How the quality of school lunch affects students’ academic performance
Subscribe to the brown center on education policy newsletter, michael l. anderson , mla michael l. anderson associate professor of agricultural and resource economics - university of california, berkeley justin gallagher , and jg justin gallagher assistant professor of economics - case western reserve university elizabeth ramirez ritchie err elizabeth ramirez ritchie ph.d. graduate student - university of california-berkeley, department of agricultural and resource economics.
May 3, 2017
In 2010, President Barack Obama signed the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act. The main goal of the law was to raise the minimum nutritional standards for public school lunches served as part of the National School Lunch Program. The policy discussion surrounding the new law centered on the underlying health reasons for offering more nutritious school lunches, in particular, concern over the number of children who are overweight. The Centers for Disease Control estimates that one in five children in the United States is obese.
Surprisingly, the debate over the new law involved very little discussion as to whether providing a more nutritious school lunch could improve student learning. A lengthy medical literature examines the link between diet and cognitive development, and diet and cognitive function. The medical literature focuses on the biological and chemical mechanisms regarding how specific nutrients and compounds are thought to affect physical development (e.g., sight), cognition (e.g., concentration, memory), and behavior (e.g., hyperactivity). Nevertheless, what is lacking in the medical literature is direct evidence on how nutrition impacts educational achievement.
We attempt to fill this gap in a new study that measures the effect of offering healthier public school lunches on end of year academic test scores for public school students in California. The study period covers five academic years (2008-2009 to 2012-2013) and includes all public schools in the state that report test scores (about 9,700 schools, mostly elementary and middle schools). Rather than focus on changes in national nutrition standards, we instead focus on school-specific differences in lunch quality over time. Specifically, we take advantage of the fact that schools can choose to contract with private companies of varying nutritional quality to prepare the school lunches. About 12 percent of California public schools contract with a private lunch company during our study period. School employees completely prepare the meals in-house for 88 percent of the schools.
To determine the quality of different private companies, nutritionists at the Nutrition Policy Institute analyzed the school lunch menus offered by each company. The nutritional quality of the menus was scored using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). The HEI is a continuous score ranging from zero to 100 that uses a well-established food component analysis to determine how well food offerings (or diets) match the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The HEI is the Department of Agriculture’s preferred measure of diet quality, and the agency uses it to “examine relationships between diet and health-related outcomes, and to assess the quality of food assistance packages, menus, and the US food supply.” The average HEI score for the U.S. population is 63.8, while the median HEI score in our study is 59.9. In other words, the typical private company providing public school lunch in CA is a bit less healthy than the average American diet.
We measure the relationship between having a lunch prepared by a standard (below median HEI) or healthy (above median HEI) company relative to in-house preparation by school staff. Our model estimates the effect of lunch quality on student achievement using year-to-year changes between in-house preparation of school meals and outside vendors of varying menu quality, within a given school . We control for grade, school, and year factors, as well as specific student and school characteristics including race, English learner, low family income, school budget, and student-to-teacher ratios.
We find that in years when a school contracts with a healthy lunch company, students at the school score better on end-of-year academic tests. On average, student test scores are 0.03 to 0.04 standard deviations higher (about 4 percentile points). Not only that, the test score increases are about 40 percent larger for students who qualify for reduced-price or free school lunches. These students are also the ones who are most likely to eat the school lunches.
Moreover, we find no evidence that contracting with a private company to provide healthier meals changes the number of school lunches sold. This is important for two reasons. First, it reinforces our conclusion that the test score improvements we measure are being driven by differences in food quality, and not food quantity. A number of recent studies have shown that providing (potentially) hungry kids with greater access to food through the National School Lunch Program can lead to improved test scores. We are among the very few studies to focus on quality, rather than food quantity (i.e., calories). Second, some critics of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act worried that by raising the nutritional standards of school lunches that fewer children would eat the food, thereby unintentionally harming the students that the law was designed to help. Our results provide some reassurance that this is not likely to be the case.
Finally, we also examine whether healthier school lunches lead to a reduction in the number of overweight students. We follow previous literature and use whether a student’s body composition (i.e. body fat) is measured to be outside the healthy zone on the Presidential Fitness Test . We find no evidence that having a healthier school lunch reduces the number of overweight students. There are a few possible interpretations of this finding, including that a longer time period may be necessary to observe improvements in health, the measure of overweight is too imprecise, or that students are eating the same amount of calories due to National School Lunch Program calorie meal targets.
Education researchers have emphasized the need and opportunity for cost-effective education policies . While the test score improvements are modest in size, providing healthier school lunches is potentially a very cost-effective way for a school to improve student learning. Using actual meal contract bid information we estimate that it costs approximately an additional $80 per student per year to contract with one of the healthy school lunch providers relative to preparing the meals completely in-house.
While this may seem expensive at first, compare the cost-effectiveness of our estimated test score changes with other policies. A common benchmark is the Tennessee Star experiment , which found a large reduction in the class size of grades K-3 by one-third correlated with a 0.22 standard deviation test score increase. This reduction cost over $2,000 when the study was published in 1999, and would be even more today. It is (rightfully) expensive to hire more teachers, but scaling this benefit-cost ratio to achieve a bump in student learning gains equal to our estimates, we find class-size increases would be at least five times more expensive than healthier lunches.
Thus, increasing the nutritional quality of school meals appears to be a promising, cost-effective way to improve student learning. The value of providing healthier public school lunches is true even without accounting for the potential short- and long-term health benefits, such as a reduction in childhood obesity and the development of healthier lifelong eating habits. Our results cast doubt on the wisdom of the recently announced proposal by Agriculture Secretary Sonny Perdue to roll back some of the school lunch health requirements implemented as part of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act.
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Argumentative paper: school lunches
Good nutrition and exercise are a crucial component to healthy physical and brain development. Children who exercise and eat healthy are more likely to not have health issues, have a better self esteem, and excel academically. One way to change the way our children eat is to educate our children about healthy eating and the effects of proper nutrition, which should start where our children learn every day. The ultimate goal of most schools is to educate our children, but this becomes an issue if our children are not getting the proper nutrition.
Several studies have shown students that have experienced malnutrition have compromised intelligence and academic performance. Other studies have shown students with low amounts of protein in their diet had the lowest achievement scores. If a child is suffering from anemia they can fall victim to poor concentration skills, irritability, fatigue and lack of attention span. The lack of fruits and vegetables along with shoving a ton of processed foods down our children’s throats for lunch, not only has a huge impact on children’s brain function, but on also on their health.
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Education is a eye component in preventing a number of health issues including obesity. Obesity is now the most widespread medical problem amongst children. Fifteen to thirty-three percent of children ages six to nineteen are obese. Since the sass’s, the numbers have doubled. Eating habits of children have shifted from eating fresh fruits and vegetables to a diet of high fat, low nutrition, fast food, processed snacks and sugary drinks. Subtract daily exercise and you get a generation of children with diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, breathing problems and trouble sleeping.
In addition to hose health conditions you also have children with very low self-esteem who can eventually suffer from clinical depression. Children that are obese suffer from depression much more than children of normal weight. Overweight children often avoid sports and other physical activities as they often cannot keep up with their peers. Children that are overweight are more likely to be bullied and rejected from other children’s activities. They develop poor body image and lack of confidence. Obese children are also more likely to have substance abuse problems due to these issues.
They involve themselves in sedentary activities which lead to the feeling of loneliness. This becomes a vicious cycle of overeating to help relieve stress and unhappiness. If schools want our children to do well academically, then they need to not only help prevent obesity but also teach and show the link between healthy eating and different diseases and health conditions. Being overweight increases the risk of several conditions and diseases such as asthma, diabetes, gallstones, and heart disease because of the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in their blood.
This causes atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). Obstructive sleep apneas is more prevalent in obese children, a serious life threatening condition which can lead to heart failure. Children that are overweight in their formative years are more likely to become obese as an adult. This leads to a very serious and harmful cycle that can be hard to break. Many families are fighting the change of our school lunch program. Parents are saying their children will refuse to eat the healthy foods such as fruits, vegetables and whole wheat breads and pastas.
Children nowadays think a cheeseburger, added with salt and French fries doused in ketchup, is a complete and healthy meal. They have become so used to the taste of high fat, processed, salty foods that the option of healthier alternatives seems unfavorable. We need to implement a new portion size with healthy food to the younger generation to help build a steady routine and desire for healthier foods, activities, and lifestyle in general. Society can do an extraordinary amount of good for the kids across the United States if they change what is served in school cafeterias.
Some schools should try to have recess before lunch. This ay they have plenty of time to play and not want to rush and gorge themselves with food in five minutes so they have more time outside. A typical school lunch consists of strawberry or chocolate milk, French fries, potato cake or other type of potato (because that is what they consider a vegetable), a fruit cup stored in heavy syrup, soaked in an alarming amount of sugar, and a fried-breaded chicken patty on a bleached white bread bun, ooh and you can’t forget the side Of ketchup packet.
Instead students should see bowls of fresh fruit and vegetables on the tables for them to consume while hey wait for lunches or to have as a snack sometime during the day. Their school lunches should consist of nonfat milk, a fresh fruit such as an orange, pear or maybe grapes, not stored in ten teaspoons of sugar, a fresh salad with green lettuce, not iceberg and a main dish that consists of nutrition and vitamins. A plate of spaghetti made with whole wheat pasta, low fat content hamburger and a sauce that is full of hidden vegetables would be an example of a healthier lunch.
In 2010, President Obama signed into place the Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act. This new law sets nutritional standards for all foods old in school. It provides additional funding for schools that participate in the healthy foods program and also provides local farms funding to provide fresh fruits and vegetables to their local schools. Within this bill the number of eligible children enrolled in meal programs for free or reduced lunches is increased. Michelle Obama has also implemented the “Let’s Move Act’. This is meant to increase the number of minutes per day children are active and teach them healthy life style choices.
Our schools need to implement the physical education class every day in our schools. One time a week is not enough to keep our children healthy. Society has come a long way since 1904 when school lunches were implemented. President Obama and the First Lady are setting programs in place, but if parents don’t step up and demand that the schools make changes, it will never happen. What we eat affects everything in our life: our health, our moods as well as our learning. Parents can help by auditing their school cafeterias. Have meetings with your school principal about what she/he is feeding your child.
Provide education on healthy eating and exercise. Demand physical education be put back on your children’s schedule every day. Stand up and fight for your children’s health just as you would if he or she wasn’t getting taught properly. The education on healthy eating and exercise shouldn’t be just for the children but also to their parents. That way they are also getting the proper food at home as well. It might take some time but with consistent and realistic strategies in school and at home, the community can change what they are feeding our children. They are our future.
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Why Students Should Have Open Campus Lunch Periods
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Published: Dec 16, 2021
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