Synonyms of case study

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Thesaurus Definition of case study

Synonyms & Similar Words

  • case history
  • documentation
  • testimonial
  • commentaries
  • procès - verbal

Thesaurus Entries Near case study

case studies

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“Case study.” Thesaurus , Merriam-Webster, Accessed 22 May. 2024.

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noun as in case history

Strongest match

  • medical history

Weak matches

  • medical record
  • psychiatric history

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Example sentences.

In a case study from Metric Theory, Target Impression Share bidding, the total cost per click increased with both mobile and desktop devices.

It would also become the subject of a fair number of business school case studies.

Not just blog posts, you can also share other resources like case studies, podcast episodes, and webinars via Instagram Stories.

They become the architecture for a case study of Flint, expressed in a more personal and poetic way than a straightforward investigation could.

The Creek Fire was a case study in the challenge facing today’s fire analysts, who are trying to predict the movements of fires that are far more severe than those seen just a decade ago.

A case study would be your Twilight director Catherine Hardwicke.

A good case study for the minority superhero problem is Luke Cage.

He was asked to review a case study out of Lebanon that had cited his work.

Instead, now we have a political science case-study proving how political fortunes can shift and change at warp speed.

One interesting case study is Sir Arthur Evans, the original excavator and “restorer” of the Minoan palace of Knossos on Crete.

As this is a case study, it should be said that my first mistake was in discrediting my early religious experience.

The author of a recent case study of democracy in a frontier county commented on the need for this kind of investigation.

How could a case study of Virginia during this period illustrate these developments?

Related Words

Words related to case study are not direct synonyms, but are associated with the word case study . Browse related words to learn more about word associations.

noun as in record of what happened

On this page you'll find 6 synonyms, antonyms, and words related to case study, such as: medical history, anamnesis, dossier, medical record, and psychiatric history.

From Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition Copyright © 2013 by the Philip Lief Group.

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What is another word for case study ?

Synonyms for case study case study, this thesaurus page includes all potential synonyms, words with the same meaning and similar terms for the word case study ., princeton's wordnet.

  • case study noun

a careful study of some social unit (as a corporation or division within a corporation) that attempts to determine what factors led to its success or failure

a detailed analysis of a person or group from a social or psychological or medical point of view

Matched Categories

  • Corporation

Concise Medical Dictionary, by Joseph C Segen, MD Rate these synonyms: 2.2 / 5 votes

Synonyms: Epidemiology Anecdotal report, anecdote, single case report

How to pronounce case study?

How to say case study in sign language, how to use case study in a sentence.

Josh Holmes :

For those asking, this is my response to West Virginia Roy Moore :' This clown is a walking, talking case study for the limitation of a prison's ability to rehabilitate,'.

Houston Astros :

I think I’m kind of a case study on this one.

Tesoro Corp :

We agree on the critical importance of continually learning from incidents and improving the safety of our operations, and inaccuracies in the case study do not detract from our resolve to learn from these incidents.

Alba Pasini :

This case study is really important, since it testifies that a medical approach to maternal morbidity actually existed during the Lombard period, despite the rejection of the scientific progress which denoted all the Early Middle Age, also, it shows two rare findings, since post-mortem fetal extrusion is a quite rare phenomenon( especially in archaeological specimens), while only a few examples of trepanation are known for the European Early Middle Age.

Sam Goodman :

The Hong Kong BNO scheme is an interesting case study of what can happen if there is political will, there are 12 welcome centers across the country and a really good support package which costs relatively little, including help with English language. And most importantly they just didn’t politicize it. All this has meant that 144,000 Hong Kongers have come here with little to no fuss, integrated quickly and there have been minimal issues.

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Meaning of case study in English

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  • anti-narrative
  • be another story idiom
  • bodice-ripper
  • cautionary tale
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case study | American Dictionary

Case study | business english, examples of case study, translations of case study.

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Definition of case study noun from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary

  • She co-authored a case study on urban development.

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case study other words

Monash Learning Health System: The Learn Together for Better Health Framework developed by Monash Partners and Monash University (from Enticott et al. 2021 [ 7 ]). Four evidence quadrants: Q1 (orange) is evidence from stakeholders; Q2 (green) is evidence from research; Q3 (light blue) is evidence from data; and, Q4 (dark blue) is evidence from implementation and healthcare improvement

In developed nations, it has been estimated that 60% of care provided aligns with the evidence base, 30% is low value and 10% is potentially harmful [ 13 ]. In some areas, clinical advances have been rapid and research and evidence have paved the way for dramatic improvement in outcomes, mandating rapid implementation of evidence into healthcare (e.g. polio and COVID-19 vaccines). However, healthcare improvement is challenging and slow [ 5 ]. Health systems are highly complex in their design, networks and interacting components, and change is difficult to enact, sustain and scale up. [ 3 ] New effective strategies are needed to meet community needs and deliver evidence-based and value-based care, which reorients care from serving the provider, services and system, towards serving community needs, based on evidence and quality. It goes beyond cost to encompass patient and provider experience, quality care and outcomes, efficiency and sustainability [ 2 , 6 ].

The costs of stroke care are expected to rise rapidly in the next decades, unless improvements in stroke care to reduce the disabling effects of strokes can be successfully developed and implemented [ 14 ]. Here, we briefly describe the Monash LHS framework (Fig.  1 ) [ 2 , 6 , 7 ] and outline an exemplar case in order to demonstrate how to apply evidence-based processes to healthcare improvement and embed real-world research for optimising healthcare. The Australian LHS exemplar in stroke care has driven nationwide improvement in stroke care since 2007.

An evidence-based Learning Health System framework

In Australia, members of this author group (HT, AJ, JE) have rigorously co-developed an evidence-based LHS framework, known simply as the Monash LHS [ 7 ]. The Monash LHS was designed to support sustainable, iterative and continuous robust benefit of improved clinical outcomes. It was created with national engagement in order to be applicable to Australian settings. Through this rigorous approach, core LHS principles and components have been established (Fig.  1 ). Evidence shows that people/workforce, culture, standards, governance and resources were all key to an effective LHS [ 2 , 6 ]. Culture is vital including trust, transparency, partnership and co-design. Key processes include legally compliant data sharing, linkage and governance, resources, and infrastructure [ 4 ]. The Monash LHS integrates disparate and often siloed stakeholders, infrastructure and expertise to ‘Learn Together for Better Health’ [ 7 ] (Fig.  1 ). This integrates (i) evidence from community and stakeholders including priority areas and outcomes; (ii) evidence from research and guidelines; (iii) evidence from practice (from data) with advanced analytics and benchmarking; and (iv) evidence from implementation science and health economics. Importantly, it starts with the problem and priorities of key stakeholders including the community, health professionals and services and creates an iterative learning system to address these. The following case study was chosen as it is an exemplar of how a Monash LHS-aligned national stroke program has delivered clinical benefit.

Australian Stroke Learning Health System

Internationally, the application of LHS approaches in stroke has resulted in improved stroke care and outcomes [ 12 ]. For example, in Canada a sustained decrease in 30-day in-hospital mortality has been found commensurate with an increase in resources to establish the multifactorial stroke system intervention for stroke treatment and prevention [ 15 ]. Arguably, with rapid advances in evidence and in the context of an ageing population with high cost and care burden and substantive impacts on quality of life, stroke is an area with a need for rapid research translation into evidence-based and value-based healthcare improvement. However, a recent systematic review found that the existing literature had few comprehensive examples of LHS adoption [ 12 ]. Although healthcare improvement systems and approaches were described, less is known about patient-clinician and stakeholder engagement, governance and culture, or embedding of data informatics into everyday practice to inform and drive improvement [ 12 ]. For example, in a recent review of quality improvement collaborations, it was found that although clinical processes in stroke care are improved, their short-term nature means there is uncertainty about sustainability and impacts on patient outcomes [ 16 ]. Table  1 provides the main features of the Australian Stroke LHS based on the four core domains and eight elements of the Learning Together for Better Health Framework described in Fig.  1 . The features are further expanded on in the following sections.

Evidence from stakeholders (LHS quadrant 1, Fig.  1 )

Engagement, partners and priorities.

Within the stroke field, there have been various support mechanisms to facilitate an LHS approach including partnership and broad stakeholder engagement that includes clinical networks and policy makers from different jurisdictions. Since 2008, the Australian Stroke Coalition has been co-led by the Stroke Foundation, a charitable consumer advocacy organisation, and Stroke Society of Australasia a professional society with membership covering academics and multidisciplinary clinician networks, that are collectively working to improve stroke care ( ). Surveys, focus groups and workshops have been used for identifying priorities from stakeholders. Recent agreed priorities have been to improve stroke care and strengthen the voice for stroke care at a national ( ) and international level ( ), as well as reduce duplication amongst stakeholders. This activity is built on a foundation and culture of research and innovation embedded within the stroke ‘community of practice’. Consumers, as people with lived experience of stroke are important members of the Australian Stroke Coalition, as well as representatives from different clinical colleges. Consumers also provide critical input to a range of LHS activities via the Stroke Foundation Consumer Council, Stroke Living Guidelines committees, and the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry (AuSCR) Steering Committee (described below).

Evidence from research (LHS quadrant 2, Fig.  1 )

Advancement of the evidence for stroke interventions and synthesis into clinical guidelines.

To implement best practice, it is crucial to distil the large volume of scientific and trial literature into actionable recommendations for clinicians to use in practice [ 24 ]. The first Australian clinical guidelines for acute stroke were produced in 2003 following the increasing evidence emerging for prevention interventions (e.g. carotid endarterectomy, blood pressure lowering), acute medical treatments (intravenous thrombolysis, aspirin within 48 h of ischemic stroke), and optimised hospital management (care in dedicated stroke units by a specialised and coordinated multidisciplinary team) [ 25 ]. Importantly, a number of the innovations were developed, researched and proven effective by key opinion leaders embedded in the Australian stroke care community. In 2005, the clinical guidelines for Stroke Rehabilitation and Recovery [ 26 ] were produced, with subsequent merged guidelines periodically updated. However, the traditional process of periodic guideline updates is challenging for end users when new research can render recommendations redundant and this lack of currency erodes stakeholder trust [ 27 ]. In response to this challenge the Stroke Foundation and Cochrane Australia entered a pioneering project to produce the first electronic ‘living’ guidelines globally [ 20 ]. Major shifts in the evidence for reperfusion therapies (e.g. extended time-window intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular clot retrieval), among other advances, were able to be converted into new recommendations, approved by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council within a few months of publication. Feedback on this process confirmed the increased use and trust in the guidelines by clinicians. The process informed other living guidelines programs, including the successful COVID-19 clinical guidelines [ 28 ].

However, best practice clinical guideline recommendations are necessary but insufficient for healthcare improvement and nesting these within an LHS with stakeholder partnership, enables implementation via a range of proven methods, including audit and feedback strategies [ 29 ].

Evidence from data and practice (LHS quadrant 3, Fig.  1 )

Data systems and benchmarking : revealing the disparities in care between health services. A national system for standardized stroke data collection was established as the National Stroke Audit program in 2007 by the Stroke Foundation [ 30 ] following various state-level programs (e.g. New South Wales Audit) [ 31 ] to identify evidence-practice gaps and prioritise improvement efforts to increase access to stroke units and other acute treatments [ 32 ]. The Audit program alternates each year between acute (commencing in 2007) and rehabilitation in-patient services (commencing in 2008). The Audit program provides a ‘deep dive’ on the majority of recommendations in the clinical guidelines whereby participating hospitals provide audits of up to 40 consecutive patient medical records and respond to a survey about organizational resources to manage stroke. In 2009, the AuSCR was established to provide information on patients managed in acute hospitals based on a small subset of quality processes of care linked to benchmarked reports of performance (Fig.  2 ) [ 33 ]. In this way, the continuous collection of high-priority processes of stroke care could be regularly collected and reviewed to guide improvement to care [ 34 ]. Plus clinical quality registry programs within Australia have shown a meaningful return on investment attributed to enhanced survival, improvements in quality of life and avoided costs of treatment or hospital stay [ 35 ].

figure 2

Example performance report from the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry: average door-to-needle time in providing intravenous thrombolysis by different hospitals in 2021 [ 36 ]. Each bar in the figure represents a single hospital

The Australian Stroke Coalition endorsed the creation of an integrated technological solution for collecting data through a single portal for multiple programs in 2013. In 2015, the Stroke Foundation, AuSCR consortium, and other relevant groups cooperated to design an integrated data management platform (the Australian Stroke Data Tool) to reduce duplication of effort for hospital staff in the collection of overlapping variables in the same patients [ 19 ]. Importantly, a national data dictionary then provided the common data definitions to facilitate standardized data capture. Another important feature of AuSCR is the collection of patient-reported outcome surveys between 90 and 180 days after stroke, and annual linkage with national death records to ascertain survival status [ 33 ]. To support a LHS approach, hospitals that participate in AuSCR have access to a range of real-time performance reports. In efforts to minimize the burden of data collection in the AuSCR, interoperability approaches to import data directly from hospital or state-level managed stroke databases have been established (Fig.  3 ); however, the application has been variable and 41% of hospitals still manually enter all their data.

figure 3

Current status of automated data importing solutions in the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry, 2022, with ‘ n ’ representing the number of hospitals. AuSCR, Australian Stroke Clinical Registry; AuSDaT, Australian Stroke Data Tool; API, Application Programming Interface; ICD, International Classification of Diseases; RedCAP, Research Electronic Data Capture; eMR, electronic medical records

For acute stroke care, the Australian Commission on Quality and Safety in Health Care facilitated the co-design (clinicians, academics, consumers) and publication of the national Acute Stroke Clinical Care Standard in 2015 [ 17 ], and subsequent review [ 18 ]. The indicator set for the Acute Stroke Standard then informed the expansion of the minimum dataset for AuSCR so that hospitals could routinely track their performance. The national Audit program enabled hospitals not involved in the AuSCR to assess their performance every two years against the Acute Stroke Standard. Complementing these efforts, the Stroke Foundation, working with the sector, developed the Acute and Rehabilitation Stroke Services Frameworks to outline the principles, essential elements, models of care and staffing recommendations for stroke services ( ). The Frameworks are intended to guide where stroke services should be developed, and monitor their uptake with the organizational survey component of the Audit program.

Evidence from implementation and healthcare improvement (LHS quadrant 4, Fig.  1 )

Research to better utilize and augment data from registries through linkage [ 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ] and to ensure presentation of hospital or service level data are understood by clinicians has ensured advancement in the field for the Australian Stroke LHS [ 41 ]. Importantly, greater insights into whole patient journeys, before and after a stroke, can now enable exploration of value-based care. The LHS and stroke data platform have enabled focused and time-limited projects to create a better understanding of the quality of care in acute or rehabilitation settings [ 22 , 42 , 43 ]. Within stroke, all the elements of an LHS culminate into the ready availability of benchmarked performance data and support for implementation of strategies to address gaps in care.

Implementation research to grow the evidence base for effective improvement interventions has also been a key pillar in the Australian context. These include multi-component implementation interventions to achieve behaviour change for particular aspects of stroke care, [ 22 , 23 , 44 , 45 ] and real-world approaches to augmenting access to hyperacute interventions in stroke through the use of technology and telehealth [ 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 ]. The evidence from these studies feeds into the living guidelines program and the data collection systems, such as the Audit program or AuSCR, which are then amended to ensure data aligns to recommended care. For example, the use of ‘hyperacute aspirin within the first 48 h of ischemic stroke’ was modified to be ‘hyperacute antiplatelet…’ to incorporate new evidence that other medications or combinations are appropriate to use. Additionally, new datasets have been developed to align with evidence such as the Fever, Sugar, and Swallow variables [ 42 ]. Evidence on improvements in access to best practice care from the acute Audit program [ 50 ] and AuSCR is emerging [ 36 ]. For example, between 2007 and 2017, the odds of receiving intravenous thrombolysis after ischemic stroke increased by 16% 9OR 1.06 95% CI 1.13–1.18) and being managed in a stroke unit by 18% (OR 1.18 95% CI 1.17–1.20). Over this period, the median length of hospital stay for all patients decreased from 6.3 days in 2007 to 5.0 days in 2017 [ 51 ]. When considering the number of additional patients who would receive treatment in 2017 in comparison to 2007 it was estimated that without this additional treatment, over 17,000 healthy years of life would be lost in 2017 (17,786 disability-adjusted life years) [ 51 ]. There is evidence on the cost-effectiveness of different system-focussed strategies to augment treatment access for acute ischemic stroke (e.g. Victorian Stroke Telemedicine program [ 52 ] and Melbourne Mobile Stroke Unit ambulance [ 53 ]). Reciprocally, evidence from the national Rehabilitation Audit, where the LHS approach has been less complete or embedded, has shown fewer areas of healthcare improvement over time [ 51 , 54 ].

Within the field of stroke in Australia, there is indirect evidence that the collective efforts that align to establishing the components of a LHS have had an impact. Overall, the age-standardised rate of stroke events has reduced by 27% between 2001 and 2020, from 169 to 124 events per 100,000 population. Substantial declines in mortality rates have been reported since 1980. Commensurate with national clinical guidelines being updated in 2007 and the first National Stroke Audit being undertaken in 2007, the mortality rates for men (37.4 deaths per 100,000) and women (36.1 deaths per 100,0000 has declined to 23.8 and 23.9 per 100,000, respectively in 2021 [ 55 ].

Underpinning the LHS with the integration of the four quadrants of evidence from stakeholders, research and guidelines, practice and implementation, and core LHS principles have been addressed. Leadership and governance have been important, and programs have been established to augment workforce training and capacity building in best practice professional development. Medical practitioners are able to undertake courses and mentoring through the Australasian Stroke Academy ( ) while nurses (and other health professionals) can access teaching modules in stroke care from the Acute Stroke Nurses Education Network ( ). The Association of Neurovascular Clinicians offers distance-accessible education and certification to develop stroke expertise for interdisciplinary professionals, including advanced stroke co-ordinator certification ( ). Consumer initiative interventions are also used in the design of the AuSCR Public Summary Annual reports (available at ) and consumer-related resources related to the Living Guidelines ( ).

The important success factors and lessons from stroke as a national exemplar LHS in Australia include leadership, culture, workforce and resources integrated with (1) established and broad partnerships across the academic-clinical sector divide and stakeholder engagement; (2) the living guidelines program; (3) national data infrastructure, including a national data dictionary that provides the common data framework to support standardized data capture; (4) various implementation strategies including benchmarking and feedback as well as engagement strategies targeting different levels of the health system; and (5) implementation and improvement research to advance stroke systems of care and reduce unwarranted variation in practice (Fig.  1 ). Priority opportunities now include the advancement of interoperability with electronic medical records as an area all clinical quality registry’s programs needs to be addressed, as well as providing more dynamic and interactive data dashboards tailored to the need of clinicians and health service executives.

There is a clear mandate to optimise healthcare improvement with big data offering major opportunities for change. However, we have lacked the approaches to capture evidence from the community and stakeholders, to integrate evidence from research, to capture and leverage data or evidence from practice and to generate and build on evidence from implementation using iterative system-level improvement. The LHS provides this opportunity and is shown to deliver impact. Here, we have outlined the process applied to generate an evidence-based LHS and provide a leading exemplar in stroke care. This highlights the value of moving from single-focus isolated approaches/initiatives to healthcare improvement and the benefit of integration to deliver demonstrable outcomes for our funders and key stakeholders — our community. This work provides insight into strategies that can both apply evidence-based processes to healthcare improvement as well as implementing evidence-based practices into care, moving beyond research as an endpoint, to research as an enabler, underpinning delivery of better healthcare.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable


Australian Stroke Clinical Registry

Confidence interval

  • Learning Health System

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The following authors hold National Health and Medical Research Council Research Fellowships: HT (#2009326), DAC (#1154273), SM (#1196352), MFK Future Leader Research Fellowship (National Heart Foundation #105737). The Funders of this work did not have any direct role in the design of the study, its execution, analyses, interpretation of the data, or decision to submit results for publication.

Author information

Helena Teede and Dominique A. Cadilhac contributed equally.

Authors and Affiliations

Monash Centre for Health Research and Implementation, 43-51 Kanooka Grove, Clayton, VIC, Australia

Helena Teede, Emily Callander & Joanne Enticott

Monash Partners Academic Health Science Centre, 43-51 Kanooka Grove, Clayton, VIC, Australia

Helena Teede & Alison Johnson

Stroke and Ageing Research, Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Level 2 Monash University Research, Victorian Heart Hospital, 631 Blackburn Rd, Clayton, VIC, Australia

Dominique A. Cadilhac, Tara Purvis & Monique F. Kilkenny

Stroke Theme, The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia

Dominique A. Cadilhac, Monique F. Kilkenny & Bruce C.V. Campbell

Department of Neurology, Melbourne Brain Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia

Bruce C.V. Campbell

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

School of Health Sciences, Heart and Stroke Program, University of Newcastle, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW, Australia

Coralie English

School of Medicine and Dentistry, Griffith University, Birtinya, QLD, Australia

Rohan S. Grimley

Clinical Excellence Division, Queensland Health, Brisbane, Australia

John Hunter Hospital, Hunter New England Local Health District and University of Newcastle, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Christopher Levi

School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Australian Catholic University, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Sandy Middleton

Nursing Research Institute, St Vincent’s Health Network Sydney and and Australian Catholic University, Sydney, NSW, Australia

Stroke Foundation, Level 7, 461 Bourke St, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

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HT: conception, design and initial draft, developed the theoretical formalism for learning health system framework, approved the submitted version. DAC: conception, design and initial draft, provided essential literature and case study examples, approved the submitted version. TP: revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content, approved the submitted version. MFK: revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content, provided essential literature and case study examples, approved the submitted version. BC: revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content, provided essential literature and case study examples, approved the submitted version. CE: revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content, provided essential literature and case study examples, approved the submitted version. AJ: conception, design and initial draft, developed the theoretical formalism for learning health system framework, approved the submitted version. EC: revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content, approved the submitted version. RSG: revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content, provided essential literature and case study examples, approved the submitted version. CL: revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content, provided essential literature and case study examples, approved the submitted version. SM: revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content, provided essential literature and case study examples, approved the submitted version. KH: revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content, provided essential literature and case study examples, approved the submitted version. JE: conception, design and initial draft, developed the theoretical formalism for learning health system framework, approved the submitted version. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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case study other words

Customer Case Study: Fujitsu Composite AI and Semantic Kernel

Matthew bolanos.

May 21st, 2024 0 0

Japanese multinational Fujitsu, a pioneer of information and communications technology, has been transforming industries with innovative solutions since 1935. With a workforce of 124,000 dedicated professionals across 50 countries, Fujitsu is committed to building trust and fostering sustainability through its groundbreaking technologies.

A diverse portfolio that includes everything from IT services to server equipment has a new member: AI . Fujitsu’s AI solutions (branded as Fujitsu Kozuchi) are broken into seven areas:

  • Generative AI
  • Predictive Analysis

With the help of Semantic Kernel, we’ve been able to stack these technologies together to better solve customer needs from a single platform.

A new frontier: Fujitsu Composite AI

Fujitsu Composite AI is a unique combination of AI technologies that can understand abstract business problems through chat-style dialogue. It automatically analyzes a situation, searching for and proposing specific solutions based on past data.

Image composite ai

From ambiguous to automatic with Semantic Kernel

Semantic Kernel is an SDK that, as the documentation says, lets you “actually do something productive.” By using it to connect Composite AI component technologies, we can address real customer needs.

Our pipeline breaks down ambiguous instructions and automatically combines multiple AIs to create an advanced model capable of delivering a solution. In fact, if the required model doesn’t exist, one that is bespoke and solution-fit will be generated.

Real problems, real solutions: Composite AI case studies

Fujitsu Composite AI is already being applied to real customer data, creating efficiencies and solutions for issues that were previously cumbersome or resource-intensive.

Nakayama Transportation

Composite AI powers Nakayama Transportation’s automated vehicle dispatch system. The system analyzes the driving and restricted time of the drivers, generating an efficient plan while complying with laws and regulations.

Nakayama Unyu has given the AI solution high praise for its ability to manage both vehicle dispatching and working hours in a single tool.

Results: The time it takes to create a dispatch plan has dropped from several hours to 10 minutes .

  Fujitsu Customer Support

Internally, we’ve used Composite AI to accurately predict customer support requirements and optimize resource allocation. The platform analyzes incident management logs, predicts the future of any incident (how many days before it is resolved), and suggests staffing allocation.

Results: The new incident management system is 25% more efficient than the previous system .

Thoughts from the Semantic Kernel team

Semantic Kernel’s PM Matthew Bolaños had this to say about the Composite AI integration:

“I was very impressed with the solution that Fujitsu has implemented. It’s great to see how they have been able to use Semantic Kernel to improve the customer experience. It’s positive to see they’ve leveraged Semantic Kernel to integrate their AI technology as Composite AI and apply it to several real business fields.”

By enhancing Fujitsu AI technologies with Semantic Kernel, we can design a flexible solution pipeline and solve customers’ real problems. Composite AI automatically combines the most appropriate AI tech for any given task. In the future, we plan not only to deepen our collaboration with Semantic Kernel but also to explore integrating with Microsoft Fabric as a data source for Composite AI. We believe this integration has the potential to greatly enhance our capabilities and provide even more value to our customers.

We’ve only brushed the surface of its orchestration capabilities. Their importance will only grow as we continue to explore, innovate, and use these features more extensively.

Join us at Microsoft Build!

Learn more about Fujitsu , the Fujitsu AI (Kozuchi) platform and Composite AI . For a more in-depth look, check out the whitepaper for Composite AI .

Learn more about Semantic Kernel .


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Study links talc use to ovarian cancer — a potential boon for thousands suing J&J

A bottle of baby powder

New research published this week lends credence to the more than 50,000 lawsuits against Johnson & Johnson that allege its talc-based baby powder caused ovarian cancer.

The analysis , released Wednesday in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, found that applying talc powder to the genitals was associated with ovarian cancer — and that the association was greater for people who used the powder frequently or for long periods of time.

The researchers are from the National Institutes of Health, and their findings were based on data from the Sister Study, which enrolled more than 50,000 women in the U.S. from 2003 to 2009. The participants joined when they were between 35 and 74 years old, and each had a sister who’d been diagnosed with breast cancer, which might put them at increased risk for breast or ovarian cancer.

Lawsuits related to J&J’s talc-based baby powder date back to 1999, when a woman alleged that a lifetime of using it led to her mesothelioma, a rare cancer usually caused by exposure to asbestos — a known carcinogen. In 2009, another woman sued the company, alleging that its talc-based products caused her ovarian cancer. Since then, many thousands of others have filed claims over cases of ovarian cancer or mesothelioma that they say were caused by asbestos in J&J baby powder.

J&J has stood by the safety of its talc products and denies that they ever contained asbestos. The company has also argued that studies have not demonstrated a convincing link between ovarian cancer and talc-based products.

The new research could undermine that line of reasoning as the legal battles continue. Most of the lawsuits against J&J have been consolidated into a single federal case in New Jersey, with trial scheduled for December.

“This study is quite timely. We feel like it completely affirms and confirms the position taken by plaintiffs’ experts,” said Leigh O’Dell, a principal at Beasley Allen Law Firm. O’Dell is the co-lead counsel for the plaintiffs’ steering committee, a group of attorneys appointed to act on behalf of the many people with pending cases against J&J.

However, Erik Haas, J&J’s worldwide vice president of litigation, said the new analysis doesn’t establish causality or implicate a specific cancer-inducing agent.

“This study does not change the overwhelming evidence that talcum powder does not cause ovarian cancer,” he said.

Earlier this month, J&J proposed a payment of around $6.48 billion to resolve the lawsuits, but the deal would involve moving the cases to bankruptcy court and require 75% of claimants to vote in favor.

J&J has tried and failed twice to resolve talc lawsuits in bankruptcy court . The company created a subsidiary in 2021 that could assume liability for talc-related legal claims — a legal maneuver known as a Texas two-step. But thus far, courts have dismissed the bankruptcy filings on the grounds that the subsidiary is not in financial distress.

Johnson & Johnson company offices

O’Dell said her team “would like to see these women offered a reasonable and fair resolution outside of bankruptcy.”

“Any effort to file another bankruptcy, we believe, is just yet another abuse of the bankruptcy system,” she said.

The potential harms of talc products

The new study asked women how often they used talc powder on their genitals from ages 10 to 13 and during the year before they enrolled in the study. NIH researchers followed up with surveys from 2017 to 2019 that asked women about their lifetime use of talc powder.

Based on the responses, the researchers estimated that up to 56% of the women used talc powder on their genitals at some point. These women were more likely to be Black, less educated and live in the South compared with people who didn’t use talc powder.

The analysis can’t prove that talc causes ovarian cancer, nor does it identify a brand or chemical driving the association. Dale Sandler, one of the study’s authors and the chief of the epidemiology branch at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, said there probably isn’t a way to prove causality in human studies.

“You can’t do a clinical trial and randomize people to ‘powder’ and ‘no powder.’ So we’re going to need to look to other types of research,” she said.

At the very least, the findings should prompt women to rethink their use of talc products, said Katie O’Brien, the lead author of the analysis and an epidemiologist at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

“We’re not aware of any medically necessary reasons why someone would need to use talcum,” she said.

Current formulations of J&J baby powder use cornstarch, not talc. The company pulled the talc-based versions from the North American market in 2020, citing waning demand and “misinformation around the safety of the product,” and discontinued the product internationally last year.

Talc and asbestos are found in close proximity in nature, so some raw talc collected via mining may be contaminated with asbestos , according to the Food and Drug Administration.

A 2018 Reuters investigation suggested that J&J knew some of its baby powder was contaminated with small amounts of asbestos as early as the 1970s. But J&J denies asbestos was ever present in its products.

O’Brien said asbestos might not be the only reason for an association between talc and cancer. Some talc products may also contain phthalates — chemicals that disrupt hormones in the body and have been linked to ovarian cancer . Plus, talc itself can be abrasive, she added, so it may cause inflammation in the areas where it’s applied. Inflammation is independently associated with the development of cancer.

A debate over the science

Debates over the research linking talc and ovarian cancer will almost certainly be a focus of upcoming litigation in the J&J case.

The New Jersey federal court ruled in March that the company can contest findings that link ovarian cancer to talc.

To support its position, J&J has pointed to research that O’Brien and Sandler published in 2020 , which did not find a statistically significant association between ovarian cancer and the use of talc powder.

But O’Brien said that older study may not have been set up to detect small changes in risk because it did not ask women about their lifetime use or factor in the chance that people might misremember their past habits. Sandler said the new study accounts for those two variables.

“This newer analysis sort of tips the balance by accounting for all these possible ways that reporting could have been incomplete in the prior literature,” she said.

How talc may have played into body shame

J&J started selling talc-based baby powder in 1894.

Although many women have used it to keep their genitals dry, there’s no need to use powder to get rid of moisture in that area, said Alexandra Scranton, director of science and research at Women’s Voices for the Earth, a nonprofit that aims to eliminate chemicals that negatively affect women’s health.

“Moisture in this part of the body is a very healthy thing,” Scranton said. “This part of the body is covered in mucous membranes. It’s supposed to be moist.”

According to O’Brien’s research, some women in the 2000s — often those in their 20s and 30s — also used talc powder on their genitals to feel clean and reduce odor. That application isn’t advised by health experts, either, since the vagina is self-cleaning and good bacteria inside of it naturally produce a slight odor.

Companies like J&J were “basically creating and promoting this myth that this part of your body — your genitals, your vagina — are inherently dirty and that they’re inherently odorous, and therefore inherently shameful,” Scranton said.

J&J said it disagrees with that characterization.

Some women continue to use baby powder on their genitals or have adopted new products like vaginal washes or scented body deodorants.

“It’s so ingrained and so part of the way they take care of their bodies that they can’t imagine not doing it,” Scranton said. “They’ve got their mom’s voice in their head: ‘This is what you do to be a respectable woman.’”

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Aria Bendix is the breaking health reporter for NBC News Digital.

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When Is the Best Time to Work Out?

It’s an age-old question. But a few recent studies have brought us closer to an answer.

A silhouetted woman running along a body of water with the sun glistening behind her.

By Alexander Nazaryan

What is the best time of day to exercise?

It’s a straightforward question with a frustrating number of answers, based on research results that can be downright contradictory.

The latest piece of evidence came last month from a group of Australian researchers, who argued that evening was the healthiest time to break a sweat, at least for those who are overweight. Their study looked at 30,000 middle-aged people with obesity and found that evening exercisers were 28 percent less likely to die of any cause than those who worked out in the morning or afternoon.

“We were surprised by the gap,” said Angelo Sabag, an exercise physiologist at the University of Sydney who led the study. The team expected to see a benefit from evening workouts, but “we didn’t think the risk reduction would be as pronounced as it was.”

So does that mean that evening swimmers and night runners had the right idea all along?

“It’s not settled,” said Juleen Zierath, a physiologist at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden. “It’s an emerging area of research. We haven’t done all the experiments. We’re learning a lot every month.”

No single study can dictate when you should exercise. For many people, the choice comes down to fitness goals, work schedules and plain old preferences. That said, certain times of day may offer slight advantages, depending on what you hope to achieve.

The case for morning exercise

According to a 2022 study , morning exercise may be especially beneficial for heart health. It may also lead to better sleep .

And when it comes to weight loss, there have been good arguments made for morning workouts. Last year, a study published in the journal Obesity found that people who exercised between the hours of 7 a.m. and 9 a.m. had a lower body mass index than counterparts who exercised in the afternoon or at night, though it did not track them over time, unlike the Australian study, which followed participants for an average of eight years.

Of course, the biggest argument for morning exercise may be purely practical. “For a lot of people, the morning is more convenient,” said Shawn Youngstedt, an exercise science professor at Arizona State University. Even if rising early to work out can be challenging at first , morning exercise won’t get in the way of Zoom meetings, play dates or your latest Netflix binge.

The case for afternoon exercise

A few small studies suggest that the best workout time, at least for elite athletes, might be the least convenient for many of us.

Body temperature, which is lower in the morning but peaks in late afternoon, plays a role in athletic performance. Several recent small studies with competitive athletes suggest that lower body temperature reduces performance (though warm-ups exercises help counter that) and afternoon workouts help them play better and sleep longer .

If you have the luxury of ample time, one small New Zealand study found that it can help to nap first. As far as the rest of us are concerned, a Chinese study of 92,000 people found that the best time to exercise for your heart was between 11 a.m. and 5 p.m.

“The main difference is our population,” Dr. Sabag said. While his study was restricted to obese people, the Chinese study was not. “Individuals with obesity may be more sensitive to the time-of-day effects of exercise,” he said.

The case for evening exercise

This latest study may not settle the debate, but it certainly suggests that those struggling with obesity might benefit from a later workout.

Exercise makes insulin more effective at lowering blood sugar levels, which in turn fends off weight gain and Type 2 diabetes, a common and devastating consequence of obesity.

“In the evening, you are most insulin resistant,” Dr. Sabag said. “So if you can compensate for that natural change in insulin sensitivity by doing exercise,” he explained, you can lower your blood glucose levels, and thus help keep diabetes and cardiovascular disease at bay.

One persistent concern about evening exercise is that vigorous activity can disturb sleep. However, some experts have argued that these concerns have been overstated.

The case that it may not matter

While many of these studies are fascinating, none of them is definitive. For one thing, most are simply showing a correlation between exercise times and health benefits, not identifying them as the cause.

“The definitive study would be to actually randomize people to different times,” Dr. Youngstedt said, which would be phenomenally expensive and difficult for academics.

One thing public health experts do agree on is that most Americans are far too sedentary. And that any movement is good movement.

“Whenever you can exercise,” Dr. Sabag urged. “That is the answer.”

In a recent edition of his newsletter that discussed the Australian study, Arnold Schwarzenegger — bodybuilder, actor, former governor — seemed to agree. He cited a 2023 study suggesting that there really isn’t any difference in outcomes based on which time of day you exercise. In which case, it’s all about what works best for you.

“I will continue to train in the morning,” the former Mr. Universe wrote. “It’s automatic for me.”

Alexander Nazaryan is a science and culture writer who prefers to run in the early evening.

Let Us Help You Pick Your Next Workout

Looking for a new way to get moving we have plenty of options..

Exercise can help lower blood pressure. But it’s not about which workout you choose; it’s how you do it .

To get the most out of your strength training, you need to let go of routine and try progressive overload .

What is the best time of day to exercise? A few recent studies have brought us closer to an answer .

Sprinting, at least for short distances, can be a great way to level up your workout routine .

Is your workout really working for you? Take our quiz to find out .

Pick the Right Equipment With Wirecutter’s Recommendations

Want to build a home gym? These five things can help you transform your space  into a fitness center.

Transform your upper-body workouts with a simple pull-up bar  and an adjustable dumbbell set .

Choosing the best  running shoes  and running gear can be tricky. These tips  make the process easier.

A comfortable sports bra can improve your overall workout experience. These are the best on the market .

Few things are more annoying than ill-fitting, hard-to-use headphones. Here are the best ones for the gym  and for runners .


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    CASE STUDY meaning: 1. a detailed account giving information about the development of a person, group, or thing…. Learn more.

  12. What Is a Case Study?

    Revised on November 20, 2023. A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research. A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods, but quantitative methods are ...


    CASE STUDY definition: 1. a detailed account giving information about the development of a person, group, or thing…. Learn more.

  14. case study noun

    Definition of case study noun from the Oxford Advanced American Dictionary ... The Oxford Learner's Thesaurus explains the difference between groups of similar words. Try it for free as part of the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary app. See case study in the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Check pronunciation: case study.

  15. case study

    a person, group of people, situation, etc. that is used to study a particular idea or theory . Athletes make an interesting case study for doctors. See case study in the Oxford Advanced American Dictionary See case study in the Oxford Learner's Dictionary of Academic English

  16. Case study synonyms, case study antonyms

    Synonyms for case study in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for case study. 6 words related to case study: report, written report, study, corp, corporation, analysis. What are synonyms for case study?

  17. CASE STUDIES in Thesaurus: 100+ Synonyms & Antonyms for CASE STUDIES

    What's the definition of Case studies in thesaurus? Most related words/phrases with sentence examples define Case studies meaning and usage. Log in. Thesaurus for Case studies. Related terms for case studies- synonyms, antonyms and sentences with case studies. Lists. synonyms. antonyms.

  18. CASE STUDY Definition & Meaning

    Case study definition: a study of an individual unit, as a person, family, or social group, usually emphasizing developmental issues and relationships with the environment, especially in order to compare a larger group to the individual unit.. See examples of CASE STUDY used in a sentence.

  19. case study

    case study - WordReference thesaurus: synonyms, discussion and more. All Free.

  20. Learning together for better health using an evidence-based Learning

    This LHS case study is a practical example for other health conditions and settings to follow suit. In the context of expanding digital health tools, the health system is ready for Learning Health System (LHS) models. These models, with proper governance and stakeholder engagement, enable the integration of digital infrastructure to provide ...

  21. Customer Case Study: Fujitsu Composite AI and Semantic Kernel

    A new frontier: Fujitsu Composite AI. Fujitsu Composite AI is a unique combination of AI technologies that can understand abstract business problems through chat-style dialogue. It automatically analyzes a situation, searching for and proposing specific solutions based on past data. It dramatically expands the application and use cases of AI by ...

  22. ERIC

    This qualitative exploratory case study examined the professional influences and dispositions of eight teachers whose service to education ranged from 10 to 40 years. Retaining these teachers and others like them is essential to understanding why teachers remain in education teaching at low socioeconomic schools with high-risk students.

  23. Study links talc use to ovarian cancer

    The researchers are from the National Institutes of Health, and their findings were based on data from the Sister Study, which enrolled more than 50,000 women in the U.S. from 2003 to 2009.

  24. CSBS Announces 2024 Community Bank Case Study Competition Teams

    27 Teams will examine asset and liability management . Washington, D.C. - Twenty-seven student teams from 21 colleges and universities across the nation have entered the 2024 CSBS Community Bank Case Study Competition.Each team has partnered with a local community bank to learn about the closures of Silicon Valley Bank, Signature Bank, and First Republic Bank, identify the case study bank ...

  25. Case-study synonyms

    case investigation. case research. case review. case study analysis. case-studies. menstruum. n. Another way to say Case-study? Synonyms for Case-study (other words and phrases for Case-study).

  26. Should You Exercise in the Morning or the Evening ...

    The case for morning exercise. According to a 2022 study, morning exercise may be especially beneficial for heart health.It may also lead to better sleep.. And when it comes to weight loss, there ...

  27. Study finds microplastics in every male subject's ...

    A recent study found microplastics in every human testicle examined, raising significant concerns about the impact on the male reproductive system. People magazine reported that the study ...