of online hate speech experiences and feelings of insecurity was rather small, it must be interpreted as a total effect of the whole sample and can therefore be higher in individual cases, but of course also lower. It may well be that some aspects of the hate speech experience, for example its motivation or its severity, are associated with more serious effects. Other individual factors (level of education, social networks, etc.) could also play a role, as could situational and contextual characteristics (counter-speech by third parties, social structure of the neighborhood, access to support facilities, etc.). However, future research on the connection between online hate speech and feelings of insecurity should consider additional factors. For instance, Hawdon et al. ( 2017 ) suggest that exposure to online hate is linked to varying degrees of risky online behavior. Moreover, exposure to online hate material does not always have negative consequences, possibly due to different coping strategies among victims (Obermaier et al., 2018 ; Obermaier & Schmuck, 2022 ).

Contrary to our expectations, when key variables are controlled for, offline hate speech victimization does not significantly affect feelings of insecurity compared to non-victims, nor does it have a cumulative reinforcing effect when combined with online hate speech victimization. Thus, H1 and H3 could not be confirmed. However, the analysis could not control for whether and how the reported offline hate speech experiences differed from the reported online hate speech experiences, for example in terms of motivation and severity (Iganski & Lagou, 2015 ; Mellgren et al., 2017 ). One indication of possible differences is that offline hate speech was reported more frequently by women and respondents with a migration background, whereas no corresponding correlations were found for online hate speech victimizations (see Appendix Fig.  2 ).

Some limitations should be mentioned when interpreting the results. First, this is a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey. It was not conducted to answer the current research question and does not allow for proof of causality. Victimizations were surveyed retrospectively, with the drawback that distant memories may be distorted. As we stated in the introduction, hate speech is not necessarily a crime, as the legal assessment depends on the country. Also, the respondents' assessments regarding the illegality of the crime and the motivation of the perpetrators were subjective. However, the question whether online hate speech has potentially damaging consequences, is independent of the legal assessment but depends on the perspective of those affected. To include a sufficiently large number of cases for statistical evaluations, the life prevalence had to be used instead of the annual prevalence; the victimized thus include all persons who had ever experienced a corresponding act. The experienced victimizations can therefore also lie further in the past. Since the number of such cases is also relatively small, further differentiations between different types of severe (online) hate speech victimization and the modeling of interaction effects were not possible. Except for offline hate speech victimization, no other prejudice-motivated types of victimization, group memberships (such as LGBTQ + , religion, etc.), or personal characteristics on which the victimization may have been based were asked about. Corresponding comparisons, for example, between xenophobic, homophobic, sexist, or racist acts, could therefore not be made and should be considered in future studies.


The main aim of this study was to examine whether and to what extent the experience of online hate speech affects victims’ sense of security. Overall, we found that online hate speech affects feelings of insecurity, even outside the internet. Compared to non-victims and victims of offline hate speech, victims of online hate speech exhibit a more pronounced feeling of insecurity outside the Internet. The reasons for this finding may lie in the characteristics of the phenomenon of online hate speech. Since online hate speech exposes and attacks victims based on their personal characteristics and group affiliation, the victim itself and others must fear a (renewed) victimization by like-minded people of the perpetrator at any time, even outside the internet. Therefore, this uncertainty transfers to the victim’s sense of insecurity outside the Internet.

Because of its unique characteristics, online hate speech can have a profound impact on the psychological well-being of its victims, leading not only to feelings of fear or anxiety but also insecurity. Our study’s emphasis on the transfer of insecurity from online to offline spaces underscores the interconnectedness of these domains. This interconnectedness underlines the importance of understanding and addressing feelings of insecurity induced by online hate speech, as it challenges traditional boundaries between virtual and real-world experiences. Our results emphasize the urgent need for ongoing efforts to combat online hate speech and its offline ramifications and point to the lasting impact it has on the victims’ lives and the importance of specific interventions and support mechanisms. Anti-hate speech initiatives should not only focus on mitigating the spread of hateful online content but also on addressing the psychological consequences and the emotional well-being of the victims. One possible measure is to increase awareness of the issue and the impact on victims’ well-being. Our findings also underline the importance of further judicial analyses as well as collaborative efforts between online platforms and law enforcements to strengthen laws and regulations aimed at combating online hate speech. As the digital landscape continues to evolve, addressing the psychological and societal impact of online hate speech remains a pressing concern. Due to its relevance for fear of crime in general and the increasing prevalence of online hate speech, our results hopefully encourage further empirical research on online hate speech consequences.

Availability of data and materials

The dataset on which this work relies was not shared publicly. However, upon request, the authors are willing to share the data using a data use agreement.

The assessment whether (online) hate speech is a crime depends on the country and its specific legal provisions. In Germany, hate speech is punishable if it exceeds the limits of freedom of expression and violates the rights of others. Possible offenses related to hate speech include insult, incitement to hatred, incitement to commit crimes, and approval of crimes.

To minimize the risk of emotionally straining the participants, participants were clearly informed about the topic of the survey in the cover letter as well as on the first page of the questionnaire. It was also explicitly stated that the participation is voluntary and can be cancelled at any time without further consequences. Also, the additional information sheet provided the participants with a victim counseling service in case they needed help.

A more detailed description of the sample can be found in Müller et al. ( 2022 ).

To test the predictors of the regression models for collinearity, we calculated the variance inflation factors (VIF) with the R package „car “ under R version 4.2.1. The highest VIF in model 2 is around 1.2, so there is no indication of multicollinearity (James et al., 2013 ).

For model validation, see Fig.  3 in the Appendix. To additionally test the robustness of the findings, the bootstrap procedure was applied and model 2 was estimated repeatedly for 5,000 random samples from the data set used. The R package "car" under R version 4.2.1 was used for this purpose (Fox & Weisberg 2018 ). The bootstrapping results raise concerns about the robustness, as the significant regression weights of online HSVs and online and offline HSVs were only present in 94% of the bootstrap samples (see Table  4 in the appendix). Therefore, additional research is required to confirm these findings.

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The authors thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.

This work is based on the data of the population survey in Lower Saxony 2020 as part of the project Cybercrime against private users funded by the Pro*Niedersachsen funding program of the Lower Saxony Ministry of Science and Culture.

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See Fig.  2 and 3

figure 2

Correlation matrix

figure 3

Residual plots (Model 2)

See Table  3

See Table  4

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Dreißigacker, A., Müller, P., Isenhardt, A. et al. Online hate speech victimization: consequences for victims’ feelings of insecurity. Crime Sci 13 , 4 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40163-024-00204-y

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Received : 08 November 2023

Accepted : 03 February 2024

Published : 10 February 2024

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1186/s40163-024-00204-y

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  • Online hate speech
  • Victimization
  • Feelings of insecurity

New rules to protect your rights and activity online in the EU

A child with a smartphone and earphones in the woods

The EU’s online environment is becoming a safer, fairer and more transparent place on 17 February, when its landmark rulebook, the Digital Services Act, fully comes into force . This will see new responsibilities imposed on online platforms who have users in the EU, with the aim of better protecting those users and their rights.

The rules, which had already applied to a number of very large platforms and very large search engines since 2023, will start applying to all platforms and hosting services . This means they will all need to implement a number of different measures to empower users. This includes:

  • countering illegal content , goods and services by providing users with the means to flag such illegal activity
  • protecting minors , including a complete ban of targeting minors with ads based on profiling or on their personal data
  • empowering users with information about advertisements they see, such as why the ads are being shown to them and on who paid for the advertisement
  • banning advertisements that target users based on sensitive data , such as political or religious beliefs, sexual preferences, etc.
  • make it easier to submit complaints and contact them

To help the Commission monitor and enforce obligations in this new law, responsible authorities will help ensure that platforms play by the rules in every EU country. Together with the Commission, they will form an advisory body to ensure that the rules are applied consistently, and that users across the EU enjoy the same rights.

For more information:

The Digital Services Act

Very large online platforms and search engines

Digital Services Coordinators

Be safer online

Press release: Digital Services Act starts applying to all online platforms in the EU

A Europe fit for the digital age

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