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  • Indian J Psychiatry
  • v.61(6); Nov-Dec 2019

Case presentation in academic psychiatry: The clinical applications, purposes, and structure of formulation and summary

Narayana manjunatha.

Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India


Case presentation in an academic psychiatry traditionally follows one of the following three formats: 4DP format (ideal and lengthy format; described in the following section), “Case Summary” (CS) (medium format), or “Case Formulation” (CF) (short format), in order of the decreasing length, duration, and the gradual transition from the use of layman terms (in the history with a goal of layman understanding) to technical terms (in diagnostic formulation [DF] with a goal to communicate with professionals). However, the medium and short formats (CS and CF) are often preferred as a rule rather than exception routinely than the ideal and lengthy 4DP format in the area of academic psychiatry.

An ideal case presentation in academic psychiatry follows 4DP format: first is the “Detailed presentations of all clinical information,” second is the “Diagnostic summary” (DS) (it is optional, see below), third is the “Diagnostic formulation,” fourth is the Diagnosis or differential diagnosis (usually International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10)/Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 [DSM-5]) and discussion of diagnosis with points in favor and against, and finally is the “Plan of management.” The goal of this article is to overview the clinical applications, purposes, and structure of the “formulation” and “summary” in this article with review from published literatures. Table 1 represents these formats of presentation graphically.

Graphical representation of different formats of case presentations in psychiatry

*Includes complete history, physical examination, and detailed mental status examination. DD – Differential diagnosis


Despite the availability of substantial literatures, the concepts of “formulation” and “summary” are rather confusing concepts in academic psychiatry, especially with psychiatric residents. There are few shortcomings of these concepts causing this confusion. The presence of various models of formulations in psychiatric literatures is one of the reasons for this confusion such as “psychodynamic formulation,” “psychotherapeutic formulation,” and “cultural formulation.” It is essential to understand the purposes of the existing models of these psychiatric formulations. The “psychodynamic formulation” focuses on psychodynamic understanding of the problems of patients and may involve interventions with psychodynamic psychotherapy, the “psychotherapeutic formulation” aims to understand the problems of patients and helps to choose the different schools of psychotherapy, and the “cultural psychiatric formulation” focuses on understanding of the patient's problems from his/her cultural background. Lack of clarity on this pair of terminologies such as “case formulation” versus “diagnostic formulation” and “case summary” versus “diagnostic summary” in published literatures is another significant reason for confusion. Kuruvilla and Kuruvilla[ 1 ] in their article entitled “diagnostic formulation” denotes the inclusion of diagnosis (at least the differential diagnosis) and plan of management in the formulation. The author wishes to convey that “diagnostic formulation” and “case formulation” (formulating a case) are rather different concepts with different purposes. The concept “CF” denotes for formulating a case for the purpose of both diagnostic and management purposes, whereas “DF” with the term “diagnostic” denotes diagnostic point of view only (where term itself denotes diagnosis), which excludes the “plan of management.” The similar explanation is offered to differentiate “CS” and “DS.” Often, these pairs of terminology are used synonymously causing confusion. Further discussion in this article is based on the above explanations of all these four terms. However, if examiners/teachers ask to present DF, it means formulating his/her case for the purpose of diagnostic purpose, which need not include the management plan. For the sake of better clarity, the author wishes to discuss student-friendly models of formulation, summary, and diagnosis, edited by Professor David Goldberg. Along with experienced teachers, trainees themselves are involved in deriving these concepts in explaining Professor D. Goldberg's concepts which is an interesting point.


Often, the choice of presentation from one of either “DS” or “DF” in academic psychiatry depends on whether the detailed clinical information is presented or not. If detailed clinical information is presented, “DS” may be skipped and proceed directly to presentation of the third step of ideal 4DP format, i.e., “DF.” In case detailed clinical information is not presented for any reasons, the case presentation may begin with “DS” and then may proceed to “DF” (however, it is optional). In either of the ways, both “DS” and “DF” are followed by the fourth step of ideal 4DP format, i.e., the “diagnosis or differential diagnosis” (usually ICD-10 and DSM 5) and discussion of diagnosis with points in favor and against, and finally is the “plan of management.”

The choice of the presentation either “DS”/“DF”, at times, depends on the availability of time with examiners/listeners/faculties. When ample of time are available, the examiners/teachers ask residents to present a detailed presentation of all clinical data in the usual 4DP format of “presenting complaint,” “history of presenting illness,” etc., followed by “DF,” and then plan of management, and this format has the minimal scope of “DS” presentation. However, whenever time is a constraint, residents shall be asked to present the “DS” without a detailed presentation of clinical data followed by with or without “DF.” In any case, psychiatric residents shall be encouraged to learn both DS and DF for any eventuality during examination.

As discussed above, the “CF” traditionally includes only the last three steps (3 rd , 4 th , and 5 th ) of 4DP format of psychiatric case presentation. This has relevance from psychodynamic explanation of psychiatric disorders. In view of the significant development in the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders in the last few decades and high dependency of making clinical diagnosis based on the current classificatory system (ICD-10 and DSM 5), the “DF” is preferred which excludes the plan of management than the “CF” as authors believe that the presentation of the “plan of management” itself is an important skill which is expected from psychiatric residents during training and examination. However, whenever a psychiatric resident is asked to present “CF,” he/she shall include the third to fifth steps of ideal format.


The important goal of the “DF” is to facilitate the communication of clinical information of patients with another professional/s who are familiar with technical jargons (i.e., psychopathological/psychiatric terminology), whereas the purpose of “DS” is to convey the clinical information of patients to lay persons and/or nonprofessionals and comprises all the components of a DF, but in layman's terminology. The contents of DS may be used for the purpose of psychoeducation to patients and their family.


The purposes of “DF” and “DS” are important to understand their structure or contents. Since “DF” is targeted for professionals, the technical jargons are used in its content, whereas “DS” is targeted for lay persons or nonprofessionals, and then layman terms are used in its content. The “DF” should be quite brief to just re-orientating the listener to the salient features of the case, often just the key demographics and major diagnostic criteria described in technical terms in as less words as possible without repetition of any word/s. The technical jargons in “DF” often include the terminology of descriptive psychopathology or diagnostic points of classificatory system (ICD-10 and DSM-5). In simple words, the structure of both DF and DS is, more or less, similar in contents, but the difference lies in the use of technical terms and layman's terms, respectively, in its structure/contents. Further details of the structure of DF and DS are discussed below in the proposed format and case vignettes.


The completed DF shall last for about 5 min, and the recommended length for a written version is not more than one side of a A4 paper when typed,[ 1 ] which is equivalent to 10 to 15 sentences, whereas the completed DS should be short enough to cover about two sides of a A4 paper when typed,[ 2 ] which should not be more than 10 min.


The following paragraphs exerted in italic (without any edition to preserve the semantic) from “ The Maudsley Handbook of Practical Psychiatry ” were edited by Professor David Goldberg. The author feels that these paragraphs are important to understand the difference between the process of summary, formulation, and diagnosis. The author intentionally deleted diagnostic points and management plan from the discussion to keep focus on DF only.

A SUMMARY is a descriptive account of collected data: Objective and impartial. In contrast, a FORMULATION is a clinical opinion: Weighing up the pros and cons of conflicting evidence, that leads to a diagnostic choice. An opinion inevitably implies a subjective view point, by virtue of assigning relative importance to each piece of evidence; in doing so, both theoretical bias and past personal experience invariably come to play. No matter how accurate the final verdict, an analysis is inextricably bound up with subjective judgments and decisions. When assigning the same patient, two experts may produce two similar summaries, but two different formulations with divergent conclusions. This is the fundamental difference: A SUMMARY is a descriptive, whereas a formulation is analytical. Therefore, a summary calls for the qualities of thoroughness, restraint, and objectivity, while a formulation demands the composite skill of methodological thinking, incisive analysis and intelligent presentation.


It is an important document which should be drawn up with care. Its purpose is to provide a concise description of all the important aspects of the case, enabling others who are unfamiliar with the patient to grasp the essential features of the problem without needing to search elsewhere for further information. The completed summary should be short enough to cover about two sides of A4 paper when typed.


Formulating a case with clarity and precision is probably the most testing yet challenging and crucial part of a psychiatric assessment. The skills of writing a good formulation depend upon the ability to differentiate what are merely the incidental and circumstantial biographical details from what are the salient and discriminatory features and it is this that forms the cornerstone of a clinical diagnosis. Certain features are discriminatory because they support one diagnosis as more likely candidate and discount another diagnosis as less likely.


A diagnosis involves a nomothetic (literally “law-giving”) process. This means that all cases included within the identified category have one or more properties in common. By contrast, the formulation is an idiographic process (literally “picture of the individual”). This means that it includes the unique characteristics of each patient's case which are needed for the process of management. So, while nomothetic processes are the only way we can advance knowledge about a disease, we use idiographic methods to understand and study the individual.


The formulation follows a logical sequence.

Demographic data: Begins with name, age, occupation, and marital status of the patient.

Descriptive formulation: Describe the nature of onset,– for example, acute or insidious; the total duration of the present illness; and course; for instance, cyclic or deteriorating. Then list of the main phenomena (namely, symptoms and signs) that characterize the disorder. As you become more experienced you should try to be selective by featuring those phenomena that are most important, either because of their diagnostic specificity or because of their predominance in severity or duration. Avoids long lists of minor or transient symptoms and negative findings. These basic data are chiefly derived from history of the present illness; the mental state and physical examinations are used to determine the syndrome diagnosis in the next section. Note that this is not usually the place to bring in other aspects of the history: That comes later. If we know the diagnosis of a previous episode of mental illness, this should also be taken into account, but remember, the present disorder may not be connected and the diagnosis may be different.

Etiology: The various factors that have contributed should be evident mainly from the family and personal histories, the history of previous illness, and the premorbid personality. Try to answer two questions: Why this patient developed this particular disorder, and why has the disorder developed at this particular time?


The general formats of “DS” and “DF” are essentially similar with slight changes in order of the presentation, which aim to reduce the number of words as well as to avoid the repetition of words.

  • Sociodemographic data
  • Elaboration of chief complaint with focus on positive aspects with relevant negative aspects: Presenting the long list of minor or transient symptoms and negative findings is advisable in DS to differentiate in the differential diagnosis which may be avoided in DF. Treatment history also needs to be briefed here. Please note that layman terms shall be used in DS, whereas technical jargons are used in DF
  • Past psychiatric and medical history: Briefly describe the symptoms of the past psychiatric disorder and then write possible name for that psychiatric disorder in DS, whereas directly write psychiatric diagnosis in DF
  • Family history: Briefly describe symptoms and age of the onset of psychiatric disorder, and then write possible name of that psychiatric disorder in DS, whereas directly write psychiatric diagnosis in DF
  • Personal history: Briefly describe the positive aspects of personal history in DS, whereas the use of possible technical jargon in DF is advised
  • Premorbid personality: Describe briefly each headings of premorbid personality followed by impression in DS, whereas give directly the impression in DF, i.e., well-adjusted or schizoid/schizotypal/anxious avoidant/personality traits/disorder
  • Physical examination: Briefly describe positive findings in DS, whereas technical comments in DF using medial jargons
  • Mental Status Examination (MSE): Briefly describe positive findings first, then give impression of that finding using psychopathological terms in DS, whereas directly write technical jargons using psychopathological terms in DF. Please note here that, in case of DF, the psychopathological findings in MSE may be similar to the history of presenting illness (HOPI). In this case, mention as “concurred with HOPI findings” in order to avoid repetition of terms (see in case vignette of DF).

Note: Please note that findings from the family and personal histories, the history of previous illness, and the premorbid personality give the etiology of presentation of case. The sequence in the format of DS may be preferred in the same way as above, whereas in DF, etiology-related history such as past, family, and personal histories as well as premorbid personality may be presented before presenting complaints, which reduce the number of words by avoiding the repetition of words (please see in case vignettes of DS and DF).


Diagnostic summary.

A 36-year-old married and postgraduation-completed male, currently working as a software professional hailing from urban-middle socioeconomic background from Bengaluru, presented with adequate and reliable information of 20-day illness of abrupt onset and continuous course characterized by overcheerfulness, hyperactivity, and unable to sit at one place, overtalkativeness, overfamiliarity, and overspending most of the time in the last 20 days and false and firm claims that he is a minister and demand respect from people in the last 12 days, with decreased need of sleep and appetite disturbance along with socio-occupational dysfunction in the absence of organicity and schizophrenic and depressive symptoms. There was a family history of episodic mental illness suggestive of bipolar disorder in first-degree relative with age of onset at about 23 years with maintaining asymptomatic with lithium prophylaxis and past history suggestive of episodic mental illness of bipolar disorder in the last 12 years with four similar manic episodes with each 3–5 months' duration and another three depressive episodes characterized by depressed mood, reduced interest, easy fatiguability, and early-morning awakening for about 6–8 months with poor medication adherence, with nil significant personal history and well-adjusted premorbid personality. No abnormality was found in physical examination. MSE reveals overfamiliarity; easily established rapport; increased tone, tempo, and volume in speech; pacing around excessive suggestive of increased psychomotor activity; expression and observation of overcheerfulness suggestive of elated mood and affect; and delusion of grandiosity of identity for the above claim with impaired judgment and partial insight (total 250 words).

Diagnostic formulation

Mr. Sri, a 36-year-old married and postgraduation-completed male, currently working as a software professional hailing from urban-middle socio-economic status from Bengaluru, with a family history of bipolar disorder in first-degree relative with maintaining remission on lithium prophylaxis, with past history of four manic episodes and three depressive episodes in last 12 years with poor medication adherence, with nil significant personal history and well-adjusted pre-morbid personality, presented with adequate and reliable information of 20-day illness of abrupt onset and continuous course with characterized by elated mood, increased psychomotor activity, inflated self-esteem, excessive and rapid speech, overfamiliarity, and delusion of grandiosity of identity in the last 12 days with severe bio-socio-occupational dysfunction. No abnormality was found in physical examination. MSE is concurred with the above psychopathology with impaired judgment and impaired insight (total 131 words).

Please note that the above case vignettes are not exclusive and minor variation/s are still possible.

The aims of CF/CS are different from that of DF/DS. CF/CS focuses on understanding of the case-as-whole, but DF/DS aims for diagnostic points of view. The clinical applications, purposes, and structure of DF and DS are different. The authors explained hypothetical explanation of case presentation in academic psychiatry, which we feel is relevant in order to reduce the confusion in minds of present and prospective psychiatric residents. The author hope that these hypothetical explanations explained here is welcomed by the community of academic psychiatry.

Financial support and sponsorship

Conflicts of interest.

There are no conflicts of interest.

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What Is a Case Study?

Weighing the pros and cons of this method of research

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

how to present a mental health case study

Cara Lustik is a fact-checker and copywriter.

how to present a mental health case study

Verywell / Colleen Tighe

  • Pros and Cons

What Types of Case Studies Are Out There?

Where do you find data for a case study, how do i write a psychology case study.

A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject's life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. Case studies can be used in many different fields, including psychology, medicine, education, anthropology, political science, and social work.

The point of a case study is to learn as much as possible about an individual or group so that the information can be generalized to many others. Unfortunately, case studies tend to be highly subjective, and it is sometimes difficult to generalize results to a larger population.

While case studies focus on a single individual or group, they follow a format similar to other types of psychology writing. If you are writing a case study, we got you—here are some rules of APA format to reference.  

At a Glance

A case study, or an in-depth study of a person, group, or event, can be a useful research tool when used wisely. In many cases, case studies are best used in situations where it would be difficult or impossible for you to conduct an experiment. They are helpful for looking at unique situations and allow researchers to gather a lot of˜ information about a specific individual or group of people. However, it's important to be cautious of any bias we draw from them as they are highly subjective.

What Are the Benefits and Limitations of Case Studies?

A case study can have its strengths and weaknesses. Researchers must consider these pros and cons before deciding if this type of study is appropriate for their needs.

One of the greatest advantages of a case study is that it allows researchers to investigate things that are often difficult or impossible to replicate in a lab. Some other benefits of a case study:

  • Allows researchers to capture information on the 'how,' 'what,' and 'why,' of something that's implemented
  • Gives researchers the chance to collect information on why one strategy might be chosen over another
  • Permits researchers to develop hypotheses that can be explored in experimental research

On the other hand, a case study can have some drawbacks:

  • It cannot necessarily be generalized to the larger population
  • Cannot demonstrate cause and effect
  • It may not be scientifically rigorous
  • It can lead to bias

Researchers may choose to perform a case study if they want to explore a unique or recently discovered phenomenon. Through their insights, researchers develop additional ideas and study questions that might be explored in future studies.

It's important to remember that the insights from case studies cannot be used to determine cause-and-effect relationships between variables. However, case studies may be used to develop hypotheses that can then be addressed in experimental research.

Case Study Examples

There have been a number of notable case studies in the history of psychology. Much of  Freud's work and theories were developed through individual case studies. Some great examples of case studies in psychology include:

  • Anna O : Anna O. was a pseudonym of a woman named Bertha Pappenheim, a patient of a physician named Josef Breuer. While she was never a patient of Freud's, Freud and Breuer discussed her case extensively. The woman was experiencing symptoms of a condition that was then known as hysteria and found that talking about her problems helped relieve her symptoms. Her case played an important part in the development of talk therapy as an approach to mental health treatment.
  • Phineas Gage : Phineas Gage was a railroad employee who experienced a terrible accident in which an explosion sent a metal rod through his skull, damaging important portions of his brain. Gage recovered from his accident but was left with serious changes in both personality and behavior.
  • Genie : Genie was a young girl subjected to horrific abuse and isolation. The case study of Genie allowed researchers to study whether language learning was possible, even after missing critical periods for language development. Her case also served as an example of how scientific research may interfere with treatment and lead to further abuse of vulnerable individuals.

Such cases demonstrate how case research can be used to study things that researchers could not replicate in experimental settings. In Genie's case, her horrific abuse denied her the opportunity to learn a language at critical points in her development.

This is clearly not something researchers could ethically replicate, but conducting a case study on Genie allowed researchers to study phenomena that are otherwise impossible to reproduce.

There are a few different types of case studies that psychologists and other researchers might use:

  • Collective case studies : These involve studying a group of individuals. Researchers might study a group of people in a certain setting or look at an entire community. For example, psychologists might explore how access to resources in a community has affected the collective mental well-being of those who live there.
  • Descriptive case studies : These involve starting with a descriptive theory. The subjects are then observed, and the information gathered is compared to the pre-existing theory.
  • Explanatory case studies : These   are often used to do causal investigations. In other words, researchers are interested in looking at factors that may have caused certain things to occur.
  • Exploratory case studies : These are sometimes used as a prelude to further, more in-depth research. This allows researchers to gather more information before developing their research questions and hypotheses .
  • Instrumental case studies : These occur when the individual or group allows researchers to understand more than what is initially obvious to observers.
  • Intrinsic case studies : This type of case study is when the researcher has a personal interest in the case. Jean Piaget's observations of his own children are good examples of how an intrinsic case study can contribute to the development of a psychological theory.

The three main case study types often used are intrinsic, instrumental, and collective. Intrinsic case studies are useful for learning about unique cases. Instrumental case studies help look at an individual to learn more about a broader issue. A collective case study can be useful for looking at several cases simultaneously.

The type of case study that psychology researchers use depends on the unique characteristics of the situation and the case itself.

There are a number of different sources and methods that researchers can use to gather information about an individual or group. Six major sources that have been identified by researchers are:

  • Archival records : Census records, survey records, and name lists are examples of archival records.
  • Direct observation : This strategy involves observing the subject, often in a natural setting . While an individual observer is sometimes used, it is more common to utilize a group of observers.
  • Documents : Letters, newspaper articles, administrative records, etc., are the types of documents often used as sources.
  • Interviews : Interviews are one of the most important methods for gathering information in case studies. An interview can involve structured survey questions or more open-ended questions.
  • Participant observation : When the researcher serves as a participant in events and observes the actions and outcomes, it is called participant observation.
  • Physical artifacts : Tools, objects, instruments, and other artifacts are often observed during a direct observation of the subject.

If you have been directed to write a case study for a psychology course, be sure to check with your instructor for any specific guidelines you need to follow. If you are writing your case study for a professional publication, check with the publisher for their specific guidelines for submitting a case study.

Here is a general outline of what should be included in a case study.

Section 1: A Case History

This section will have the following structure and content:

Background information : The first section of your paper will present your client's background. Include factors such as age, gender, work, health status, family mental health history, family and social relationships, drug and alcohol history, life difficulties, goals, and coping skills and weaknesses.

Description of the presenting problem : In the next section of your case study, you will describe the problem or symptoms that the client presented with.

Describe any physical, emotional, or sensory symptoms reported by the client. Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions related to the symptoms should also be noted. Any screening or diagnostic assessments that are used should also be described in detail and all scores reported.

Your diagnosis : Provide your diagnosis and give the appropriate Diagnostic and Statistical Manual code. Explain how you reached your diagnosis, how the client's symptoms fit the diagnostic criteria for the disorder(s), or any possible difficulties in reaching a diagnosis.

Section 2: Treatment Plan

This portion of the paper will address the chosen treatment for the condition. This might also include the theoretical basis for the chosen treatment or any other evidence that might exist to support why this approach was chosen.

  • Cognitive behavioral approach : Explain how a cognitive behavioral therapist would approach treatment. Offer background information on cognitive behavioral therapy and describe the treatment sessions, client response, and outcome of this type of treatment. Make note of any difficulties or successes encountered by your client during treatment.
  • Humanistic approach : Describe a humanistic approach that could be used to treat your client, such as client-centered therapy . Provide information on the type of treatment you chose, the client's reaction to the treatment, and the end result of this approach. Explain why the treatment was successful or unsuccessful.
  • Psychoanalytic approach : Describe how a psychoanalytic therapist would view the client's problem. Provide some background on the psychoanalytic approach and cite relevant references. Explain how psychoanalytic therapy would be used to treat the client, how the client would respond to therapy, and the effectiveness of this treatment approach.
  • Pharmacological approach : If treatment primarily involves the use of medications, explain which medications were used and why. Provide background on the effectiveness of these medications and how monotherapy may compare with an approach that combines medications with therapy or other treatments.

This section of a case study should also include information about the treatment goals, process, and outcomes.

When you are writing a case study, you should also include a section where you discuss the case study itself, including the strengths and limitiations of the study. You should note how the findings of your case study might support previous research. 

In your discussion section, you should also describe some of the implications of your case study. What ideas or findings might require further exploration? How might researchers go about exploring some of these questions in additional studies?

Need More Tips?

Here are a few additional pointers to keep in mind when formatting your case study:

  • Never refer to the subject of your case study as "the client." Instead, use their name or a pseudonym.
  • Read examples of case studies to gain an idea about the style and format.
  • Remember to use APA format when citing references .

Crowe S, Cresswell K, Robertson A, Huby G, Avery A, Sheikh A. The case study approach .  BMC Med Res Methodol . 2011;11:100.

Crowe S, Cresswell K, Robertson A, Huby G, Avery A, Sheikh A. The case study approach . BMC Med Res Methodol . 2011 Jun 27;11:100. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-11-100

Gagnon, Yves-Chantal.  The Case Study as Research Method: A Practical Handbook . Canada, Chicago Review Press Incorporated DBA Independent Pub Group, 2010.

Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods . United States, SAGE Publications, 2017.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

Case Presentation Format

In response to feedback from PCL users, we created the following outline that we hope will be helpful to use when preparing for your consultation and in presenting the case to the PCL psychiatrist. This format is meant as a guide that can help you get to the heart of the matter quickly and maximize time when you have the psychiatrist on the line. It mimics what many providers are taught in their formal training about presenting a clinical case. If it helps, download a PDF version to use like a worksheet.

Primary Information

Your clinical role with patient and practice setting:

Sex/Gender Identity: (cis, trans, male, female, non-binary, etc.)

Psychiatric History: (diagnoses; inpatient and/or outpatient; self-harm, etc.)

Medical History: (cardiac issues; diabetes; HTN)

Substance Use History: ( present or history of; type(s) of substance(s) used; most recent use)

Current Medications: (psychiatric and/or medical)

Presenting problem(s)/symptom(s):

Case Presentation Flow

My role with the patient is _ and my question is about _. I am working with a _ year-old _ (cis, trans, male, female, non-binary, etc.) patient with a psychiatric history of _, a medical history of _, and a substance use history of _.  Their medications are _.  They are presenting with symptoms that include _. 

Clinical role with patient: You are a primary care doctor and met the patient for the first time today. A colleague in your clinic started the lamotrigine 3 weeks ago. 

Age: 35 year old

Sex/Gender Identity: cis-gendered female

Psychiatric History: Patient reports history of PTSD; denies history of mania or psychosis

Medical History: Hyperlipidemia. Taking Lipitor.  

Substance Use History: History of opioid use (heroin), alcohol and methamphetamines

Current Medications: Recently started on lamotrigine, now on 50mg a day, after unsuccessful trial of sertraline 100mg.

Presenting problem(s)/symptom(s): Patient scored high on the MDQ but did not have mania on sertraline and you are wondering what to ask the patient in order to determine whether bipolar is a better diagnosis and if so, what should be done with medications?

Clinical role with patient: You are a social worker in a primary care clinic, offering integrated behavioral health services. Your consulting psychiatrist is not available for the next week and the patient is seeing their primary care provider tomorrow.

Age: late 50s

Sex/Gender Identity: male

Psychiatric History: Diagnosed with anxiety, depression, and OCD since early 20s. Also has family history of depression. Patient denies current SI or HI.

Medical History: Unknown.

Substance Use History: Remote history of alcohol abuse; none in 20 years and attends AA meetings weekly

Current Medications: Tried sertraline initially years ago and unpleasant side effects but has successfully been on fluoxetine at 80 mg for 15 years. Buspirone 15 mg bid was added in 2018

Presenting problem(s)/symptom(s): Client is asking about which medications might be helpful for what they describe as intrusive thoughts.

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How to present patient cases

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A guide on how to structure a case presentation

This article contains...

-History of presenting problem

-Medical and surgical history

-Drugs, including allergies to drugs

-Family history

-Social history

-Review of systems

-Findings on examination, including vital signs and observations

-Differential diagnosis/impression



Presenting patient cases is a key part of everyday clinical practice. A well delivered presentation has the potential to facilitate patient care and improve efficiency on ward rounds, as well as a means of teaching and assessing clinical competence. 1

The purpose of a case presentation is to communicate your diagnostic reasoning to the listener, so that he or she has a clear picture of the patient’s condition and further management can be planned accordingly. 2 To give a high quality presentation you need to take a thorough history. Consultants make decisions about patient care based on information presented to them by junior members of the team, so the importance of accurately presenting your patient cannot be overemphasised.

As a medical student, you are likely to be asked to present in numerous settings. A formal case presentation may take place at a teaching session or even at a conference or scientific meeting. These presentations are usually thorough and have an accompanying PowerPoint presentation or poster. More often, case presentations take place on the wards or over the phone and tend to be brief, using only memory or short, handwritten notes as an aid.

Everyone has their own presenting style, and the context of the presentation will determine how much detail you need to put in. You should anticipate what information your senior colleagues will need to know about the patient’s history and the care he or she has received since admission, to enable them to make further management decisions. In this article, I use a fictitious case to show how you can structure case presentations, which can be adapted to different clinical and teaching settings (box 1).

Box 1: Structure for presenting patient cases

Presenting problem, history of presenting problem, medical and surgical history.

Drugs, including allergies to drugs

Family history

Social history, review of systems.

Findings on examination, including vital signs and observations

Differential diagnosis/impression


Case: tom murphy.

You should start with a sentence that includes the patient’s name, sex (Mr/Ms), age, and presenting symptoms. In your presentation, you may want to include the patient’s main diagnosis if known—for example, “admitted with shortness of breath on a background of COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].” You should include any additional information that might give the presentation of symptoms further context, such as the patient’s profession, ethnic origin, recent travel, or chronic conditions.

“ Mr Tom Murphy is a 56 year old ex-smoker admitted with sudden onset central crushing chest pain that radiated down his left arm.”

In this section you should expand on the presenting problem. Use the SOCRATES mnemonic to help describe the pain (see box 2). If the patient has multiple problems, describe each in turn, covering one system at a time.

Box 2: SOCRATES—mnemonic for pain


Time course

Exacerbating/relieving factors

“ The pain started suddenly at 1 pm, when Mr Murphy was at his desk. The pain was dull in nature, and radiated down his left arm. He experienced shortness of breath and felt sweaty and clammy. His colleague phoned an ambulance. He rated the pain 9/10 in severity. In the ambulance he was given GTN [glyceryl trinitrate] spray under the tongue, which relieved the pain to 5/10. The pain lasted 30 minutes in total. No exacerbating factors were noted. Of note: Mr Murphy is an ex-smoker with a 20 pack year history”

Some patients have multiple comorbidities, and the most life threatening conditions should be mentioned first. They can also be categorised by organ system—for example, “has a long history of cardiovascular disease, having had a stroke, two TIAs [transient ischaemic attacks], and previous ACS [acute coronary syndrome].” For some conditions it can be worth stating whether a general practitioner or a specialist manages it, as this gives an indication of its severity.

In a surgical case, colleagues will be interested in exercise tolerance and any comorbidity that could affect the patient’s fitness for surgery and anaesthesia. If the patient has had any previous surgical procedures, mention whether there were any complications or reactions to anaesthesia.

“Mr Murphy has a history of type 2 diabetes, well controlled on metformin. He also has hypertension, managed with ramipril, and gout. Of note: he has no history of ischaemic heart disease (relevant negative) (see box 3).”

Box 3: Relevant negatives

Mention any relevant negatives that will help narrow down the differential diagnosis or could be important in the management of the patient, 3 such as any risk factors you know for the condition and any associations that you are aware of. For example, if the differential diagnosis includes a condition that you know can be hereditary, a relevant negative could be the lack of a family history. If the differential diagnosis includes cardiovascular disease, mention the cardiovascular risk factors such as body mass index, smoking, and high cholesterol.

Highlight any recent changes to the patient’s drugs because these could be a factor in the presenting problem. Mention any allergies to drugs or the patient’s non-compliance to a previously prescribed drug regimen.

To link the medical history and the drugs you might comment on them together, either here or in the medical history. “Mrs Walsh’s drugs include regular azathioprine for her rheumatoid arthritis.”Or, “His regular drugs are ramipril 5 mg once a day, metformin 1g three times a day, and allopurinol 200 mg once a day. He has no known drug allergies.”

If the family history is unrelated to the presenting problem, it is sufficient to say “no relevant family history noted.” For hereditary conditions more detail is needed.

“ Mr Murphy’s father experienced a fatal myocardial infarction aged 50.”

Social history should include the patient’s occupation; their smoking, alcohol, and illicit drug status; who they live with; their relationship status; and their sexual history, baseline mobility, and travel history. In an older patient, more detail is usually required, including whether or not they have carers, how often the carers help, and if they need to use walking aids.

“He works as an accountant and is an ex-smoker since five years ago with a 20 pack year history. He drinks about 14 units of alcohol a week. He denies any illicit drug use. He lives with his wife in a two storey house and is independent in all activities of daily living.”

Do not dwell on this section. If something comes up that is relevant to the presenting problem, it should be mentioned in the history of the presenting problem rather than here.

“Systems review showed long standing occasional lower back pain, responsive to paracetamol.”

Findings on examination

Initially, it can be useful to practise presenting the full examination to make sure you don’t leave anything out, but it is rare that you would need to present all the normal findings. Instead, focus on the most important main findings and any abnormalities.

“On examination the patient was comfortable at rest, heart sounds one and two were heard with no additional murmurs, heaves, or thrills. Jugular venous pressure was not raised. No peripheral oedema was noted and calves were soft and non-tender. Chest was clear on auscultation. Abdomen was soft and non-tender and normal bowel sounds were heard. GCS [Glasgow coma scale] was 15, pupils were equal and reactive to light [PEARL], cranial nerves 1-12 were intact, and he was moving all four limbs. Observations showed an early warning score of 1 for a tachycardia of 105 beats/ min. Blood pressure was 150/90 mm Hg, respiratory rate 18 breaths/min, saturations were 98% on room air, and he was apyrexial with a temperature of 36.8 ºC.”

Differential diagnoses

Mentioning one or two of the most likely diagnoses is sufficient. A useful phrase you can use is, “I would like to rule out,” especially when you suspect a more serious cause is in the differential diagnosis. “History and examination were in keeping with diverticular disease; however, I would like to rule out colorectal cancer in this patient.”

Remember common things are common, so try not to mention rare conditions first. Sometimes it is acceptable to report investigations you would do first, and then base your differential diagnosis on what the history and investigation findings tell you.

“My impression is acute coronary syndrome. The differential diagnosis includes other cardiovascular causes such as acute pericarditis, myocarditis, aortic stenosis, aortic dissection, and pulmonary embolism. Possible respiratory causes include pneumonia or pneumothorax. Gastrointestinal causes include oesophageal spasm, oesophagitis, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, gastritis, cholecystitis, and acute pancreatitis. I would also consider a musculoskeletal cause for the pain.”

This section can include a summary of the investigations already performed and further investigations that you would like to request. “On the basis of these differentials, I would like to carry out the following investigations: 12 lead electrocardiography and blood tests, including full blood count, urea and electrolytes, clotting screen, troponin levels, lipid profile, and glycated haemoglobin levels. I would also book a chest radiograph and check the patient’s point of care blood glucose level.”

You should consider recommending investigations in a structured way, prioritising them by how long they take to perform and how easy it is to get them done and how long it takes for the results to come back. Put the quickest and easiest first: so bedside tests, electrocardiography, followed by blood tests, plain radiology, then special tests. You should always be able to explain why you would like to request a test. Mention the patient’s baseline test values if they are available, especially if the patient has a chronic condition—for example, give the patient’s creatinine levels if he or she has chronic kidney disease This shows the change over time and indicates the severity of the patient’s current condition.

“To further investigate these differentials, 12 lead electrocardiography was carried out, which showed ST segment depression in the anterior leads. Results of laboratory tests showed an initial troponin level of 85 µg/L, which increased to 1250 µg/L when repeated at six hours. Blood test results showed raised total cholesterol at 7.6 mmol /L and nil else. A chest radiograph showed clear lung fields. Blood glucose level was 6.3 mmol/L; a glycated haemoglobin test result is pending.”

Dependent on the case, you may need to describe the management plan so far or what further management you would recommend.“My management plan for this patient includes ACS [acute coronary syndrome] protocol, echocardiography, cardiology review, and treatment with high dose statins. If you are unsure what the management should be, you should say that you would discuss further with senior colleagues and the patient. At this point, check to see if there is a treatment escalation plan or a “do not attempt to resuscitate” order in place.

“Mr Murphy was given ACS protocol in the emergency department. An echocardiogram has been requested and he has been discussed with cardiology, who are going to come and see him. He has also been started on atorvastatin 80 mg nightly. Mr Murphy and his family are happy with this plan.”

The summary can be a concise recap of what you have presented beforehand or it can sometimes form a standalone presentation. Pick out salient points, such as positive findings—but also draw conclusions from what you highlight. Finish with a brief synopsis of the current situation (“currently pain free”) and next step (“awaiting cardiology review”). Do not trail off at the end, and state the diagnosis if you are confident you know what it is. If you are not sure what the diagnosis is then communicate this uncertainty and do not pretend to be more confident than you are. When possible, you should include the patient’s thoughts about the diagnosis, how they are feeling generally, and if they are happy with the management plan.

“In summary, Mr Murphy is a 56 year old man admitted with central crushing chest pain, radiating down his left arm, of 30 minutes’ duration. His cardiac risk factors include 20 pack year smoking history, positive family history, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Examination was normal other than tachycardia. However, 12 lead electrocardiography showed ST segment depression in the anterior leads and troponin rise from 85 to 250 µg/L. Acute coronary syndrome protocol was initiated and a diagnosis of NSTEMI [non-ST elevation myocardial infarction] was made. Mr Murphy is currently pain free and awaiting cardiology review.”

Originally published as: Student BMJ 2017;25:i4406

Competing interests: None declared.

Provenance and peer review: Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed

  • ↵ Green EH, Durning SJ, DeCherrie L, Fagan MJ, Sharpe B, Hershman W. Expectations for oral case presentations for clinical clerks: opinions of internal medicine clerkship directors. J Gen Intern Med 2009 ; 24 : 370 - 3 . doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0900-x   pmid:19139965 . OpenUrl CrossRef PubMed Web of Science
  • ↵ Olaitan A, Okunade O, Corne J. How to present clinical cases. Student BMJ 2010;18:c1539.
  • ↵ Gaillard F. The secret art of relevant negatives, Radiopedia 2016; http://radiopaedia.org/blog/the-secret-art-of-relevant-negatives .

how to present a mental health case study

International Journal of Mental Health Systems welcomes well-described Case studies. These will usually present a major programme intervention or policy option relevant to the journal field. Manuscripts that include a rigorous assessment of the processes and the impact of the study, as well as recommendations for the future, will generally be considered favourably.

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The information below details the section headings that you should include in your manuscript and what information should be within each section.

Please note that your manuscript must include a 'Declarations' section including all of the subheadings (please see below for more information).

Title page 

The title page should:

  • "A versus B in the treatment of C: a randomized controlled trial", "X is a risk factor for Y: a case control study", "What is the impact of factor X on subject Y: A systematic review, A case report etc."
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The Abstract should not exceed 350 words. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. The abstract must include the following separate sections:

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Case presentation

This section should include a description of the patient’s relevant demographic details, medical history, symptoms and signs, treatment or intervention, outcomes and any other significant details.

Discussion and Conclusions

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International Journal of Mental Health Systems

ISSN: 1752-4458

How to Write a Case Conceptualization: 10 Examples (+ PDF)

Case Conceptualization Examples

Such understanding can be developed by reading relevant records, meeting with clients face to face, and using assessments such as a mental status examination.

As you proceed, you are forming a guiding concept of who this client is, how they became who they are, and where their personal journey might be heading.

Such a guiding concept, which will shape any needed interventions, is called a case conceptualization, and we will examine various examples in this article.

Before you continue, we thought you might like to download our three Positive CBT Exercises for free . These science-based exercises will provide you with detailed insight into positive Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and give you the tools to apply it in your therapy or coaching.

This Article Contains:

What is a case conceptualization or formulation, 4 things to include in your case formulation, a helpful example & model, 3 samples of case formulations, 6 templates and worksheets for counselors, relevant resources from positivepsychology.com, a take-home message.

In psychology and related fields, a case conceptualization summarizes the key facts and findings from an evaluation to provide guidance for recommendations.

This is typically the evaluation of an individual, although you can extend the concept of case conceptualization to summarizing findings about a group or organization.

Based on the case conceptualization, recommendations can be made to improve a client’s self-care , mental status, job performance, etc (Sperry & Sperry, 2020).

Case Formulation

  • Summary of the client’s identifying information, referral questions, and timeline of important events or factors in their life . A timeline can be especially helpful in understanding how the client’s strengths and limitations have evolved.
  • Statement of the client’s core strengths . Identifying core strengths in the client’s life should help guide any recommendations, including how strengths might be used to offset limitations.
  • Statement concerning a client’s limitations or weaknesses . This will also help guide any recommendations. If a weakness is worth mentioning in a case conceptualization, it is worth writing a recommendation about it.

Note: As with mental status examinations , observations in this context concerning weaknesses are not value judgments, about whether the client is a good person, etc. The observations are clinical judgments meant to guide recommendations.

  • A summary of how the strengths, limitations, and other key information about a client inform diagnosis and prognosis .

You should briefly clarify how you arrived at a given diagnosis. For example, why do you believe a personality disorder is primary, rather than a major depressive disorder?

Many clinicians provide diagnoses in formal psychiatric terms, per the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) or Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Some clinicians will state a diagnosis in less formal terms that do not coincide exactly with ICD-10 or DSM-5 codes. What is arguably more important is that a diagnostic impression, formal or not, gives a clear sense of who the person is and the support they need to reach their goals.

Prognosis is a forecast about whether the client’s condition can be expected to improve, worsen, or remain stable. Prognosis can be difficult, as it often depends on unforeseeable factors. However, this should not keep you from offering a conservative opinion on a client’s expected course, provided treatment recommendations are followed.

how to present a mental health case study

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Based on the pointers for writing a case conceptualization above, an example for summarizing an adolescent case (in this instance, a counseling case for relieving depression and improving social skills) might read as follows.

Background and referral information

This is a 15-year-old Haitian–American youth, referred by his mother for concerns about self-isolation, depression, and poor social skills. He reportedly moved with his mother to the United States three years ago.

He reportedly misses his life and friends in Haiti. The mother states he has had difficulty adjusting socially in the United States, especially with peers. He has become increasingly self-isolating, appears sad and irritable, and has started to refuse to go to school.

His mother is very supportive and aware of his emotional–behavioral needs. The youth has been enrolled in a social skills group at school and has attended three sessions, with some reported benefit. He is agreeable to start individual counseling. He reportedly does well in school academically when he applies himself.


Behavioral form completed by his mother shows elevated depression scale (T score = 80). There is a milder elevation on the inattention scale (T score = 60), which suggests depression is more acute than inattention and might drive it.

He is also elevated on a scale measuring social skills and involvement (T score = 65). Here too, it is reasonable to assume that depression is driving social isolation and difficulty relating to peers, especially since while living in Haiti, he was reportedly quite social with peers.

Diagnostic impressions, treatment guidance, prognosis

This youth’s history, presentation on interview, and results of emotional–behavioral forms suggest some difficulty with depression, likely contributing to social isolation. As he has no prior reported history of depression, this is most likely a reaction to missing his former home and difficulty adjusting to his new school and peers.

Treatments should include individual counseling with an evidence-based approach such as Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). His counselor should consider emotional processing and social skills building as well.

Prognosis is favorable, with anticipated benefit apparent within 12 sessions of CBT.

How to write a case conceptualization: An outline

The following outline is necessarily general. It can be modified as needed, with points excluded or added, depending on the case.

  • Client’s gender, age, level of education, vocational status, marital status
  • Referred by whom, why, and for what type of service (e.g., testing, counseling, coaching)
  • In the spirit of strengths-based assessment, consider listing the client’s strengths first, before any limitations.
  • Consider the full range of positive factors supporting the client.
  • Physical health
  • Family support
  • Financial resources
  • Capacity to work
  • Resilience or other positive personality traits
  • Emotional stability
  • Cognitive strengths, per history and testing
  • The client’s limitations or relative weaknesses should be described in a way that highlights those most needing attention or treatment.
  • Medical conditions affecting daily functioning
  • Lack of family or other social support
  • Limited financial resources
  • Inability to find or hold suitable employment
  • Substance abuse or dependence
  • Proneness to interpersonal conflict
  • Emotional–behavioral problems, including anxious or depressive symptoms
  • Cognitive deficits, per history and testing
  • Diagnoses that are warranted can be given in either DSM-5 or ICD-10 terms.
  • There can be more than one diagnosis given. If that’s the case, consider describing these in terms of primary diagnosis, secondary diagnosis, etc.
  • The primary diagnosis should best encompass the client’s key symptoms or traits, best explain their behavior, or most need treatment.
  • Take care to avoid over-assigning multiple and potentially overlapping diagnoses.

When writing a case conceptualization, always keep in mind the timeline of significant events or factors in the examinee’s life.

  • Decide which events or factors are significant enough to include in a case conceptualization.
  • When these points are placed in a timeline, they help you understand how the person has evolved to become who they are now.
  • A good timeline can also help you understand which factors in a person’s life might be causative for others. For example, if a person has suffered a frontal head injury in the past year, this might help explain their changeable moods, presence of depressive disorder, etc.

Case Formulation Samples

Sample #1: Conceptualization for CBT case

This is a 35-year-old Caucasian man referred by his physician for treatment of generalized anxiety.

Strengths/supports in his case include willingness to engage in treatment, high average intelligence per recent cognitive testing, supportive family, and regular physical exercise (running).

Limiting factors include relatively low stress coping skills, frequent migraines (likely stress related), and relative social isolation (partly due to some anxiety about social skills).

The client’s presentation on interview and review of medical/psychiatric records show a history of chronic worry, including frequent worries about his wife’s health and his finances. He meets criteria for DSM-5 generalized anxiety disorder. He has also described occasional panic-type episodes, which do not currently meet full criteria for panic disorder but could develop into such without preventive therapy.

Treatments should include CBT for generalized anxiety, including keeping a worry journal; regular assessment of anxiety levels with Penn State Worry Questionnaire and/or Beck Anxiety Inventory; cognitive restructuring around negative beliefs that reinforce anxiety; and practice of relaxation techniques, such as progressive muscle relaxation and diaphragmatic breathing .

Prognosis is good, given the evidence for efficacy of CBT for anxiety disorders generally (Hofmann, Asnaani, Vonk, Sawyer, & Fang, 2012).

Sample #2: Conceptualization for DBT case

This 51-year-old Haitian–American woman is self-referred for depressive symptoms, including reported moods of “rage,” “sadness,” and “emptiness.” She says that many of her difficulties involve family, friends, and coworkers who regularly “disrespect” her and “plot against her behind her back.”

Her current psychiatrist has diagnosed her with personality disorder with borderline features, but she doubts the accuracy of this diagnosis.

Strengths/supports include a willingness to engage in treatment, highly developed and marketable computer programming skills, and engagement in leisure activities such as playing backgammon with friends.

Limiting factors include low stress coping skills, mild difficulties with attention and recent memory (likely due in part to depressive affect), and a tendency to self-medicate with alcohol when feeling depressed.

The client’s presentation on interview, review of medical/psychiatric records, and results of MMPI-2 personality inventory corroborate her psychiatrist’s diagnosis of borderline personality disorder.

The diagnosis is supported by a longstanding history of unstable identity, volatile personal relationships with fear of being abandoned, feelings of emptiness, reactive depressive disorder with suicidal gestures, and lack of insight into interpersonal difficulties that have resulted in her often stressed and depressive state.

Treatments should emphasize a DBT group that her psychiatrist has encouraged her to attend but to which she has not yet gone. There should also be regular individual counseling emphasizing DBT skills including mindfulness or present moment focus, building interpersonal skills, emotional regulation, and distress tolerance. There should be a counseling element for limiting alcohol use. Cognitive exercises are also recommended.

Of note, DBT is the only evidence-based treatment for borderline personality disorder (May, Richardi, & Barth, 2016). Prognosis is guardedly optimistic, provided she engages in both group and individual DBT treatments on a weekly basis, and these treatments continue without interruption for at least three months, with refresher sessions as needed.

Sample #3: Conceptualization in a family therapy case

This 45-year-old African-American woman was initially referred for individual therapy for “rapid mood swings” and a tendency to become embroiled in family conflicts. Several sessions of family therapy also appear indicated, and her psychiatrist concurs.

The client’s husband (50 years old) and son (25 years old, living with parents) were interviewed separately and together. When interviewed separately, her husband and son each indicated the client’s alcohol intake was “out of control,” and that she was consuming about six alcoholic beverages throughout the day, sometimes more.

Her husband and son each said the client was often too tired for household duties by the evening and often had rapid shifts in mood from happy to angry to “crying in her room.”

On individual interview, the client stated that her husband and son were each drinking about as much as she, that neither ever offered to help her with household duties, and that her son appeared unable to keep a job, which left him home most of the day, making demands on her for meals, etc.

On interview with the three family members, each acknowledged that the instances above were occurring at home, although father and son tended to blame most of the problems, including son’s difficulty maintaining employment, on the client and her drinking.

Strengths/supports in the family include a willingness of each member to engage in family sessions, awareness of supportive resources such as assistance for son’s job search, and a willingness by all to examine and reduce alcohol use by all family members as needed.

Limiting factors in this case include apparent tendency of all household members to drink to some excess, lack of insight by one or more family members as to how alcohol consumption is contributing to communication and other problems in the household, and a tendency by husband and son to make this client the family scapegoat.

The family dynamic can be conceptualized in this case through a DBT lens.

From this perspective, problems develop within the family when the environment is experienced by one or more members as invalidating and unsupportive. DBT skills with a nonjudgmental focus, active listening to others, reflecting each other’s feelings, and tolerance of distress in the moment should help to develop an environment that supports all family members and facilitates effective communication.

It appears that all family members in this case would benefit from engaging in the above DBT skills, to support and communicate with one another.

Prognosis is guardedly optimistic if family will engage in therapy with DBT elements for at least six sessions (with refresher sessions as needed).

Introduction to case conceptualization – Thomas Field

The following worksheets can be used for case conceptualization and planning.

  • Case Conceptualization Worksheet: Individual Counseling helps counselors develop a case conceptualization for individual clients.
  • Case Conceptualization Worksheet: Couples Counseling helps counselors develop a case conceptualization for couples.
  • Case Conceptualization Worksheet: Family Counseling helps counselors develop a case conceptualization for families.
  • Case Conceptualization and Action Plan: Individual Counseling helps clients facilitate conceptualization of their own case, at approximately six weeks into counseling and thereafter at appropriate intervals.
  • Case Conceptualization and Action Plan: Couples Counseling helps couples facilitate conceptualization of their own case, at approximately six weeks into counseling and thereafter at appropriate intervals.
  • Case Conceptualization and Action Plan: Family Counseling helps families facilitate conceptualization of their own case, at approximately six weeks into counseling and thereafter at appropriate intervals.

how to present a mental health case study

17 Science-Based Ways To Apply Positive CBT

These 17 Positive CBT & Cognitive Therapy Exercises [PDF] include our top-rated, ready-made templates for helping others develop more helpful thoughts and behaviors in response to challenges, while broadening the scope of traditional CBT.

Created by Experts. 100% Science-based.

The following resources can be found in the Positive Psychology Toolkit© , and their full versions can be accessed by a subscription.

Analyzing Strengths Use in Different Life Domains can help clients understand their notable strengths and which strengths can be used to more advantage in new contexts.

Family Strength Spotting is another relevant resource. Each family member fills out a worksheet detailing notable strengths of other family members. In reviewing all worksheets, each family member can gain a greater appreciation for other members’ strengths, note common or unique strengths, and determine how best to use these combined strengths to achieve family goals.

Four Front Assessment is another resource designed to help counselors conceptualize a case based on a client’s personal and environmental strengths and weaknesses. The idea behind this tool is that environmental factors in the broad sense, such as a supportive/unsupportive family, are too often overlooked in conceptualizing a case.

If you’re looking for more science-based ways to help others through CBT, check out this collection of 17 validated positive CBT tools for practitioners. Use them to help others overcome unhelpful thoughts and feelings and develop more positive behaviors.

In helping professions, success in working with clients depends first and foremost on how well you understand them.

This understanding is crystallized in a case conceptualization.

Case conceptualization helps answer key questions. Who is this client? How did they become who they are? What supports do they need to reach their goals?

The conceptualization itself depends on gathering all pertinent data on a given case, through record review, interview, behavioral observation, questionnaires completed by the client, etc.

Once the data is assembled, the counselor, coach, or other involved professional can focus on enumerating the client’s strengths, weaknesses, and limitations.

It is also often helpful to put the client’s strengths and limitations in a timeline so you can see how they have evolved and which factors might have contributed to the emergence of others.

Based on this in-depth understanding of the client, you can then tailor specific recommendations for enhancing their strengths, overcoming their weaknesses, and reaching their particular goals.

We hope you have enjoyed this discussion of how to conceptualize cases in the helping professions and that you will find some tools for doing so useful.

We hope you enjoyed reading this article. For more information, don’t forget to download our three Positive CBT Exercises for free .

  • Hofmann, S. G., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I. J., Sawyer, A. T., & Fang, A. (2012). The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy and Research , 36 (5), 427–440.
  • May, J. M., Richardi, T. M., & Barth, K. S. (2016). Dialectical behavior therapy as treatment for borderline personality disorder. The Mental Health Clinician , 6 (2), 62–67.
  • Sperry, L., & Sperry, J. (2020).  Case conceptualization: Mastering this competency with ease and confidence . Routledge.

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Blog Case Study

How to Present a Case Study like a Pro (With Examples)

By Danesh Ramuthi , Sep 07, 2023

How Present a Case Study like a Pro

Okay, let’s get real: case studies can be kinda snooze-worthy. But guess what? They don’t have to be!

In this article, I will cover every element that transforms a mere report into a compelling case study, from selecting the right metrics to using persuasive narrative techniques.

And if you’re feeling a little lost, don’t worry! There are cool tools like Venngage’s Case Study Creator to help you whip up something awesome, even if you’re short on time. Plus, the pre-designed case study templates are like instant polish because let’s be honest, everyone loves a shortcut.

Click to jump ahead: 

What is a case study presentation?

What is the purpose of presenting a case study, how to structure a case study presentation, how long should a case study presentation be, 5 case study presentation examples with templates, 6 tips for delivering an effective case study presentation, 5 common mistakes to avoid in a case study presentation, how to present a case study faqs.

A case study presentation involves a comprehensive examination of a specific subject, which could range from an individual, group, location, event, organization or phenomenon.

They’re like puzzles you get to solve with the audience, all while making you think outside the box.

Unlike a basic report or whitepaper, the purpose of a case study presentation is to stimulate critical thinking among the viewers. 

The primary objective of a case study is to provide an extensive and profound comprehension of the chosen topic. You don’t just throw numbers at your audience. You use examples and real-life cases to make you think and see things from different angles.

how to present a mental health case study

The primary purpose of presenting a case study is to offer a comprehensive, evidence-based argument that informs, persuades and engages your audience.

Here’s the juicy part: presenting that case study can be your secret weapon. Whether you’re pitching a groundbreaking idea to a room full of suits or trying to impress your professor with your A-game, a well-crafted case study can be the magic dust that sprinkles brilliance over your words.

Think of it like digging into a puzzle you can’t quite crack . A case study lets you explore every piece, turn it over and see how it fits together. This close-up look helps you understand the whole picture, not just a blurry snapshot.

It’s also your chance to showcase how you analyze things, step by step, until you reach a conclusion. It’s all about being open and honest about how you got there.

Besides, presenting a case study gives you an opportunity to connect data and real-world scenarios in a compelling narrative. It helps to make your argument more relatable and accessible, increasing its impact on your audience.

One of the contexts where case studies can be very helpful is during the job interview. In some job interviews, you as candidates may be asked to present a case study as part of the selection process.

Having a case study presentation prepared allows the candidate to demonstrate their ability to understand complex issues, formulate strategies and communicate their ideas effectively.

Case Study Example Psychology

The way you present a case study can make all the difference in how it’s received. A well-structured presentation not only holds the attention of your audience but also ensures that your key points are communicated clearly and effectively.

In this section, let’s go through the key steps that’ll help you structure your case study presentation for maximum impact.

Let’s get into it. 

Open with an introductory overview 

Start by introducing the subject of your case study and its relevance. Explain why this case study is important and who would benefit from the insights gained. This is your opportunity to grab your audience’s attention.

how to present a mental health case study

Explain the problem in question

Dive into the problem or challenge that the case study focuses on. Provide enough background information for the audience to understand the issue. If possible, quantify the problem using data or metrics to show the magnitude or severity.

how to present a mental health case study

Detail the solutions to solve the problem

After outlining the problem, describe the steps taken to find a solution. This could include the methodology, any experiments or tests performed and the options that were considered. Make sure to elaborate on why the final solution was chosen over the others.

how to present a mental health case study

Key stakeholders Involved

Talk about the individuals, groups or organizations that were directly impacted by or involved in the problem and its solution. 

Stakeholders may experience a range of outcomes—some may benefit, while others could face setbacks.

For example, in a business transformation case study, employees could face job relocations or changes in work culture, while shareholders might be looking at potential gains or losses.

Discuss the key results & outcomes

Discuss the results of implementing the solution. Use data and metrics to back up your statements. Did the solution meet its objectives? What impact did it have on the stakeholders? Be honest about any setbacks or areas for improvement as well.

how to present a mental health case study

Include visuals to support your analysis

Visual aids can be incredibly effective in helping your audience grasp complex issues. Utilize charts, graphs, images or video clips to supplement your points. Make sure to explain each visual and how it contributes to your overall argument.

Pie charts illustrate the proportion of different components within a whole, useful for visualizing market share, budget allocation or user demographics.

This is particularly useful especially if you’re displaying survey results in your case study presentation.

how to present a mental health case study

Stacked charts on the other hand are perfect for visualizing composition and trends. This is great for analyzing things like customer demographics, product breakdowns or budget allocation in your case study.

Consider this example of a stacked bar chart template. It provides a straightforward summary of the top-selling cake flavors across various locations, offering a quick and comprehensive view of the data.

how to present a mental health case study

Not the chart you’re looking for? Browse Venngage’s gallery of chart templates to find the perfect one that’ll captivate your audience and level up your data storytelling.

Recommendations and next steps

Wrap up by providing recommendations based on the case study findings. Outline the next steps that stakeholders should take to either expand on the success of the project or address any remaining challenges.

Acknowledgments and references

Thank the people who contributed to the case study and helped in the problem-solving process. Cite any external resources, reports or data sets that contributed to your analysis.

Feedback & Q&A session

Open the floor for questions and feedback from your audience. This allows for further discussion and can provide additional insights that may not have been considered previously.

Closing remarks

Conclude the presentation by summarizing the key points and emphasizing the takeaways. Thank your audience for their time and participation and express your willingness to engage in further discussions or collaborations on the subject.

how to present a mental health case study

Well, the length of a case study presentation can vary depending on the complexity of the topic and the needs of your audience. However, a typical business or academic presentation often lasts between 15 to 30 minutes. 

This time frame usually allows for a thorough explanation of the case while maintaining audience engagement. However, always consider leaving a few minutes at the end for a Q&A session to address any questions or clarify points made during the presentation.

When it comes to presenting a compelling case study, having a well-structured template can be a game-changer. 

It helps you organize your thoughts, data and findings in a coherent and visually pleasing manner. 

Not all case studies are created equal and different scenarios require distinct approaches for maximum impact. 

To save you time and effort, I have curated a list of 5 versatile case study presentation templates, each designed for specific needs and audiences. 

Here are some best case study presentation examples that showcase effective strategies for engaging your audience and conveying complex information clearly.

1 . Lab report case study template

Ever feel like your research gets lost in a world of endless numbers and jargon? Lab case studies are your way out!

Think of it as building a bridge between your cool experiment and everyone else. It’s more than just reporting results – it’s explaining the “why” and “how” in a way that grabs attention and makes sense.

This lap report template acts as a blueprint for your report, guiding you through each essential section (introduction, methods, results, etc.) in a logical order.

College Lab Report Template - Introduction

Want to present your research like a pro? Browse our research presentation template gallery for creative inspiration!

2. Product case study template

It’s time you ditch those boring slideshows and bullet points because I’ve got a better way to win over clients: product case study templates.

Instead of just listing features and benefits, you get to create a clear and concise story that shows potential clients exactly what your product can do for them. It’s like painting a picture they can easily visualize, helping them understand the value your product brings to the table.

Grab the template below, fill in the details, and watch as your product’s impact comes to life!

how to present a mental health case study

3. Content marketing case study template

In digital marketing, showcasing your accomplishments is as vital as achieving them. 

A well-crafted case study not only acts as a testament to your successes but can also serve as an instructional tool for others. 

With this coral content marketing case study template—a perfect blend of vibrant design and structured documentation, you can narrate your marketing triumphs effectively.

how to present a mental health case study

4. Case study psychology template

Understanding how people tick is one of psychology’s biggest quests and case studies are like magnifying glasses for the mind. They offer in-depth looks at real-life behaviors, emotions and thought processes, revealing fascinating insights into what makes us human.

Writing a top-notch case study, though, can be a challenge. It requires careful organization, clear presentation and meticulous attention to detail. That’s where a good case study psychology template comes in handy.

Think of it as a helpful guide, taking care of formatting and structure while you focus on the juicy content. No more wrestling with layouts or margins – just pour your research magic into crafting a compelling narrative.

how to present a mental health case study

5. Lead generation case study template

Lead generation can be a real head-scratcher. But here’s a little help: a lead generation case study.

Think of it like a friendly handshake and a confident resume all rolled into one. It’s your chance to showcase your expertise, share real-world successes and offer valuable insights. Potential clients get to see your track record, understand your approach and decide if you’re the right fit.

No need to start from scratch, though. This lead generation case study template guides you step-by-step through crafting a clear, compelling narrative that highlights your wins and offers actionable tips for others. Fill in the gaps with your specific data and strategies, and voilà! You’ve got a powerful tool to attract new customers.

Modern Lead Generation Business Case Study Presentation Template

Related: 15+ Professional Case Study Examples [Design Tips + Templates]

So, you’ve spent hours crafting the perfect case study and are now tasked with presenting it. Crafting the case study is only half the battle; delivering it effectively is equally important. 

Whether you’re facing a room of executives, academics or potential clients, how you present your findings can make a significant difference in how your work is received. 

Forget boring reports and snooze-inducing presentations! Let’s make your case study sing. Here are some key pointers to turn information into an engaging and persuasive performance:

  • Know your audience : Tailor your presentation to the knowledge level and interests of your audience. Remember to use language and examples that resonate with them.
  • Rehearse : Rehearsing your case study presentation is the key to a smooth delivery and for ensuring that you stay within the allotted time. Practice helps you fine-tune your pacing, hone your speaking skills with good word pronunciations and become comfortable with the material, leading to a more confident, conversational and effective presentation.
  • Start strong : Open with a compelling introduction that grabs your audience’s attention. You might want to use an interesting statistic, a provocative question or a brief story that sets the stage for your case study.
  • Be clear and concise : Avoid jargon and overly complex sentences. Get to the point quickly and stay focused on your objectives.
  • Use visual aids : Incorporate slides with graphics, charts or videos to supplement your verbal presentation. Make sure they are easy to read and understand.
  • Tell a story : Use storytelling techniques to make the case study more engaging. A well-told narrative can help you make complex data more relatable and easier to digest.

how to present a mental health case study

Ditching the dry reports and slide decks? Venngage’s case study templates let you wow customers with your solutions and gain insights to improve your business plan. Pre-built templates, visual magic and customer captivation – all just a click away. Go tell your story and watch them say “wow!”

Nailed your case study, but want to make your presentation even stronger? Avoid these common mistakes to ensure your audience gets the most out of it:

Overloading with information

A case study is not an encyclopedia. Overloading your presentation with excessive data, text or jargon can make it cumbersome and difficult for the audience to digest the key points. Stick to what’s essential and impactful. Need help making your data clear and impactful? Our data presentation templates can help! Find clear and engaging visuals to showcase your findings.

Lack of structure

Jumping haphazardly between points or topics can confuse your audience. A well-structured presentation, with a logical flow from introduction to conclusion, is crucial for effective communication.

Ignoring the audience

Different audiences have different needs and levels of understanding. Failing to adapt your presentation to your audience can result in a disconnect and a less impactful presentation.

Poor visual elements

While content is king, poor design or lack of visual elements can make your case study dull or hard to follow. Make sure you use high-quality images, graphs and other visual aids to support your narrative.

Not focusing on results

A case study aims to showcase a problem and its solution, but what most people care about are the results. Failing to highlight or adequately explain the outcomes can make your presentation fall flat.

How to start a case study presentation?

Starting a case study presentation effectively involves a few key steps:

  • Grab attention : Open with a hook—an intriguing statistic, a provocative question or a compelling visual—to engage your audience from the get-go.
  • Set the stage : Briefly introduce the subject, context and relevance of the case study to give your audience an idea of what to expect.
  • Outline objectives : Clearly state what the case study aims to achieve. Are you solving a problem, proving a point or showcasing a success?
  • Agenda : Give a quick outline of the key sections or topics you’ll cover to help the audience follow along.
  • Set expectations : Let your audience know what you want them to take away from the presentation, whether it’s knowledge, inspiration or a call to action.

How to present a case study on PowerPoint and on Google Slides?

Presenting a case study on PowerPoint and Google Slides involves a structured approach for clarity and impact using presentation slides :

  • Title slide : Start with a title slide that includes the name of the case study, your name and any relevant institutional affiliations.
  • Introduction : Follow with a slide that outlines the problem or situation your case study addresses. Include a hook to engage the audience.
  • Objectives : Clearly state the goals of the case study in a dedicated slide.
  • Findings : Use charts, graphs and bullet points to present your findings succinctly.
  • Analysis : Discuss what the findings mean, drawing on supporting data or secondary research as necessary.
  • Conclusion : Summarize key takeaways and results.
  • Q&A : End with a slide inviting questions from the audience.

What’s the role of analysis in a case study presentation?

The role of analysis in a case study presentation is to interpret the data and findings, providing context and meaning to them. 

It helps your audience understand the implications of the case study, connects the dots between the problem and the solution and may offer recommendations for future action.

Is it important to include real data and results in the presentation?

Yes, including real data and results in a case study presentation is crucial to show experience,  credibility and impact. Authentic data lends weight to your findings and conclusions, enabling the audience to trust your analysis and take your recommendations more seriously

How do I conclude a case study presentation effectively?

To conclude a case study presentation effectively, summarize the key findings, insights and recommendations in a clear and concise manner. 

End with a strong call-to-action or a thought-provoking question to leave a lasting impression on your audience.

What’s the best way to showcase data in a case study presentation ?

The best way to showcase data in a case study presentation is through visual aids like charts, graphs and infographics which make complex information easily digestible, engaging and creative. 

Don’t just report results, visualize them! This template for example lets you transform your social media case study into a captivating infographic that sparks conversation.

how to present a mental health case study

Choose the type of visual that best represents the data you’re showing; for example, use bar charts for comparisons or pie charts for parts of a whole. 

Ensure that the visuals are high-quality and clearly labeled, so the audience can quickly grasp the key points. 

Keep the design consistent and simple, avoiding clutter or overly complex visuals that could distract from the message.

Choose a template that perfectly suits your case study where you can utilize different visual aids for maximum impact. 

Need more inspiration on how to turn numbers into impact with the help of infographics? Our ready-to-use infographic templates take the guesswork out of creating visual impact for your case studies with just a few clicks.

Related: 10+ Case Study Infographic Templates That Convert

Congrats on mastering the art of compelling case study presentations! This guide has equipped you with all the essentials, from structure and nuances to avoiding common pitfalls. You’re ready to impress any audience, whether in the boardroom, the classroom or beyond.

And remember, you’re not alone in this journey. Venngage’s Case Study Creator is your trusty companion, ready to elevate your presentations from ordinary to extraordinary. So, let your confidence shine, leverage your newly acquired skills and prepare to deliver presentations that truly resonate.

Go forth and make a lasting impact!

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Mental Health Clinical Case

Mental health clinical case presentation, free google slides theme and powerpoint template.

Treating psychological and psychiatric conditions is quite important, as they affect our health to a large stent. To learn more about them, use this Mental Health Clinical Case presentation and give some info about case reports, using diagrams, tables, maps… Provide details about the patient, diagnosis, treatment or even the diagnosis.

Features of this template

  • An asymmetrical design that combines blue and pink
  • 28 different slides to impress your audience
  • Contains easy-to-edit graphics such as tables, charts, diagrams and maps
  • Includes 500+ icons and Flaticon’s extension for customizing your slides
  • Designed to be used in Google Slides and Microsoft PowerPoint
  • 16:9 widescreen format suitable for all types of screens
  • Includes information about fonts, colors, and credits of the free resources used

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143 Case Studies: Real Stories Of People Overcoming Struggles of Mental Health

At Tracking Happiness, we’re dedicated to helping others around the world overcome struggles of mental health.

In 2022, we published a survey of 5,521 respondents and found:

  • 88% of our respondents experienced mental health issues in the past year.
  • 25% of people don’t feel comfortable sharing their struggles with anyone, not even their closest friends.

In order to break the stigma that surrounds mental health struggles, we’re looking to share your stories.

Overcoming struggles

They say that everyone you meet is engaged in a great struggle. No matter how well someone manages to hide it, there’s always something to overcome, a struggle to deal with, an obstacle to climb.

And when someone is engaged in a struggle, that person is looking for others to join him. Because we, as human beings, don’t thrive when we feel alone in facing a struggle.

Let’s throw rocks together

Overcoming your struggles is like defeating an angry giant. You try to throw rocks at it, but how much damage is one little rock gonna do?

Tracking Happiness can become your partner in facing this giant. We are on a mission to share all your stories of overcoming mental health struggles. By doing so, we want to help inspire you to overcome the things that you’re struggling with, while also breaking the stigma of mental health.

Which explains the phrase: “Let’s throw rocks together”.

Let’s throw rocks together, and become better at overcoming our struggles collectively. If you’re interested in becoming a part of this and sharing your story, click this link!

Nicole Miller Featured Image

Case studies

April 11, 2024

How a Mindset Change Helped Me Break Free From Childhood Trauma and Toxicity

“My mother said she wanted to end it in bloodshed and she waited for him to come home from his late-night meeting. She thought better of it when he was late arriving home. She was overwhelmed with thoughts of her in prison and me in foster care. To say that she made the right decision in achieving the goal of a good life is an answer I struggled to answer for many years.”

Struggled with: Abuse Anxiety Childhood CPTSD Depression

Helped by: Mindfulness Reinventing yourself Self-improvement Therapy

Kristin Addis Featured Image

April 9, 2024

Healing From Postpartum Depression With Therapy, Friends & Exercise

“I wasn’t sure how to feel better for a while. People talk about ‘getting help’ but that’s a blanket term and unfortunately it’s not a band-aid you can just put on and suddenly be yourself again. It takes time to find the right therapist, medication if that’s what you decide to do, to find a new rhythm with family, and in my case, I really needed friends locally.”

Struggled with: Postpartum depression

Helped by: Exercise Social support Therapy

Steven Shags Shagrin Featured Image

April 4, 2024

My Journey from Loneliness and Isolation to Creating an Online Haven for Seniors

“When one is home alone, all day, with nothing to do, nobody to speak with, stuck with their thoughts both good and bad, it’s easy to slip back into a depressive state. Feeling unneeded, unwanted, no happiness, no joy, no reason to get out of bed – just suffering with “the blahs”.”

Struggled with: Depression Loneliness

Helped by: Self-improvement Social support

Aaron Burros Featured Image

April 2, 2024

Surviving a Workplace Shooting and Navigating PTSD, Insomnia With Marathons and Prayers

“My symptoms began immediately following a workplace shooting on Saturday, November 28, 2015, and were exasperated due to the activity of the company, the criminals, and the cops. The company treated me as if I were a criminal, the criminals attempted to kill me three additional times, and the cops (Houston Police Department Organized Crime Unit) treated me as if I was a thorn in their flesh.”

Struggled with: Depression Insomnia PTSD Stress

Helped by: Exercise Religion Treatment Volunteering

Stacey Powells Featured Image

March 28, 2024

How The Support of Others Helped Me Heal After a Mental Breakdown

“I do not recommend having a breakdown when trying to raise boys. I would cry, eat all the time, and feel like my brain was full of fuzz. I could barely function. There was that day when I got home from taking the kids to school, and thought to myself that if there was a gun in the house, someone else would have had to pick them up from school that day.”

Struggled with: Depression Divorce Stress

Helped by: Journaling Social support Therapy

Maggie Winzeler Featured Image

March 26, 2024

Journaling and Therapy Helped Me After Surviving a Car Accident and a Late Pregnancy Loss

“I vividly remember one day a few months after getting hit by the car when I wondered if my life would ever feel peaceful, pain-free, or joyful again. I was simply getting in and out of the passenger seat of a vehicle, my whole body gripped with pain and stiffness when I experienced a flash of fear that my health would never improve.”

Struggled with: Chronic pain Depression Grief PTSD

Helped by: Journaling Therapy

Scott Lipinoga Featured Image

March 21, 2024

From the C-Suites to the Streets and Back – Overcoming Addiction, Anxiety, Depression and PTSD

“Over the past decade, I have struggled with substance abuse immensely leading to anxiety, depression, and PTSD. After losing thirteen corporate jobs and ending up homeless, beaten up, and absolutely broken on the streets I have finally come to terms with my situation and am finding a path towards long-term sobriety and happiness.”

Struggled with: Addiction Anxiety Depression PTSD

Helped by: Mindfulness Rehab Religion Self-improvement Social support

Marina Featured Image

March 19, 2024

My Journey to Self-Compassion Amidst Depression, Anxiety and Suicidal Thoughts

“This suicidal edge coupled with stress, anxiety, and loneliness made me stop working as a human being. In just two months I had spiraled down into the darkest hole which has ever existed for me. There didn’t exist Marina anymore, merely a depressive and neurotic copy of her, who was unable to laugh and sleep.”

Struggled with: Anxiety Depression Panic attacks Stress Suicidal

Helped by: Self-acceptance Self-improvement Therapy

Michael Baldwin Featured Image

March 14, 2024

How EMDR Therapy Helped Me Navigate Childhood Trauma and Rediscover Myself

“As my anxiety levels grew, I turned to alcohol and then combined that with Vicodin to fend off the bad feelings. I would drink to the point of blacking out on a regular basis, sometimes never knowing how I got home.”

Struggled with: Abuse Addiction Bullying Childhood CPTSD

Helped by: Reinventing yourself Therapy

how to present a mental health case study

March 12, 2024

How Self-Care and My Infrared Sauna Blanket Help Me Navigate CPTSD and Fascia Pain

“I’m sure that other people around me knew that I was struggling, but I only shared this with a couple of people. People in my immediate physical ecosphere didn’t offer up any kind of empathy either. In fact, the exact opposite. Which I think made the condition even worse.”

Struggled with: Chronic pain CPTSD

Helped by: Journaling Meditation Self-Care

Module 13: Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence

Case studies: disorders of childhood and adolescence, learning objectives.

  • Identify disorders of childhood and adolescence in case studies

Case Study: Jake

A young boy making an angry face at the camera.

Jake was born at full term and was described as a quiet baby. In the first three months of his life, his mother became worried as he was unresponsive to cuddles and hugs. He also never cried. He has no friends and, on occasions, he has been victimized by bullying at school and in the community. His father is 44 years old and describes having had a difficult childhood; he is characterized by the family as indifferent to the children’s problems and verbally violent towards his wife and son, but less so to his daughters. The mother is 41 years old, and describes herself as having a close relationship with her children and mentioned that she usually covers up for Jake’s difficulties and makes excuses for his violent outbursts. [1]

During his stay (for two and a half months) in the inpatient unit, Jake underwent psychiatric and pediatric assessments plus occupational therapy. He took part in the unit’s psycho-educational activities and was started on risperidone, two mg daily. Risperidone was preferred over an anti-ADHD agent because his behavioral problems prevailed and thus were the main target of treatment. In addition, his behavioral problems had undoubtedly influenced his functionality and mainly his relations with parents, siblings, peers, teachers, and others. Risperidone was also preferred over other atypical antipsychotics for its safe profile and fewer side effects. Family meetings were held regularly, and parental and family support along with psycho-education were the main goals. Jake was aided in recognizing his own emotions and conveying them to others as well as in learning how to recognize the emotions of others and to become aware of the consequences of his actions. Improvement was made in rule setting and boundary adherence. Since his discharge, he received regular psychiatric follow-up and continues with the medication and the occupational therapy. Supportive and advisory work is done with the parents. Marked improvement has been noticed regarding his social behavior and behavior during activity as described by all concerned. Occasional anger outbursts of smaller intensity and frequency have been reported, but seem more manageable by the child with the support of his mother and teachers.

In the case presented here, the history of abuse by the parents, the disrupted family relations, the bullying by his peers, the educational difficulties, and the poor SES could be identified as additional risk factors relating to a bad prognosis. Good prognostic factors would include the ending of the abuse after intervention, the child’s encouragement and support from parents and teachers, and the improvement of parental relations as a result of parent training and family support by mental health professionals. Taken together, it appears that also in the case of psychiatric patients presenting with complex genetic aberrations and additional psychosocial problems, traditional psychiatric and psychological approaches can lead to a decrease of symptoms and improved functioning.

Case Study: Kelli

A girl sitting with a book open in front of her. She wears a frustrated expression.

Kelli may benefit from a course of comprehensive behavioral intervention for her tics in addition to psychotherapy to treat any comorbid depression she experiences from isolation and bullying at school. Psychoeducation and approaches to reduce stigma will also likely be very helpful for both her and her family, as well as bringing awareness to her school and those involved in her education.

  • Kolaitis, G., Bouwkamp, C.G., Papakonstantinou, A. et al. A boy with conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), borderline intellectual disability, and 47,XXY syndrome in combination with a 7q11.23 duplication, 11p15.5 deletion, and 20q13.33 deletion. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 10, 33 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-016-0121-8 ↵
  • Case Study: Childhood and Adolescence. Authored by : Chrissy Hicks for Lumen Learning. Provided by : Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution
  • A boy with conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), borderline intellectual disability.... Authored by : Gerasimos Kolaitis, Christian G. Bouwkamp, Alexia Papakonstantinou, Ioanna Otheiti, Maria Belivanaki, Styliani Haritaki, Terpsihori Korpa, Zinovia Albani, Elena Terzioglou, Polyxeni Apostola, Aggeliki Skamnaki, Athena Xaidara, Konstantina Kosma, Sophia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis . Provided by : Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health. Located at : https://capmh.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13034-016-0121-8 . License : CC BY: Attribution
  • Angry boy. Located at : https://www.pxfuel.com/en/free-photo-jojfk . License : Public Domain: No Known Copyright
  • Frustrated girl. Located at : https://www.pickpik.com/book-bored-college-education-female-girl-1717 . License : Public Domain: No Known Copyright

Footer Logo Lumen Waymaker

  • Children's mental health case studies
  • Food, health and nutrition
  • Mental wellbeing
  • Mental health

Explore the experiences of children and families with these interdisciplinary case studies. Designed to help professionals and students explore the strengths and needs of children and their families, each case presents a detailed situation, related research, problem-solving questions and feedback for the user. Use these cases on your own or in classes and training events

Each case study:

  • Explores the experiences of a child and family over time.
  • Introduces theories, research and practice ideas about children's mental health.
  • Shows the needs of a child at specific stages of development.
  • Invites users to “try on the hat” of different specific professionals.

By completing a case study participants will:

  • Examine the needs of children from an interdisciplinary perspective.
  • Recognize the importance of prevention/early intervention in children’s mental health.
  • Apply ecological and developmental perspectives to children’s mental health.
  • Predict probable outcomes for children based on services they receive.

Case studies prompt users to practice making decisions that are:

  • Research-based.
  • Practice-based.
  • Best to meet a child and family's needs in that moment.

Children’s mental health service delivery systems often face significant challenges.

  • Services can be disconnected and hard to access.
  • Stigma can prevent people from seeking help.
  • Parents, teachers and other direct providers can become overwhelmed with piecing together a system of care that meets the needs of an individual child.
  • Professionals can be unaware of the theories and perspectives under which others serving the same family work
  • Professionals may face challenges doing interdisciplinary work.
  • Limited funding promotes competition between organizations trying to serve families.

These case studies help explore life-like mental health situations and decision-making. Case studies introduce characters with history, relationships and real-life problems. They offer users the opportunity to:

  • Examine all these details, as well as pertinent research.
  • Make informed decisions about intervention based on the available information.

The case study also allows users to see how preventive decisions can change outcomes later on. At every step, the case content and learning format encourages users to review the research to inform their decisions.

Each case study emphasizes the need to consider a growing child within ecological, developmental, and interdisciplinary frameworks.

  • Ecological approaches consider all the levels of influence on a child.
  • Developmental approaches recognize that children are constantly growing and developing. They may learn some things before other things.
  • Interdisciplinary perspectives recognize that the needs of children will not be met within the perspectives and theories of a single discipline.

There are currently two different case students available. Each case study reflects a set of themes that the child and family experience.

The About Steven case study addresses:

  • Adolescent depression.
  • School mental health.
  • Rural mental health services.
  • Social/emotional development.

The Brianna and Tanya case study reflects themes of:

  • Infant and early childhood mental health.
  • Educational disparities.
  • Trauma and toxic stress.
  • Financial insecurity.
  • Intergenerational issues.

The case studies are designed with many audiences in mind:

Practitioners from a variety of fields. This includes social work, education, nursing, public health, mental health, and others.

Professionals in training, including those attending graduate or undergraduate classes.

The broader community.

Each case is based on the research, theories, practices and perspectives of people in all these areas. The case studies emphasize the importance of considering an interdisciplinary framework. Children’s needs cannot be met within the perspective of a single discipline.

The complex problems children face need solutions that integrate many and diverse ways of knowing. The case studies also help everyone better understand the mental health needs of children. We all have a role to play.

These case has been piloted within:

Graduate and undergraduate courses.

Discipline-specific and interdisciplinary settings.

Professional organizations.

Currently, the case studies are being offered to instructors and their staff and students in graduate and undergraduate level courses. They are designed to supplement existing course curricula.

Instructors have used the case study effectively by:

  • Assigning the entire case at one time as homework. This is followed by in-class discussion or a reflective writing assignment relevant to a course.
  • Assigning sections of the case throughout the course. Instructors then require students to prepare for in-class discussion pertinent to that section.
  • Creating writing, research or presentation assignments based on specific sections of course content.
  • Focusing on a specific theme present in the case that is pertinent to the course. Instructors use this as a launching point for deeper study.
  • Constructing other in-class creative experiences with the case.
  • Collaborating with other instructors to hold interdisciplinary discussions about the case.

To get started with a particular case, visit the related web page and follow the instructions to register. Once you register as an instructor, you will receive information for your co-instructors, teaching assistants and students. Get more information on the following web pages.

  • Brianna and Tanya: A case study about infant and early childhood mental health
  • About Steven: A children’s mental health case study about depression

Cari Michaels, Extension educator

Reviewed in 2023

© 2024 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer.

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Patient Case #1: 27-Year-Old Woman With Bipolar Disorder

  • Theresa Cerulli, MD
  • Tina Matthews-Hayes, DNP, FNP, PMHNP

Custom Around the Practice Video Series

Experts in psychiatry review the case of a 27-year-old woman who presents for evaluation of a complex depressive disorder.

how to present a mental health case study

EP: 1 . Patient Case #1: 27-Year-Old Woman With Bipolar Disorder

Ep: 2 . clinical significance of bipolar disorder, ep: 3 . clinical impressions from patient case #1, ep: 4 . diagnosis of bipolar disorder, ep: 5 . treatment options for bipolar disorder, ep: 6 . patient case #2: 47-year-old man with treatment resistant depression (trd), ep: 7 . patient case #2 continued: novel second-generation antipsychotics, ep: 8 . role of telemedicine in bipolar disorder.

Michael E. Thase, MD : Hello and welcome to this Psychiatric Times™ Around the Practice , “Identification and Management of Bipolar Disorder. ”I’m Michael Thase, professor of psychiatry at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Joining me today are: Dr Gustavo Alva, the medical director of ATP Clinical Research in Costa Mesa, California; Dr Theresa Cerulli, the medical director of Cerulli and Associates in North Andover, Massachusetts; and Dr Tina Matthew-Hayes, a dual-certified nurse practitioner at Western PA Behavioral Health Resources in West Mifflin, Pennsylvania.

Today we are going to highlight challenges with identifying bipolar disorder, discuss strategies for optimizing treatment, comment on telehealth utilization, and walk through 2 interesting patient cases. We’ll also involve our audience by using several polling questions, and these results will be shared after the program.

Without further ado, welcome and let’s begin. Here’s our first polling question. What percentage of your patients with bipolar disorder have 1 or more co-occurring psychiatric condition? a. 10%, b. 10%-30%, c. 30%-50%, d. 50%-70%, or e. more than 70%.

Now, here’s our second polling question. What percentage of your referred patients with bipolar disorder were initially misdiagnosed? Would you say a. less than 10%, b. 10%-30%, c. 30%-50%, d. more than 50%, up to 70%, or e. greater than 70%.

We’re going to go ahead to patient case No. 1. This is a 27-year-old woman who’s presented for evaluation of a complex depressive syndrome. She has not benefitted from 2 recent trials of antidepressants—sertraline and escitalopram. This is her third lifetime depressive episode. It began back in the fall, and she described the episode as occurring right “out of the blue.” Further discussion revealed, however, that she had talked with several confidantes about her problems and that she realized she had been disappointed and frustrated for being passed over unfairly for a promotion at work. She had also been saddened by the unusually early death of her favorite aunt.

Now, our patient has a past history of ADHD [attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder], which was recognized when she was in middle school and for which she took methylphenidate for adolescence and much of her young adult life. As she was wrapping up with college, she decided that this medication sometimes disrupted her sleep and gave her an irritable edge, and decided that she might be better off not taking it. Her medical history was unremarkable. She is taking escitalopram at the time of our initial evaluation, and the dose was just reduced by her PCP [primary care physician]from 20 mg to 10 mg because she subjectively thought the medicine might actually be making her worse.

On the day of her first visit, we get a PHQ-9 [9-item Patient Health Questionnaire]. The score is 16, which is in the moderate depression range. She filled out the MDQ [Mood Disorder Questionnaire] and scored a whopping 10, which is not the highest possible score but it is higher than 95% of people who take this inventory.

At the time of our interview, our patient tells us that her No. 1 symptom is her low mood and her ease to tears. In fact, she was tearful during the interview. She also reports that her normal trouble concentrating, attributable to the ADHD, is actually substantially worse. Additionally, in contrast to her usual diet, she has a tendency to overeat and may have gained as much as 5 kg over the last 4 months. She reports an irregular sleep cycle and tends to have periods of hypersomnolence, especially on the weekends, and then days on end where she might sleep only 4 hours a night despite feeling tired.

Upon examination, her mood is positively reactive, and by that I mean she can lift her spirits in conversation, show some preserved sense of humor, and does not appear as severely depressed as she subjectively describes. Furthermore, she would say that in contrast to other times in her life when she’s been depressed, that she’s actually had no loss of libido, and in fact her libido might even be somewhat increased. Over the last month or so, she’s had several uncharacteristic casual hook-ups.

So the differential diagnosis for this patient included major depressive disorder, recurrent unipolar with mixed features, versus bipolar II disorder, with an antecedent history of ADHD. I think the high MDQ score and recurrent threshold level of mixed symptoms within a diagnosable depressive episode certainly increase the chances that this patient’s illness should be thought of on the bipolar spectrum. Of course, this formulation is strengthened by the fact that she has an early age of onset of recurrent depression, that her current episode, despite having mixed features, has reverse vegetative features as well. We also have the observation that antidepressant therapy has seemed to make her condition worse, not better.

Transcript Edited for Clarity

Dr. Thase is a professor of psychiatry at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Dr. Alva is the medical director of ATP Clinical Research in Costa Mesa, California.

Dr. Cerulli is the medical director of Cerulli and Associates in Andover, Massachusetts.

Dr. Tina Matthew-Hayes is a dual certified nurse practitioner at Western PA Behavioral Health Resources in West Mifflin, Pennsylvania.


The Week in Review: April 1-5

Blue Light, Depression, and Bipolar Disorder

Blue Light, Depression, and Bipolar Disorder

Our Mood Disorders Section Editor discusses the disorder in honor of World Bipolar Day.

An Update on Bipolar I Disorder

Four Myths About Lamotrigine

Four Myths About Lamotrigine

Here’s a look back at selections from our March content series on mood disorders.

Recap: Mood Disorders 2024

Expiring on May 20, 2024, this CME discusses how to apply several novel treatment approaches in the treatment of patients with bipolar depression. Here are 5 key takeaways.

Evidence-Based Novel Therapies for Bipolar Depression: Top 5 Takeaways

2 Commerce Drive Cranbury, NJ 08512


how to present a mental health case study

Mental Health and Wellbeing Resources for Students at Harvard

We hope that you find these resources to be helpful:

  • The Mental Health and Wellbeing Online Learning Module equips students with information and tips on ways to support individual wellbeing, where to seek help when needed, and how to help a friend in need.
  • Counseling and Mental Health Services (CAMHS) provides direct support.  One example of the resources we provide is the recently launched TimelyCare virtual platform , which offers each student up to 12 telehealth therapy sessions per academic year.
  • The Center for Wellness and Health Promotion offers workshops and other services to nurture individual and collective wellbeing.
  • The Student Wellbeing at Harvard website offers additional resources and opportunities to help students prioritize and expand wellbeing , engage in the campus community, and find support when needed.
  • The Harvard Chan Office for Students also has some resource listings as well

News from the School

Bethany Kotlar, PhD '24, studies how children fare when they're born to incarcerated mothers

Bethany Kotlar, PhD '24, studies how children fare when they're born to incarcerated mothers

Soccer, truffles, and exclamation points: Dean Baccarelli shares his story

Soccer, truffles, and exclamation points: Dean Baccarelli shares his story

Health care transformation in Africa highlighted at conference

Health care transformation in Africa highlighted at conference

COVID, four years in

COVID, four years in


Accumulating harm and waiting for crisis: Parents perspectives of accessing Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services for their autistic child experiencing mental health difficulties

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  • ORCID record for Emma Ashworth
  • For correspondence: [email protected]
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  • ORCID record for Georgia Pavlopoulou
  • ORCID record for David Moore
  • ORCID record for Bethany Donaghy
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Background Autistic children and young people are at increased risk of mental health difficulties, but often face barriers when seeking help from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). There is limited literature exploring the accessibility of CAMHS for autistic young people, particularly from parents perspectives. The present study aimed to 1) explore the experiences of parents/carers seeking help from CAMHS for their autistic childs mental health difficulties, and 2) gain parents perceptions of the accessibility of CAMHS support for their child and understand what could be improved. Methods A mixed-methods survey design was used to learn from parents/carers. 300 parents/carers took part from across the UK between June and October 2023. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and qualitative data using qualitative content analysis. Results Findings demonstrated the ongoing struggles that parents/carers faced when seeking professional help from CAMHS for their child. Many were not referred to CAMHS or were rejected without an assessment, often due to issues relating to diagnostic overshadowing, a high threshold for assessment, or a lack of professional knowledge about autism and care pathways. Those who were referred reported a lack of reasonable adjustments and offers of ineffective or inappropriate therapies, leaving young people unable to engage, and thus not benefiting. Ultimately, parents felt their childs mental health difficulties either did not improve or declined to the point of crisis. However, there was a recognition that some professionals were kind and compassionate, and provided the validation that parents needed. Conclusions There is a need for a more neuro-inclusive and personalised approach in CAMHS, from the professionals themselves, in the adjustments that are offered, and in the therapies that are provided. Further research, funding, and training are urgently needed to ensure mental health support is accessible, timely, and effective for autistic CYP.

Competing Interest Statement

The authors have declared no competing interest.

Funding Statement

This study did not receive any funding.

Author Declarations

I confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.

The details of the IRB/oversight body that provided approval or exemption for the research described are given below:

Ethics committee of Liverpool John Moores University gave ethical approval for this work (reference: 23/PSY/046).

I confirm that all necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived, and that any patient/participant/sample identifiers included were not known to anyone (e.g., hospital staff, patients or participants themselves) outside the research group so cannot be used to identify individuals.

I understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).

I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines, such as any relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material, if applicable.

Data Availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author. The data are not publicly available due to privacy or ethical restrictions.

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  1. Case presentation in academic psychiatry: The clinical applications

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    Include a completed CCD with the case write -up. PART FOUR: THE CASE CONCEPTUALIZATION SUMMARY HISTORY OF CURRENT ILLNESS, PRECIPITANTS AND LIFE STRESSORS: The first occurrence of Abe's psychiatric symptoms began 2 ½ years ago when Abe began to display mild depressive and anxious symptoms. The precipitant was difficulty at work; his new boss

  3. Case Examples

    Sara, a 35-year-old married female. Sara was referred to treatment after having a stillbirth. Sara showed symptoms of grief, or complicated bereavement, and was diagnosed with major depression, recurrent. The clinician recommended interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for a duration of 12 weeks. Bleiberg, K.L., & Markowitz, J.C. (2008).

  4. Case Study: Definition, Examples, Types, and How to Write

    A case study is an in-depth analysis of one individual or group. Learn more about how to write a case study, including tips and examples, and its importance in psychology. ... Her case played an important part in the development of talk therapy as an approach to mental health treatment. ... The first section of your paper will present your ...

  5. Case Presentation Format

    Case Presentation Flow. My role with the patient is _ and my question is about _. I am working with a _ year-old _ (cis, trans, male, female, non-binary, etc.) patient with a psychiatric history of _, a medical history of _, and a substance use history of _. Their medications are _. They are presenting with symptoms that include _.

  6. Case 28-2021: A 37-Year-Old Woman with Covid-19 and Suicidal Ideation

    Dr. SooJeong Youn: This case highlights the importance of attending to the intricate, multilevel, systemic factors that affect the mental health experience and clinical presentation of patients ...

  7. How to present patient cases

    Presenting patient cases is a key part of everyday clinical practice. A well delivered presentation has the potential to facilitate patient care and improve efficiency on ward rounds, as well as a means of teaching and assessing clinical competence. 1 The purpose of a case presentation is to communicate your diagnostic reasoning to the listener, so that he or she has a clear picture of the ...

  8. PDF Guidelines for Oral Case Presentation

    Guidelines for Oral Case Presentation The purpose of case presentations is to provide opportunities for interactive group feedback. Prior to our meeting, organize information about the selected client and your experiences with him/her. You may share this information orally or in writing. Please plan to share a brief audio or video segment as ...


    Behavioral Health Case Presentation Template. DO NOT INCLUDE ANY PATIENT IDENTIFIERS. Please note that case consultations do not create or otherwise establish a provider-patient relationship between any Piedmont Health Services or UNC Health clinician. Presenter name: Juan Prandoni, PhD, HSP-PA, LPA. Presenter Clinical Role:

  10. Case study

    Criteria. International Journal of Mental Health Systems welcomes well-described Case studies. These will usually present a major programme intervention or policy option relevant to the journal field. Manuscripts that include a rigorous assessment of the processes and the impact of the study, as well as recommendations for the future, will ...

  11. A Case Study Approach to Mental Health Recovery: Understanding the

    This case study offers important implications regarding the importance of trauma-informed care in the field of mental health. Discover the world's research 25+ million members

  12. How to Write a Case Conceptualization: 10 Examples (+ PDF)

    Sample #3: Conceptualization in a family therapy case. This 45-year-old African-American woman was initially referred for individual therapy for "rapid mood swings" and a tendency to become embroiled in family conflicts. Several sessions of family therapy also appear indicated, and her psychiatrist concurs.

  13. How to Present a Case Study like a Pro (With Examples)

    To save you time and effort, I have curated a list of 5 versatile case study presentation templates, each designed for specific needs and audiences. Here are some best case study presentation examples that showcase effective strategies for engaging your audience and conveying complex information clearly. 1. Lab report case study template.

  14. Mental Health Clinical Case Presentation

    Free Google Slides theme and PowerPoint template. Treating psychological and psychiatric conditions is quite important, as they affect our health to a large stent. To learn more about them, use this Mental Health Clinical Case presentation and give some info about case reports, using diagrams, tables, maps…. Provide details about the patient ...

  15. 143 Case Studies: Real Stories Of People Overcoming Struggles of Mental

    At Tracking Happiness, we're dedicated to helping others around the world overcome struggles of mental health. In 2022, we published a survey of 5,521 respondents and found: 88% of our respondents experienced mental health issues in the past year. 25% of people don't feel comfortable sharing their struggles with anyone, not even their ...

  16. Case presentation in academic psychiatry: The clinical appli ...

    INTRODUCTION. Case presentation in an academic psychiatry traditionally follows one of the following three formats: 4DP format (ideal and lengthy format; described in the following section), "Case Summary" (CS) (medium format), or "Case Formulation" (CF) (short format), in order of the decreasing length, duration, and the gradual transition from the use of layman terms (in the history ...

  17. Case Studies: Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence

    Case Study: Kelli. A 15-year-old girl, Kelli, is referred to a neurologist due to unexplained symptoms of involuntary, uncontrollable behavior that includes eye-blinking, shoulder shrugging, frequent throat clearing, and randomly moving her arm around in circles. These symptoms have been present since she was in preschool and have increased in ...


    HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS: Abe developed depressive and anxious symptoms 2 ½ years ago. His symptoms gradually worsened and turned into a major depressive episode about 2 years ago. Since that time, symptoms of depression and anxiety have remained consistently elevated without any periods of remission.

  19. Children's mental health case studies

    Mental health. Children's mental health case studies. Explore the experiences of children and families with these interdisciplinary case studies. Designed to help professionals and students explore the strengths and needs of children and their families, each case presents a detailed situation, related research, problem-solving questions and ...

  20. Patient Case #1: 27-Year-Old Woman With Bipolar Disorder

    We're going to go ahead to patient case No. 1. This is a 27-year-old woman who's presented for evaluation of a complex depressive syndrome. She has not benefitted from 2 recent trials of antidepressants—sertraline and escitalopram. This is her third lifetime depressive episode.

  21. Mental Health and Wellbeing Resources for Students at Harvard

    We hope that you find these resources to be helpful: The Mental Health and Wellbeing Online Learning Module equips students with information and tips on ways to support individual wellbeing, where to seek help when needed, and how to help a friend in need.; Counseling and Mental Health Services (CAMHS) provides direct support. One example of the resources we provide is the recently launched ...

  22. How to Write a Case Study (Templates and Tips)

    While a case study and a research study are both used in the academic realm, researchers approach them differently. The case study is a detailed analysis of a given phenomenon. On the other hand, a research study is a broader exploration of a topic. Case studies typically use qualitative research methods like documents, observations, and ...

  23. Integrating Structural and Experiential Family Therapy in

    Abstract. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is widely regarded as the most severe childhood behavioral disorder. However, society's lack of awareness regarding neurodevelopmental disorders, like autism, has led to a limited understanding of their profound impact on children and their families.

  24. Accumulating harm and waiting for crisis: Parents perspectives of

    Background Autistic children and young people are at increased risk of mental health difficulties, but often face barriers when seeking help from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). There is limited literature exploring the accessibility of CAMHS for autistic young people, particularly from parents perspectives. The present study aimed to 1) explore the experiences of parents ...