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How to Make a Responsibility Assignment Matrix for a Project (Template Included)


The most important resource you’ll employ to deliver the project is people. They have to fit into the schedule and maintain the project budget. Defining what their roles and responsibilities are when executing tasks and delivering on the project goals is an important part of controlling the project.

How can you coordinate all the people who are involved in a project so they know what they’re doing and don’t block others from doing what they are assigned? Using a responsibility assignment matrix can help. An assignment matrix gives your project a team that gets things done.

What is a Responsibility Assignment Matrix in Project Management?

A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a project management chart used to identify and define the various people and organizations and outline each of their roles in working on tasks or delivering a part of the project.

Project managers use an assignment matrix to clarify what cross-functional teams do within the boundaries of the project and its numerous processes. Sometimes a responsibility assignment matrix is required when responding to a request for proposal (RFP).

The responsibility assignment matrix can also be called a RACI matrix, which stands for responsible, accountable, consulted and informed.

  • Responsible: Notes who is responsible for executing the task, which is then assigned to them.
  • Accountable: Notes who has decision-making authority and how that power is delegated throughout the project team.
  • Consulted: Notes who is able to offer insight into the task, from team members to stakeholders.
  • Informed: Notes who is updated on what in terms of progress and performance, as well as when and how this information is disseminated.

This creates a map of connections between activities and project team members. Depending on the size of the project, there can be several assignment matrices used for various project levels.

Why Create a Responsibility Assignment Matrix?

The assignment matrix identifies what everyone on the team is responsible for, which means not only what their duties are, but how they participate in the project. Some will have defined tasks, others will offer help with work, while there are some who are designated as decision-makers. These groups all have an identity and function within the project to help guide it towards a successful end.

Clear communication leads to more efficient projects. An assignment matrix facilitates better communication between team members and provides transparency by creating a system to make sure everyone is updated and always on the same page. Belaboring communications can bog down a project with too many pointless meetings and confusing interactions in which people try to understand what they’re supposed to be doing. Using the responsibility assignment matrix helps, but having project management software that connects teams in real-time is ideal.

ProjectManager manages project information by allowing teams to attach files directly to tasks, and our unlimited file storage keeps important project documents at your fingertips anywhere, anytime. Commenting on tasks can save time and tagging others in the project team creates a communication process that avoids the pitfalls of redundancies or unnecessary meetings.

Gantt chart screenshot with a team collaboration pop up

When Should a Responsibility Assignment Matrix Be Created?

The responsibility assignment matrix would be created at the start of the project. You’d want to have everyone on the project team aware of where they stand in terms of their involvement before they start executing tasks.

As much as its use is a preventative measure, it can be used prescriptively. If you’re deep into the project and things are not moving as planned, there could be communication gridlock. If team members are not in the loop, or misconstrue what they’re supposed to be doing, using a responsibility assignment matrix might untie up those knots in the communication channel.

If there’s a problem with leadership overruling suggestions on how to advance the project and this is seen as a problem, it’s likely that the roles and responsibilities of the project team need refining. The responsibility assignment matrix defines who has authority to make decisions and using it or revisiting can determine if the right people are in that position.

In fact, any of the definitions might need reexamining at any phase in the project. Perhaps tasks are falling behind schedule. This could be because team members aren’t aware of what tasks they own. Anytime a delay occurs, returning to the assignment matrix is a good first step, even if you went through the process as you should during the planning stage of the project.

How to Create a Responsibility Assignment Matrix

The actual making of a responsibility assignment matrix is not as difficult as getting everyone on board with what their roles and responsibilities are.

Therefore, you want to include your team in the process, get their input and eventually buy-in without spending too much time and energy on the process. Follow these steps to make sure everyone is in agreement and you’ll have a successful responsibility assignment.

  • Identify all the participants involved in the project, from team members to stakeholders and everyone in between.
  • List all deliverables associated with the project. Use a work breakdown structure to make sure you don’t miss any.
  • Meet with team members on how to execute the tasks to create the deliverables. Every task needs to be discussed in terms of the team’s responsibility and authority.
  • Draft the responsibility assignment matrix using a table with the project tasks listed on the left-hand column. Across the top add the name of everyone in the project.
  • Where the tasks meet the project team member, assign whether they’re responsible, accountable, consulted or informed.
  • When completed, share the responsibility assignment matrix with the project team and stakeholders and hold a meeting if necessary to make sure everyone understands their part in the project. If you’re working in a shared space, print out a copy and post it.

Free Responsibility Assignment Matrix Template

Using a RACI template is a shortcut that sets up your team and the project for success. ProjectManager is more than an award-winning software that organizes tasks, teams and projects to streamline work and boost productivity, it’s also the online hub for all things project management.

Among the hundreds of blog posts, guidebooks and tutorial videos are dozens of free templates that can help you through every phase of your project’s life cycle. Using our free RACI template will help you guide all the project teams better, allowing them to know where they stand in relation to the project and what their level of responsibility and accountability is.

Use it at the start of the project to avoid delays and untangle any communicative knots that are preventing the project from progressing as planned. To keep your project on track, download our free RACI template and get a head start on building a workable responsibility assignment matrix.

RACI Matrix Template for Excel

Best Practices

Using our free RACI template is a good start, but you have to make sure you fill it in correctly. A responsibility assignment matrix is only as good as the effort put into creating it. Here are some best practices to apply when you’re in the process of building your assignment matrix.

  • Involve the team: They’re the ones who will be executing the work. You want their input and buy-in to avoid any costly mistakes or time-consuming questions about what wasn’t made clear at the beginning of the project.
  • Identify every single task: Identify all the tasks required to reach your final deliverable. Once you have that thorough list make sure that there is only one person on the team who is accountable.
  • Update your RACI regularly: Make sure that each new one is clearly marked as the most current version and is distributed to everyone on the team. There will be times when you’ll want to revisit the responsibility assignment matrix or changes in personnel will require an edit.
  • Share responsibility viably: One person shouldn’t have to shoulder the bulk of the responsibilities for the project and you want to give authority throughout the project team and not just among the very top management team.
  • Optimize tasks: Managers can use the RACI matrix to see if too many team members have been assigned to a task. Maybe these workers could be spread out for greater productivity. There could be too many people listed as consulted, which slows down the process. The assignment matrix is endlessly useful.

How ProjectManager Helps You Manage Projects Better

ProjectManager is a cloud-based tool that connects everyone in real-time to facilitate planning, monitoring and reporting on the project. It works to give everyone on the project team a job and the knowledge as to where they have authority and when to consult others, as well as defining the reporting process.

Let’s look at the people who are responsible, for example, the team who execute the project. Once invited into the software, you can share the project plan, assign them tasks, add detailed direction, add a deadline and tag for priority and more. The teams can then collaborate by attaching files and images to the tasks and commenting in real-time to work better together.

A screenshot of the Team collaboration user interface in ProjectManager

Those who need to stay informed of the project can do so by also getting invited into the project and sharing plans and schedules with them. Stakeholders can stay updated with reporting features that can generate reports on project variance, cost, time and more with one click. Then share them as a PDF. Reports can even be quickly filtered to zero in on the data stakeholders are interested in.

a screenshot of the status report generation screen in ProjectManager

The responsibility assignment matrix can help you reallocate your resources when things aren’t progressing as planned. Use our software to get further insight. The resource management features include a workload chart that’s color-coded so it’s easy to see who has too many tasks and who can take on more work. Then you can simply reallocate those resources from the workload page to help your team work more productively.

color-coded workload chart

ProjectManager gets you organized, keeps your team focused on their tasks and stakeholders in the loop. Gain efficiencies throughout every aspect of your project’s life cycle with an online Gantt chart to schedule work and kanban boards, a visual workflow feature that provides transparency into production. All that and it’s on a collaborative platform to keep everyone connected. Try ProjectManager today for free.

Click here to browse ProjectManager's free templates

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create a responsibility assignment matrix

How to Make a Responsibility Assignment Matrix: Excel RACI Template

create a responsibility assignment matrix

What is a responsibility assignment matrix?

How to create a responsibility assignment matrix in excel, free raci template for excel, how to manage raci roles in your teamgantt plan.

A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a tool used in project management to clarify team and stakeholder roles for each project step. It paves the way for smooth collaboration by ensuring everyone knows what they need to do, who they need to talk to, and who has the final say on key decisions and deliverables.

RACI—which stands for Responsible , Accountable , Consulted , Informed —is the most popular framework used for assigning roles and responsibilities on projects. Here’s a quick breakdown of RACI categories in basic terms:

  • Responsible : Who completes the work?
  • Accountable : Who makes decisions? 
  • Consulted : Who provides expertise?
  • Informed : Who needs status updates?

Of course, RACI isn’t the only responsibility assignment matrix out there. These RACI alternatives provide a small sample of other approaches you might come across in project management.

  • RASCI (or RASIC) matrix : This RACI alternative adds one extra role into the responsibility assignment mix. In the RASCI model, the S stands for Supportive . While this role covers anyone who will lend the Responsible person a hand with the work, a Supportive team member isn’t responsible for the outcome.
  • DACI matrix : DACI stands for Driver , Approver , Contributor , Informed and is used to outline decision-making roles and responsibilities for projects. In this framework, the project manager or leader typically serves as the Driver guiding the team to a decision.‍
  • RAPID responsibility matrix : RAPID stands for Recommend , Agree , Perform , Input , Decide and is another decision-making framework used to define authority vs accountability. The Recommend role kicks things off by suggesting an action, while the Decide role has the ultimate say in how things move forward. ‍
  • CARS : CARS stands for Communicate , Approver , Responsible , Support . In this model, Communicate combines RACI’s Consulted and Informed roles into a single assignment. Someone with the Communicate role lends their expertise and needs to be kept up-to-date on progress. The Approver is the main decision-maker who calls the shots.

Lay a clear path to success with a visual plan that’s easy to understand, and keep everyone in sync with flexible workflows and team collaboration.

create a responsibility assignment matrix

Lots of people use spreadsheets to make a responsibility assignment matrix for their projects, so let’s walk through the basic steps of building one in Excel, using the RACI framework as our model.

Looking for an online solution? See how TeamGantt's RACI feature integrates into your project plan.

1. List project tasks and deliverables in column A

First, make a list of all the work that needs to be done for your project down the left side of your matrix. Enter each project task, milestone, or decision in column A of your Excel worksheet. 

Feel free to group tasks by project phase like we’ve done in the screenshot below. That way, your RACI matrix is easy to scan and read.

Excel RACI Matrix Step 1 - List project tasks and deliverables

2. Add team members or project roles across row 1

Starting with column B, label each column header with the name of a team member and/or project role. 

Include the people who will execute and review work for the project, as well as any subject matter experts or stakeholders you may need to consult or keep in the loop along the way.

Excel RACI Matrix Step 2 - Add project role and team member names

3. Insert a new worksheet for roles and definitions

Click Insert > Insert Sheet from the Home ribbon at the top of your Excel workbook.

Excel RACI Matrix Step 3a - Insert new sheet for roles and definitions

Go to your new worksheet, and list each letter of the RACI acronym in column A. Then enter the corresponding role for each letter in column B. We also included RACI definitions in column C as a handy reference for anyone who might need a refresher.

Excel RACI Matrix Step 3b - Enter roles and definitions

You’ll use this worksheet to populate a drop-down list on the main RACI matrix tab to make it easier to assign roles quickly.

4. Add a drop-down list of roles to your matrix

Now, go back to your main worksheet, and click into the first open cell in your matrix.

On the ribbon, click Data > Data validation to insert a drop-down list with RACI roles.

Excel RACI Matrix Step 4a - Click Data Validation

On the Settings tab, choose List under the Allow menu.

Excel RACI Matrix Step 4b - Select allow list setting

Click into the Source field, then highlight the data range with your options from the RACI Roles & Definitions worksheet you set up in Step 3. We highlighted cells A2-A5 in our example.

Excel RACI Matrix Step 4c - Select data source

Verify your Data validation settings are correct, then hit Enter to add the drop-down list to your selected cell.

Excel RACI Matrix Step 4d - Confirm data validation settings

Copy and paste that cell to apply the drop-down list to other cells in your RACI matrix worksheet.

5. Color-code assignments with conditional formatting

Click Conditional Formatting > New Rule on the Home tab. Select Classic > Format only cells that contain > Specific text > containing . Enter the letter R in the text box, then choose Custom Format , and apply a background color (and any other styles you want). 

Repeat this step for each additional letter in the acronym.

Excel RACI Matrix Step 5 - Color-code responsibility assignments with conditional formatting

6. Assign a RACI value to everyone on every task

You’re almost there! Now go down the list of tasks on your responsibility assignment matrix, and assign a role to every person who will be involved in that project step or deliverable.

Excel RACI Matrix Step 6 - Assign a role to everyone on every task

Want to build a responsibility assignment matrix of your own, but don't want to start from scratch? Download our ready-made Excel template for free. This blank RACI template is fully editable, so you can customize it for any project you manage. 

We added drop-downs for assigning RACI roles more easily and included a RACI chart example tab as reference in case you need a little extra guidance.

Download: RACI matrix template for Excel

Free RACI Template for Excel by TeamGantt

You can easily upload your final matrix to your TeamGantt project . But if you don’t want to worry about outdated spreadsheets that get forgotten once work begins, why not assign RACI roles directly to your plan?

Here’s how to use TeamGantt’s online RACI feature for your next project.

Assigning RACI roles and responsibilities to TeamGantt tasks

  • Open your project, and toggle to the RACI tab. This will display all your project tasks in a list format (rows). On the right side of the matrix, you’ll see a column for each person currently invited to the project with cells for each task in the project. 
  • Click the cell below each person who needs to be assigned a role on a task, and choose one of the RACI options from the drop-down.

Screenshot of TeamGantt's built-in RACI matrix for assigning task responsibilities

Viewing RACI matrix assignments for your project

There are 2 simple ways to view RACI assignments in TeamGantt:

  • From the Gantt tab : If someone is assigned to a task and has a RACI role on that task, the RACI value will appear in parentheses next to that person’s name on the gantt chart. Just be aware that you won’t see RACI assignments for people who haven’t been assigned to a specific task in Gantt view.

Screenshot of RACI roles in a TeamGantt timeline

  • From the RACI tab : To access your project’s full RACI matrix, simply toggle to the RACI tab for that project. You’ll find RACI assignments for every person playing a role—whether or not they’re the one responsible for doing the work.

Screenshot of the RACI tab in a TeamGantt project

Keep teams in sync—and accountable—with TeamGantt

A responsibility assignment matrix is a simple tool that makes projects easier to manage by creating less confusion and more accountability. But you’ve got more than roles and responsibilities to keep straight.

TeamGantt makes it easy to build a project plan your whole team can contribute to and collaborate on. Everything happens online, so you can stay on top of deadlines and monitor progress in real time.

Use our built-in RACI chart to assign roles and keep them visible from project start to finish, so everyone knows how they contribute to success.

Try TeamGantt’s Pro Manager plan free for 30 days!

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Key takeaways

Successful project management depends on a team-wide understanding of roles and responsibilities. Using a RACI matrix to assign and define each role is a great way to keep a project on track and positioned for success.

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How Does a RACI Chart Help Project Managers?

Project managers use RACI charts to keep track of team roles and relay those responsibilities to the larger team. The matrix defines clear roles and responsibilities for individual team members across the various phases of the project, breaking each role down into four types of designation: those who are Responsible and Accountable for project deliverables, those who should be Consulted as work begins, and stakeholders who need to be Informed of ongoing progress, roadblocks, and updates. 

Read more: Project Management Phases

RACI Matrix Definitions 


The individual(s) with responsibility for the task or deliverable is typically responsible for developing and completing the project deliverables themselves. The responsible parties are typically hands-on team members who make direct contributions toward the completion of the project. The responsible team is comprised of the project’s “doers”, working hands-on to ensure that each deliverable is completed. 

Some examples of responsible parties are:

  • Project Managers
  • Business Analysts
  • Graphic Designers
  • Copywriters


Accountable parties ensure accountability to project deadlines, and ultimately, accountability to project completion. This group frequently also falls under the informed category.

Some examples of accountable parties are:

  • Product Owners
  • Signature Authorities
  • Business Owners
  • Key Stakeholders

Consulted individuals’ opinions are crucial, and their feedback needs to be considered at every step of the game. These individuals provide guidance that is often a prerequisite to other project tasks, for example, providing legal guidance on a project throughout the process. If you are working on new product development or expansion, this could essentially be the entire organization.

Some examples of consulted parties are:

  • Legal Experts
  • Information Security and Cybersecurity Experts
  • Compliance Consultants

Informed persons are those that need to stay in the loop of communication throughout the project. These individuals do not have to be consulted or be a part of the decision-making, but they should be made aware of all project updates. Typically, this party are business owners or stakeholders that are more interested in viewing the project at a 30,000-foot view.  Keep this group on your cc list for awareness of topics, decisions, and progress – that includes making them part of the initial project kickoff and project demos as optional attendees. This group often also falls under the accountable group.

Some examples of informed parties are:

  • Project Committee Members
  • External Stakeholders

Read more: DACI vs RACI Model Guide

Why Are RACI Roles Important?

RACI roles provide a sense of organization and clarity for teams that are looking to divide roles and keep team members accountable for their contributions. Considering that 27% of projects go over budget, for reasons like scope creep and lack of defined roles, RACI roles help position a project for success and avoid common pitfalls. 

Moreover, RACI roles help ensure that communication between all roles is ongoing. When you consider that nearly half of all project spending is at risk of being wasted due to a lack of effective team-based communication, it becomes all that more important to prioritize. Ultimately, teams who prioritize communication and well-defined roles are better off, and RACI roles help teams achieve that goal faster – while providing accountability for each team member’s unique contributions to the success of the project. 

Read More: Top 10 Main Causes of Project Failure

How to Create a RACI Matrix 

If you’re looking to implement a RACI matrix as part of your team’s project planning process, take these steps to create a RACI matrix.

Ensure that you have a thorough understanding of the project and its demands before outlining any further steps by communicating with key stakeholders and decision-makers.

Determine the list of key activities and deliverables from the director of program management or other leadership. 

Determine who is needed to be a part of the project or initiative.

Determine the project roles and responsible job titles and persons for each activity and deliverable.

Hold review sessions with key members of the team for alignment, and if you haven’t already, host a kickoff meeting with the entirety of the team and key stakeholders to unveil the matrix, address questions, and more. 

If the project has already started, it’s not too late to implement a RACI matrix.

  • Outline the story. Using research from multiple sources, do a, b, c, and d.
  • Utilize steps 2 and 3 (shown above). Ensure the right groups are assigned and engaged. 
  • Hold a review session. Ensure that the team acknowledges and discusses the plan and the roles assigned.

Read more: 8 Factors That Lead to Successful Projec ts

Examples of a RACI Matrix

RACI matrix example.

As shown above, a RACI matrix helps break down what roles individuals will play as work is carried out and to what extent they will be involved in the project overall. The horizontal axis represents each person on the project team and the vertical axis represents each task.

Each square of the matrix represents an individual, a task, and that individual’s role within the project, either responsible, accountable, consulted, or informed. In this situation, for example, the project manager is accountable for accessing risk, defining performance requirements, creating designs, executing construction, and approving construction work. However, they are only informed about approving construction work and defining functional and aesthetic needs.

Read more: Understanding Different Types of Stakeholders and Their Roles

Our FREE Downloadable RACI Matrix Template

Who creates the raci matrix.

The RACI matrix — sometimes called RACI model, RACI diagram, or simply just RAC — is created by the project manager at the start of the project as a key part of establishing the initial human resources planning for the project. Because miscommunication is a common threat to any project, RACI charts are a great asset to teams dealing with any type of project, from very simple projects to extremely complex ones. 

Common Mistakes When Creating a RACI Matrix

  • Failure to plan ahead: Utilizing a RACI matrix should not be your first step in project planning. Having a fully assembled project team and at least a general idea of a task list and project plans is a better place to start before preparing a matrix.
  • Working with too large a team: A RACI matrix is likely not the best bet for a large team, as it will make the matrix hard to understand and overly complex.
  • Not communicating with the project team: A RACI matrix should help organize tasks and responsibilities that have already been introduced to the project team – no one likes to be blindsided. Be sure to host a kickoff meeting with the team first before creating a RACI matrix.

Frequently Asked Questions

Implementing a RACI matrix takes more than just a few emails and sporadic conversations – it takes consistent communication and planning. You should host a kickoff meeting to introduce the matrix to the team and make a plan to continue meeting at predetermined times throughout the project lifecycle. 

Here are a few more tips to keep in mind as you implement your RACI matrix within the team dynamic:

  • Get everyone prepared. Send the document around to the meeting distribution as read-ahead material, requesting feedback if there are any major concerns. 
  • Roll out each role for the team . During the meeting, conduct a review of the tasks and responsible parties. Do not rush through this review, but rather ensure enough time in your project kickoff for this important aspect. (Be certain to clarify the definitions of RACI to avoid ambiguity.)
  • Consider changes and update accordingly. After the meeting, send out the notes documenting acceptance or updates to the RACI. In addition to sending out the notes, request any corrections within a reasonable yet defined timeframe. Clarify that if no changes are requested, each person is acknowledging their role and committing to the project tasks as outlined.
  • Stay in touch. Consider a quick review with the entire team each quarter or every six months for longer projects to ensure it remains up-to-date and not simply another document in the repository but a relied-upon artifact.

As you implement the RACI matrix…

  • Encourage teamwork and foster collaboration whenever possible.
  • Don’t fear updates – make changes and adjustments as needed (but be sure to communicate those changes clearly to all parties).
  • Earlier is better. Roll out your matrix plan to the team BEFORE you plan to implement it for the best results. 
  • Have a clear-cut understanding of the project scope and how each role connects to the overall project goal.

For “Responsible” Parties:

  • Make sure your project’s definition of Responsible is clear on who holds the “decider” role for the project or project phase’s completion, and what the dimensions of that responsibility will be.
  • Ensure that all parties are aware of their role and responsibilities within the matrix.

For “Accountable” Parties: 

  • When multiple Accountable team members must exist, use your definitions to make clear which individual is accountable for a given project element, and how that individual needs to interact with other Accountable team members.
  • Ensure that there is only one “Accountable” party assigned per task.
  • Be sure that the Accountable party has the authority and power to oversee the task as the accountable party.

For Consulted and Informed Parties: 

  • Consulted parties are often high-level decision-makers with heavy schedules. Make sure you’re clear on their availability ahead of time.
  • Similar to Consulted parties, Informed parties are often less hands-on and have less understanding of day-to-day project operations. As the project goes on, make sure to keep detailed notes to keep the Informed party up-to-date on key information. 
  • Understand the ways that these parties like to communicate and create a plan to reach them early – whether that’s over phone calls, emails, video calls, or from within your project management system’s collaboration tools.
  • Knowing the difference between who needs to be consulted versus informed can be a challenge if there is ambiguity about project roles. Consider what aspects of the project different team members need to know to do their jobs, and then bake those into your definitions.

RACI Matrix Pros & Cons

  • Increased Engagement: RACI helps engage project participants in the project lifecycle. 
  • Enhanced Project Planning: Project managers make project planning more organized, efficient, and detailed.
  • Identifiable Improvement Opportunities: Areas of improvement are more easily identified.
  • Easier Collaboration: Use of a RACI matrix creates a clear path for leadership to sign off on project steps, as project documentation in the RACI model is heavily emphasized.
  • Better Communication: Improves overall group communication as a whole.
  • Group Accountability: Assists groups, especially larger project teams, stay connected and accountable to their roles and project goals
  • Limitations on Role Scope: The RACI model does not provide details on role scope, especially for responsible parties. These gaps in detail also affect other team roles, for example, another gap in a RACI is the determination of who is responsible for verifier and signatory.
  • Limits on Task Details and Scope: While a RACI matrix can provide an overview of who is responsible for different tasks, it will not state what needs to be done.
  • Not Aligned to the Agile Methodology: Project managers using an agile methodology like scrum may find it redundant since accountability, ownership, and ongoing communication is built into the scrum framework (i.e., product owner, scrum master, and daily standups with the team). Additionally, agile focuses on team-based delivery and accountability, while the RACI framework and alternatives focus on individual responsibility and autonomous accountability.

Read more: Top 10 Causes of Project Failure

Free RACI Matrix Templates

A number of project management software solutions include a native RACI matrix template. Here are just a few we’ve found:

Colorful RACI Chart Template

We love this template from Smartsheet because it’s colorful, thorough, and includes room for every party involved in the project. 

RACI template from smartsheet.com.

Pastel Colored RACI Matrix Template

This template from the Academy to Innovate HR is a great choice for project managers who want to organize their team roles with an easy-on-the-eyes chart that evolves beyond the simple spreadsheet. 

RACI matrix template from the Academy to Innovate HR.

Simple RACI Chart from Clickup

These RACI templates from Clickup have enough variety to fit any of your project needs, but are simple enough for even beginner PMs to use.

A simple RACI matrix from clickup.com.

Detailed RACI Matrix Template

This template is a great starter template for anyone looking to explore RACI charts in their project management strategy . As an added bonus – it comes with the RACI definitions already built in!

A detailed RACI matrix template from Vertex42.

Excel-Based RACI Chart Template

Are you an Excel or Google Sheets user looking to take advantage of the RACI matrix? An Excel-formatted template from Project Management Docs can be just the solution for you. This template is a great template for users who want a chart that comes in a pre-formatted structure.

An Excel spreadsheet-based RACI matrix from projectmanagementdocs.com

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The Defense Acquisition Encyclopedia

Program Management

A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) describes the participation of various organizations, people, and their roles in completing tasks or deliverables for a project. The Program Manager (PM) uses it to clarify roles and responsibilities in a cross-functional team , projects, and processes. A RAM has four primary assignments: Responsible , Accountable , Consulted , and Informed (also called a RACI matrix).

Definition: A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) describes the role and responsibilities of various people and/or organizations in completing specific tasks for a project.

Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed (RACI) Matrix

A RAM is called a Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed (RACI) matrix. The PMBOK Guide 4th Edition defines RACI as a RAM that illustrates the connections between work packages or activities and project team members. In fundamental terms, RAM refers to the framework in place to distribute duties to individuals where, in a RACI, each team member is assigned a role based on one of the four roles. On larger projects, RAMs can be developed at various levels.

  • Responsible (R): Those who do the work to achieve the task. There is typically one role with a participation type of responsibility, although others can be delegated to assist in the work required.
  • Accountable (A): The one ultimately accountable for the correct and thorough completion of the deliverable or task, and the one to whom Responsible is accountable. In other words, an Accountable must sign off (Approve) on work that Responsible provides. There must be only one Accountable specified for each task or deliverable.
  • Consulted (C): Those whose opinions are sought and with whom there is two-way communication.
  • Informed (I): Those who are kept up-to-date on progress, often only on completion of the task or deliverable, and with whom there is just one-way communication.

Benefit of Utilizing a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

The RAM holds substantial advantages for project managers by clarifying the importance of their processes within the team. It fosters a sense of collective contribution among all employees, eliminating the sense of isolation. This project management technique, the RAM, empowers every team member to grasp the broader context of their work. Instead of simply instructing an administrative assistant to collect phone numbers without context, you can refer them to this valuable resource. By using the RAM, employees become more engaged in achieving positive results as they comprehend the alignment of their contributions with the company’s overall operations.

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Goal in Project Management

A RAM is used in project management as a communication tool to ensure that work tasks are designated as a responsible agent. A RAM can define what a project team is responsible for within each component of the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) . It could also be used within a working group to designate roles, responsibilities, and levels of authority for specific activities. The matrix format shows all activities associated with one person and all people associated with one activity. This ensures that only one person is accountable for any task to avoid confusion.

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Tutorial

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Standard Format

A RAM is displayed as a chart that illustrates the interaction between work packages that need to be done and project team members. Typically, the list of objectives is on the left-hand column with the project team member names across the top. Each work package will be assigned to the appropriate project team member. The chart aids in communication among the project team members.

No one should typically have more than one degree of responsibility for any given deliverable or activity group in the RAM chart. To simplify things, we’ve assigned each participant in this scenario a certain amount of commitment. However, there is frequently white space when you create a genuine model for more than four people. In some situations, it’s okay to have someone with secondary responsibility but not primary.

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Template

Template: responsibility assignment matrix (ram) (excel), 6 steps to developing a responsibility assignment matrix (ram).

Below is a list of the 6 (six) most common steps in developing a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM).

  • Step 1: List all project tasks and deliverables
  • Step 2: Identify all project stakeholders
  • Step 3: Determine the responsibility and accountability level for each task and deliverable
  • Step 4: Assign stakeholders to each task
  • Step 5: Assign overall stakeholder
  • Step 6: Ensure all stakeholder know their responsibility

Developing Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Matrix Best Practices

Below is a list of best practice topics that can help Program Managers effectively build and use a Responsibility Assignment Matrix.

  • One stakeholder is in charge per task.
  • The least amount of people accountable, the better.
  • Be Efficient with Meetings.
  • Constant Communication.
  • Stakeholders agree on final RAM

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Lessons Learned

A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is a tool used in project management to identify and clarify the roles and responsibilities of the different people or groups working on a project. The goal of making a RAM is to make sure that all tasks are done and that responsibilities don’t overlap or get missed. Here are some things you can learn to make sure your RAM is built right:

  • Define the project’s goals and scope in detail:  Before making a RAM, it’s important to have a clear idea of the project’s goals and scope. This will help make sure that all necessary tasks are included and that the responsibilities are in line with the overall project goals.
  • Find out who all the stakeholders are and what their roles are:  A RAM should have a list of all the people or groups involved in the project, such as internal team members, external partners, and customers. There should be roles and responsibilities for each stakeholder.
  • Give each stakeholder specific tasks and responsibilities:  Instead of giving each stakeholder a general role, it is important to give them specific tasks and responsibilities. This will help make sure that no one’s responsibilities get mixed up or left out.
  • Make sure that all stakeholders know about and understand the RAM:  It is important to make sure that all stakeholders know about and understand the RAM. This can be done by having regular meetings and giving updates, as well as by putting the RAM in writing.
  • Review and update the RAM often: As the project moves forward, it may be necessary to review and update the RAM. This can help make sure that the RAM stays correct and helps the project reach its goals.

Difference Between a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RMA) and a Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed (RACI) Matrix

The PMBOK Guide 4th Edition defines RACI as a RAM that is used to illustrate the connections between work packages in a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and project team members. The difference between a RAM matrix and RACI matrix is:

  • A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) describes the participation of various organizations, people, and their roles in completing tasks or deliverables in a Work Break Down Structure (WBS) for a project.
  • A Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed (RACI) matrix is used on projects where multiple groups of people as assigned a task. It helps on larger projects with a lot of people and organizations. It also helps with outside stakeholders and their responsibilities on a project.
  • A RACI can have multiple RAM within it.

AcqLinks and References:

  • Template: Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Template (Word)
  • Template: Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Template (Excel)

Updated: 1/11/2024

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The Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

Knowing where the buck ultimately stops.

By the Mind Tools Content Team

create a responsibility assignment matrix

It takes a lot of effort to keep a large project running smoothly. With a large number of variables, people, and deliverables, it’s hard to keep on top of everything that’s happening. Consider the following scenario:

Hal (the distressed project manager): "What do you mean, we don’t have the test results yet?! What has Katy been doing? Get Katy!"

Katy: "No, Hal, I wasn’t responsible for getting that done. Joan has more expertise in that area, remember? I’ll ask Joan what happened."

Joan: "Gee, Katy, I know I have more experience with these reports, but I was waiting for you to contact me so we could review them together."

Do you recognize anyone you know? This type of situation is repeated daily in organizations across the globe. And most of the time, there’s no incompetence or bad intentions involved. More often, problems like this are the result of inadequate planning and poor communication.

Successful projects have a clear breakdown of who is ultimately responsible for each aspect of the project. Without clear, written, and agreed-upon accountability, it’s far too easy to for communication to fail and for responsibilities to be muddled.

So how do you avoid this?

Developing a Responsibility Assignment Matrix

One tool that project managers use to keep these assignments clear is the Responsibility Assignment Matrix (also called the RAM, or the Responsibility Matrix). This matches deliverables with the people who are responsible for them. For every piece of the project, the matrix shows who needs to contribute what for the project to be completed.

For example, let’s say that you’re upgrading your customer service delivery system, and you need to train your staff to use new procedures and tools.

Step One: Define Your Deliverables

Using a Work Breakdown Structure , you define three key deliverables for this training project, with a few subcategories for each:

  • Survey current practice.
  • Define new practice.
  • Locate resources.
  • Prepare training schedule.
  • Manage training.
  • Re-survey practices after implementation.
  • Analyze results.

create a responsibility assignment matrix

A Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is a project planning tool used to break a project down into smaller, more manageable pieces of work (deliverables). It's not a list of every task: rather, it's a "tree" structure showing the meaningful groups of activities that make up the main segments of the project.

Step Two: Identify the People Involved

Map out who is on your project team. By creating a chart of individuals who are available, you can then delegate work assignments based on expertise, and you can recruit talent that you’re missing. This step is often called an “Organization Breakdown Structure” because it creates an organizational chart for your team.

create a responsibility assignment matrix

Step Three: Create Your Responsibility Matrix

Draw a matrix. The deliverables are the column headings, and the people are the row titles.

With your team, determine accountabilities as well as other levels of involvement for each item in your Work Breakdown Structure.

A useful framework to determine role assignments is RACI . This defines four levels of involvement:

R = Responsible (People who do the work). A = Accountable (People who make sure the work gets done). C = Consulted (People who provide input before and during the work). I = Informed (People who are kept informed of progress).

Project Management Institute, "A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide)" – Fifth Edition, (2013). Copyright and all rights reserved. Material from this publication has been reproduced with the permission of PMI.

Other levels of involvement may include “assist”, “coordinate”, “sign off”, and “review”. You can decide how to assign responsibility for your project and your team. But you must be sure that ultimate accountability and responsibility for performing the work are agreed upon and communicated.

Step Four: Communicate

When your Responsibility Assignment Matrix is complete, communicate it to all stakeholders. It’s a good idea to post it in an area where people will see it. Used effectively, the RAM helps people understand what they should be doing at all stages of the project.

Project teams can easily lose focus on what needs to be done and who needs to do it. People may assume that somebody else is doing something – and before long, key pieces of work fall behind schedule.

To avoid this common problem, consider developing a Responsibility Assignment Matrix for your team. This matrix clearly identifies which role each team member has agreed to take on for each of the project’s main deliverables.

With these assignments, you can eliminate miscommunication about who’s doing what – and you can help to ensure that your project is successful.

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Responsibility Assignment Matrix: Template, Example & Benefits

Home Blog Project Management Responsibility Assignment Matrix: Template, Example & Benefits

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Your team is the most crucial resource in completing a job. They must adhere to the project's schedule and budget. Controlling the project requires everyone involved to understand their roles and duties when carrying out tasks and accomplishing project objectives. How can all the participants in a project be coordinated so that they are aware of what they are doing and do not prevent others from carrying out their tasks? An assignment of responsibility matrix can be useful.

Your project will have a productive crew thanks to an assignment matrix. You can take an online PMP course to learn the details included in RAM, Responsibility Assignment Matrix in project management, and Responsibility Assignment Matrix example, to advance your career.

What is a Responsibility Assignment Matrix in Project Management?

So, what is the responsibility assignment matrix?  A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM), sometimes referred to as a RACI chart or RACI matrix, in project management identifies all relevant stakeholders and specifies roles for cross-functional teams and their level of involvement in a project. Each letter in the acronym RACI, which stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed, refers to a different team member in the Responsibility Assignment Matrix in Project Management.

1. Responsible

The team member that oversees finishing the assignment is the person responsible for the RAM, Responsibility Assignment Matrix. The person in charge may be tasked with gathering all the visual and data assets required to put together the presentation if your team is working on a pitch deck (Responsible for executing the task).

2. Accountable

The responsible team member distributes the tasks to the other team members and ensures that they are finished accurately and on time. This team member oversees making sure the project is completed on schedule and that the tasks are fairly distributed among the accountable parties (Has governing & directing authority).

3. Consulted

A responsible party in Responsibility Assignment Matrix Project Management may frequently need to consult an expert, who serves as the consulted person, to finish certain responsibilities. A professional analysis of the consulted party is required when someone is tasked with gathering marketing statistics for a presentation. They also need to ensure that the data the responsible party is required to submit is accurate (Provide insights, analysis or expert judgment).

4. Informed

The informed party needs to be aware of when the major project components are finished even though they may not be directly involved in all the steps to ensure that everything is running smoothly. The informed team member must be aware of any delays or stalls in the project as they must complete their tasks (Updated with project information and outcome).

Responsibility Assignment Matrix in Project Management

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Goal in Project Management

The goal of the Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is to clearly define roles and responsibilities of everyone on a project team. This ensures that everyone understands their role and how it fits into the bigger picture. RAM also allows for quick identification of whom to contact when an issue arises. It might also be applied within a working group to establish authority levels, roles, and duties for tasks.

The matrix format displays each person's associated actions and each person's associated people. To avoid confusion, this makes sure that there is only one person responsible for each task. It is also important to outline the dates and reminders for each participant, so that they are aware of their deliverables/plans to fulfill the deliverables. The best Project Management Certification programs online will teach you how to make efficient decisions and effectively use RAM.

How to Create a Responsibility Assignment Matrix?

A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is a table that shows the tasks needed to be completed as part of a project, who is responsible for each task, and when the task needs to be completed. Making a matrix to distribute responsibilities is not as challenging as getting everyone on board with their respective jobs and responsibilities.

You should therefore involve your staff in the process, receive their feedback, and eventually secure their buy-in without expending excessive time and effort on it. You will have a successful responsibility assignment if you follow these instructions to ensure that everyone is on the same page. 

  • List every person involved in the project, including the team, stakeholders, and everyone in between.
  •  List each project deliverable that you can think of. To make sure you do not overlook any, use a work breakdown framework.  
  •  To discuss how to carry out the tasks and produce the deliverables, meet with the team members. The duty and authority of the team for each assignment must be discussed.
  •  Utilizing a table with the project tasks specified in the left-hand column, create a Responsibility Assignment Matrix. Print the names of everyone involved in the project across the top.
  • Assign whether a project team member is liable, accountable, consulted, or informed where the tasks meet them.  
  •  Share the completed Responsibility Assignment Matrix Template Word with the project team and stakeholders. If necessary, conduct a meeting to ensure that everyone is aware of their responsibilities for the project. Print a copy, and if you are working in a common location, post it.

Developing Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Best Practices

The best practices for developing a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) will vary depending on the specific project and organization. However, some tips on how to develop a RAM matrix effectively include the following:

  • Define the project scope and objectives clearly, so that all stakeholders understand the parameters of the project and what is expected to be accomplished.
  • Assign clear roles and responsibilities to individuals and teams so that everyone knows who is responsible for what aspect of the project.
  • Make sure that the Responsibility Assignment Matrix PMP is kept up to date as the project progresses so that everyone is aware of any changes in roles and responsibilities.
  • Use the RAM matrix as a tool to help identify potential risks and issues related to the project so that they can be addressed early on.
  • One stakeholder leads a task.
  • The lesser number of people are accountable, the better.
  • Act efficiently with meetings.
  • Continuous communication.
  • Stakeholder agreement on final RAM.

Responsibility Assignment Matrix Examples and Templates

  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RACI) 
  • RACI-VS (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed- “V”erification and “S”ign off)
  • RASCI (Responsible, Accountable, Support, Consulted, Informed)
  • RAC (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted)
  • ARCI (Accountable, Responsible, Consulted, Informed)
  • RATSI (Responsibility, Authority, Task, Support, Informed)
  • PACSI (Perform, Accountable, Control, Suggest, Informed)
  • RACIQ (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, Informed, Quality Review)
  • DACI (Driver, Approver, Contributors, Informed)
  • CAIRO (Consulted, Accountable, Informed, Responsible, Omitted)

sample responsible assignment matrix - RACI

Downloadable Responsibility Assignment Matrix Template Excel

Download the Responsibility Assignment Matrix Template (xlsx) here!

This Responsibility Assignment Matrix template is available for free in both Excel and OpenDocument Spreadsheet formats. The template can be completely modified using Microsoft Excel and adjusted to meet the needs of your project. To make it simple to understand what is required of each worker on each task, the template employs conditional formatting to change the color of each cell.

Download a Printable Responsibility Assignment Matrix PDF

Download the Responsibility Assignment Matrix Template (PDF) here!

If you intend to design a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM), you may require samples and templates to use as a guide, regardless of whether you are managing an event, a construction project, or a restaurant. Some of the templates are-

  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix Sample
  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix for Construction Project Template
  • Basic Responsibility Assignment Matrix Sample
  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix in PDF

Benefits of Responsibility Assignment Matrix

There are many benefits of the Responsibility Assignment Matrix. One benefit is that it helps to ensure that everyone on a project team understands their roles and responsibilities. This can help to prevent misunderstandings and conflict between team members. Another benefit of using RAM is that it can help to improve communication between team members.

By clearly defining roles and responsibilities, team members will know whom to go to for specific information or tasks. This can help to avoid confusion and delays. Lastly, RAM can help to improve project management by providing a clear overview of who is responsible for what. This can help project managers to identify potential problems or areas where there may be a lack of resources.

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A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is a tool used to identify and define the roles and responsibilities of individuals and groups within an organization. It is a means of clarifying who is responsible for what and ensuring that everyone understands their roles and responsibilities. RAM can be used to create accountability and ownership for tasks and projects, and to identify potential areas of conflict.

It is a valuable tool for effective project management and can help to ensure that everyone involved in a project is aware of their roles and responsibilities. It can also help to identify potential areas of conflict and ensure that tasks are properly assigned. The KnowledgeHut online PMP course will give you an insight into the Responsibility Assignment Matrix and can be a helpful tool for any project manager.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. what is included in a responsibility assignment matrix.

A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is a tool used to help define and assign roles and responsibilities for a project or process. The matrix typically includes a list of tasks or deliverables and the people or groups responsible for each. 

2. What can a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) eliminate?

RAM eliminates ambiguity and confusion over who is responsible for what on a project. It also provides a clear overview of who is responsible for each task, making it easier to hold team members accountable.

3. What does a Responsibility Assignment Matrix not show?

The duty assignment matrix links resources to the tasks or work packages they must do, but it does not indicate when they will be required to do their work.


Kevin D.Davis

Kevin D. Davis is a seasoned and results-driven Program/Project Management Professional with a Master's Certificate in Advanced Project Management. With expertise in leading multi-million dollar projects, strategic planning, and sales operations, Kevin excels in maximizing solutions and building business cases. He possesses a deep understanding of methodologies such as PMBOK, Lean Six Sigma, and TQM to achieve business/technology alignment. With over 100 instructional training sessions and extensive experience as a PMP Exam Prep Instructor at KnowledgeHut, Kevin has a proven track record in project management training and consulting. His expertise has helped in driving successful project outcomes and fostering organizational growth.

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  • Project management |

Your guide to RACI charts, with examples

Julia Martins contributor headshot

Can you identify exactly who’s doing what by when for each task, milestone, and deliverable in your project? If not, you might need a RACI chart.

RACI is an acronym to help teams clarify project roles and figure out who the responsible party is for any given task. Whether you've never heard of RACI before or you’re considering creating a RACI chart for your next project, here’s everything you need to know about how to create and use these charts.

What is a RACI chart?

Responsible.  This person is directly in charge of the work. There should only ever be one Responsible role per task so you know who to go to with questions or updates. If a task has more than one Responsible person, you can lose clarity and cause confusion. Instead, aim to add additional collaborators as some of the other RACI roles, which can have more than one person.

Accountable.  The Accountable person is responsible for overseeing overall task completion, though they may not be the person actually doing the work. There are two ways to assign an Accountable role. Sometimes, the Accountable is the project manager (or even the Responsible, though in that case the person is taking on two different roles during the task workflow). In these cases, the Accountable is responsible for making sure all of the work gets done. In other cases, the Accountable is a senior leader or executive who is responsible for approving the work before it’s considered complete. Like the Responsible role, there should only ever be one Accountable.

Consulted.  This will be the person or people who should review and sign off on the work before it’s delivered. There may be multiple Consulted roles for each task,  project milestone , or deliverable.

Informed.  This is the person or group of people who are informed about the progress and completion of work. They probably are not involved in any other aspect of the deliverable.

When should I create RACI charts?

RACI charts are a helpful way to track each stakeholder’s role for a task, milestone, or deliverable—especially if you’re managing a complex project with many decision makers and subject matter experts. With a RACI chart, you can prevent poor decision making and avoid roadblocks in the approvals process that could impact overall project success.

These charts, while different from PERT charts , are especially useful if your stakeholders may be taking on different roles throughout the project. For example, there could be a stakeholder who is Responsible on one deliverable but Informed on another. With a RACI chart, you can clearly outline these details and make sure everyone knows who’s responsible for what.

Example of a RACI chart

To build a RACI chart, list every task, milestone, or deliverable for your project. Then, identify who the Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed team members are for each one.

Let’s say you’re updating the homepage on your website.  Project stakeholders  include:

Head of website

Web developer

You want to create a RACI chart for five tasks and deliverables:

Update homepage CTAs

Update customer story on homepage

Revamp website design

Improve homepage loading speed

Update homepage design

The RACI chart would look like:

Responsible: Copywriter

Accountable: Web developer

Consulted: Head of website

Informed: Designer

Revamp video on homepage

Responsible: Designer

Informed: Copywriter

Responsible: Web developer

Informed: Copywriter & Designer

Pros and cons of RACI charts

Ultimately, the question is: should you create a RACI chart? While RACI charts are a useful tool to identify project responsibilities, they can get a little cumbersome over the lifecycle of a project. Here are the pros and cons of creating a RACI chart for your team’s work:

The benefits of RACI charts

Clear project roles and responsibilities can help your team move fast and reduce confusion about who’s working on what. With a RACI chart, you can ensure you don’t have two team members working on the same thing. As a result, you’ll have an easier time  collaborating  with your team.

RACI charts are also particularly helpful when the decision-making process is split between tasks. There might be scenarios where the Informed on one task or milestone is the Responsible or Consulted on another—in order to have that clearly defined, it’s helpful to track this work in a RACI chart.

RACI chart pitfalls (and how to avoid them)

RACI models focus on the granular, instead of capturing work at the project level. You might know who the Consulted is on a particular task—which is helpful—but knowing that doesn’t help you understand how various stakeholders interact with the broader project work.

Additionally, if you attempt to write out each task and each role, your RACI chart can get bulky. Worse, if your project changes in some way, your RACI chart would immediately become outdated. That can make it hard for you to gain real-time clarity about where each task is in your project workflow.

RACI charts are limited because they aren’t able to adapt to your project needs in real time. In order to establish clear expectations and eliminate confusion on the project level, you need a  project management tool .

Take your RACI chart to the next level

With project management software, every task has an assignee—that’s the Responsible. You can see work on the project level, so the Accountable and Informed don’t have to check in via email or status meetings. And, for any approvals you need from your Consulted, you can track reviews and approvals in one place. That way, your entire RACI team has a central source of truth for all of the work being done.

[Product UI] Brand campaign RACI chart (Lists)

Instead of having your RACI chart separate from where the work is happening, project management tools capture the topic, assignee, and other important information like the task due date or relative importance. That way, your entire project team has visibility into who’s doing what by when—and you’re not relying on a single person to manage and update your RACI chart. Project management tools update in real time, so you can see exactly where you are in the approval process.

Track who’s doing what by when

Clear team roles and responsibilities help you hit your deliverables on time. Tracking different and complex stakeholder responsibilities in a RACI chart can help you do that—but RACI charts are just the beginning. Learn more about  work management , and how your team can benefit.

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Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

Responsibilty Assignment Matrix - Toolshero

Responsibility Assignment Matrix: this article explains the Responsibility Assignment Matrix in a practical way. After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful project management tool used by management professionals. This article also contains a downloadable and editable Responsibility Assignment Matrix template and a free in-depth explanation video.

What is the Responsibility Assignment Matrix or RAM?

Project managers like using a RAM to identify the role of the various members of a project team. This matrix is a structural chart in which is visually made clear (on paper or through project management software) what should be done by whom in cross functional or departmental projects.

In the matrix it is clear what the project tasks, roles and responsibilities are of each of the project team members. It is also referred to as the RACI matrix , VERI matrix or Linear Responsibility Chart (LCR).

Free Toolshero ebook

It’s often used as an integral part of the Work Breakdown Structure .

RAM video (1-Minute Skill Booster)

Our 1-Minute Skill Booster below will help you get a quick overview on the RAM and at the end of this article you will find an in-depth video on this project management tool.

Responsibility Assignment Matrix example

Despite the simple nature of all information in the matrix memory, it can be very time-consuming to assign each member of the project team with the right tasks and responsibilities.

In addition the appropriate roles must be defined in advance before they are included in the RAM.

RACI Matrix example - toolshero

Figure 1 – The Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) / RACI Matrix

To do this well and accurately, the matrix can be completed using the following steps:

  • Step 1: Identify all the participants and (facilities) supporters of the project.
  • Step 2: Identify all the deliverables for the project.
  • Step 3: Discuss with all team members how they can support each other to achieve the best performance. It is important to define each participant’s responsibilities so that there will be no misunderstandings on who is responsible for completing the tasks at hand.
  • Step 4: The initial draft of the RAM is created, with the activities in the left-hand column and the team members in the project in the first right-hand column. Enter the roles that each person will have in the cells that have been formed. An example of this can be seen in the form of a RACI chart (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed) above. Note that only one person can be accountable for each task.
  • Step 5: Have the participants in the project approve the RAM (in writing). Again to prevent misunderstandings.
  • Step 6: Any remarks on changes in the RAM can be filed by the participants in writing. Finally, the responsibility assignment matrix will be reviewed and after approval has been obtained, the project can start.
  • Step 7: Interim assessment is important. When it appears that it is better to adjust the RAM, you will have to go back to step 3 and the adjustments must be discussed with all team members.

Responsibility Assignment Matrix and complex projects

The RAM is also suitable for complex projects. When activities are overlooked and the matrix contains incomplete and/or inaccurate information, this will lead to duplicated efforts.

It is therefore advisable to ensure that all information is included in the matrix and that all information is and remains accurate.

The following suggestions contribute to a larger chance of success of a matrix in a complex project:

1. Hierarchy of charts

Divide the RAM into separate graphs so that a distinction can be made according to priorities .

The RAM with the highest levels identifies the high-priority activities within the project.

From this point RAM-graphs can be developed that have been derived from this higher level.

2. Involvement

By involving all the members of the project team in the development of the RAM, they will know exactly what is expected of them and they will participate and be (more) committed to using their own specializations.

3. Written representation

By putting the RAM in writing, any mistakes or problems can be identified.

Moreover, the participants in the project will have a better understanding of what their joint participation in the project is.

Role identification

In a RAM the role of the individual and the role of the group are not separated. The role describes the participation with accompanying tasks of the individual in the project.

Such a role can be performed by several people in a group.

Vice versa, one person may have several roles in the project. This is why several employees can have the role of project manager and one individual may have the role of manager and task performer.

Responsibility Assignment Matrix template

Start visualizing what the tasks and responsibilities are of each team member with this ready to use RAM template.

Download the Responsibility Assignment Matrix template

Responsibility assignment matrix (ram) video (in depth-explainer).

Watch the in-depth video below for a recap of what you’ve just read, so you will remember it more easily!

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It’s Your Turn

What do you think? Is the Responsibility Assignment Matrix in today’s modern project- and stakeholder management? Do you recognize the practical explanation or do you have more additions? What are your success factors for good stakeholder management during a project?

Share your experience and knowledge in the comments box below.

More information

  • Project Management Institute (2010). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge ( PMBOK Guide) . PMI Standards Committee.
  • Baker, D. (2009). Multi-Company Project Management: Maximizing Business Results Through Strategic Collaboration . J Ross.
  • Cleland, D. and Ireland, L. (2006). Project management: strategic design and implementation . McGraw-Hill .

How to cite this article: Mulder, P. (2012). Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) . Retrieved [insert date] from Toolshero: https://www.toolshero.com/project-management/responsibility-assignment-matrix/

Original publication date:: 03/26/2012 | Last update: 02/28/2024

Add a link to this page on your website: <a href=”https://www.toolshero.com/project-management/responsibility-assignment-matrix/”>Toolshero: Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)</a>

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Patty Mulder

Patty Mulder

Patty Mulder is an Dutch expert on Management Skills, Personal Effectiveness and Business Communication. She is also a Content writer, Business Coach and Company Trainer and lives in the Netherlands (Europe). Note: all her articles are written in Dutch and we translated her articles to English!


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What is a RACI matrix? (with examples)

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Say your team is asked to design a new product feature. Exciting news—but you'll need more information before you get cracking. Who's approving the project, building it, and managing the timeline? The quickest way to collect and communicate that information is a RACI matrix, a diagram that shows who's doing what on your project.

With this guide, you'll discover:

  • What a RACI matrix is, and how it assists with project management
  • How to improve your project plan with a responsibility matrix
  • How to build your own RACI diagram with FigJam's RACI chart template

What is a RACI matrix?

A RACI matrix—often called a RACI chart or responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)—is a project management tool that captures the roles and responsibilities of project stakeholders. Team members can see who does what at a glance, clarifying different roles across complex projects. The acronym RACI stands for:

  • Responsible refers to the individual or group performing a particular task. For example, the UX team might be tapped as the responsible party for mapping out specific product design features. Make sure each task has at least one responsible person.
  • Accountable refers to the person who ensures a task is completed successfully. To avoid confusion, make sure teach task has only one accountable role. This is usually filled by a manager or a high-level team member with the authority to delegate project tasks.
  • Consulted describes individuals whose feedback factors into project workflows, but aren't involved in day-to-day tasks. This includes subject matter experts or decision makers who are consulted for input or sign-off on project milestones. For example, a business analyst may be consulted about competitive research to inform design decisions.
  • Informed describes anyone who needs updates on task progress across project phases, but isn't necessarily involved in task execution. For example, developers building design features may need real-time updates on design task completion or setbacks to plan their work.

In this matrix example , the UI designer is responsible for creating the design and the product owner is accountable for making sure that design gets done. The content writer may be consulted, and the CEO is informed about project milestones.

4 key benefits of a RACI matrix

The RACI matrix is commonly used in agile and scrum methodologies because it helps keep complex projects moving toward successful completion in four key ways:

1. Role clarity

By clearly defining Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed roles, a RACI matrix minimizes confusion, ambiguity, and overlap. This ensures that everyone involved in the project is on the same page and understands what is expected of them.

2. Communication

A RACI matrix outlines who should be consulted and informed at every stage of the project. This invites open and consistent communication—the lifeblood of any team project.

3. Efficiency

Outlining distinct roles and responsibilities with a RACI chart helps streamline team efforts and clarify project tasks, helping your project run smoother and faster.

4. Accountability

When you put your RACI matrix on your project dashboard, everyone can see who's responsible for which tasks and project deliverables. This establishes shared accountability, fostering teamwork and ownership among team members.

How to build a RACI matrix in 5 steps

You can create a RACI matrix for effective project management in five steps using this RACI matrix template in FIgJam.

  • Outline all tasks. Start by listing all the tasks or deliverables for the project. In the first column of your table, prioritize and arrange tasks in the order they must be accomplished.
  • Identify project team members. Name all team members or stakeholders involved in the project. List them across the top row.
  • Assign project roles. For each specific task, assign RACI roles (Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed) to the appropriate team member. Make sure to assign one accountable person per task, to keep project progress on track.
  • Review and revise. Double check that each project task is identified and every team member's role is represented. Leaving out tasks or roles can create confusion and leave project gaps. Plan regular reviews to update the matrix with ongoing changes, like completed tasks, role shifts, or new tasks.
  • Communicate and implement. Whenever possible, involve the whole team in the creation of the RACI matrix. To build buy-in and understanding. Once project team members and stakeholders sign off on the matrix, incorporate the tasks into your project management process.

3 alternative approaches to RACI charts

While the RACI model is widely used, this exhaustive list provides alternatives. These three may be more suitable depending on a project's or organization's needs:

  • RAPID : This methodology created by Bain & Company coordinates decision-making in five steps: Recommend, Agree, Perform, Input, Decide.
  • DACI : This framework aids group decision-making by assigning specific roles: Driver, Approver, Contributor and Informed.
  • RASCI : This variation of the RACI model acronym includes an additional "S" for Supportive team members.

Jumpstart your RACI matrix with FigJam

To make your own RACI matrix, try the free FigJam RACI matrix template . Then finesse your matrix with these pro tips:

  • To get your team involved with your RACI, use FigJam's collaborative features like stamps, stickers, emotes, and high-fives .
  • Transform tasks and deliverables into actionable to-dos with FigJam's task management widgets, project management integrations, and Gantt chart maker .
  • Customize your matrix with brand elements from your company's Figma brand library.
  • For more inspiration, browse the library of RACI matrix templates shared by the Figma design community.

Ready to assign project roles and responsibilities?

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A Comprehensive Project Management Guide for Everything RACI

By Kate Eby | July 15, 2016 (updated September 5, 2023)

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To ensure collaboration and project success, it is crucial for all project stakeholders to understand their roles and responsibilities and those of other project members. This is especially important when project teams are more complex due to their large size, involvement of distributed team members, or reliance on staff from multiple departments. 

RACI stands for Responsible Accountable Consulted Informed. While its origins are murky, the RACI matrix has been adopted by many organizations to associate roles with project deliverables. One Six Sigma tutorial describes RACI this way:

“Typically a task is associated with at least one role or in some cases multiple roles. This ‘Association’ of the role with a task can be divided into the following four association types:

  • R esponsible
  • A ccountable

The above four types of association of a role to a task represented in a simple task vs. role diagram or matrix is called RACI (pronounced ‘racey’) matrix. So basically the RACI matrix is a responsibility assignment matrix (RAM), designed to assign tasks, activities, responsibilities, accountability, decision making, support to team members of a process/project, and clarify expectations on the level of their participation.” Here is an example of a RACI matrix:

create a responsibility assignment matrix

This guide will explain when to use RACI, why it works, guidelines to use it effectively, and the role it can play in effective project management in all industries from construction to healthcare. Lastly, we'll show you that once you've created your own matrix, you'll need a collaborative, real-time tool, like Smartsheet, to manage the rest of the project details — from start to finish.

The Four Association Types

RACI has four association types: responsible, accountable, consulted, and informed. Responsible roles produce deliverables; accountable roles check the deliverables; consulted roles advise on tasks; and informed roles are kept informed throughout these processes.

  • Responsible: These roles are responsible for completing the task or deliverable. For example, if the responsibility role is a technical writer, this person may be responsible for writing online help files. A software developer wouldn’t write the help files, but might incorporate those files into the product, which would be defined as a different task.
  • Accountable: This type of role has the final authority on (or is accountable for) the task’s completion. To take the previous example of a technical writer developing online help and a software developer incorporating the help files, a product manager might be responsible for ensuring that the files make it into the product.
  • Consulted: This role functions as an adviser to a task. For example, a team may consult with a Scrum Master as a subject matter expert (SME). Consider advisers carefully, as having too many people in this role can stretch the task time and raise the risk of poor performance.
  • Informed: Informed team members are kept up to date on task completion. Charting this role helps to illustrate dependencies among tasks and also ensures transparency into task status. It can be difficult to identify those who need to be informed, so consult various roles to determine who needs status updates. For example, the sales manager may require status updates because a customer has a special interest in feature development.

When to Use RACI

A RACI model is a useful tool for general project management. Use a RACI matrix when processes are stalled due to role confusion, or when role authority is not clearly outlined. We’ve outlined some common use cases for RACI below:  

  • If the approval process is bogged down, it may be due to role confusion.
  • If decisions are being overruled often and seemingly arbitrarily, this is also a situation that can benefit from clarifying roles.
  • Another situation that frequently occurs is that many people perform the same analysis tasks. When tasks are not getting done, it may be that nobody knows who should be doing them.
  • When the authority to perform tasks is not understood, it may be time to define roles and tasks, responsibilities, and authority.

Eliminating this sort of confusion and clarifying roles and tasks is the chief function of a RACI Matrix.

RACI is among the most popular models, but there are several alternatives, including:

  • PACSI – Used in situations where multiple stakeholders can review and veto the work of a single accountable person. The roles include Performed, Accountable, Control, Suggested, and Informed.
  • RAPID – Created by Bain & Company to clarify decision accountability through clear role and responsibility delineation. The roles include Recommend, Agree, Perform, Input, and Decide.

The Value of RACI

Implementing a RACI model helps you to involve the most qualified people in your projects. Project managers can use RACI to quickly develop charts that provide clarity to the team. Some major benefits of the RACI model are as follows:

  • Eliminating role confusion.
  • Preventing over-allocation of resources to one project and under-allocation to another.
  • Clearly defining roles to all the people who fill them (clear understanding of expectations is key to a smooth project and reduces the need for conflict resolution later).
  • Ensuring no task is overlooked when resources are allocated.
  • Providing a fast and efficient way to re-allocate resources when there is turnover. New people can quickly identify their roles in a project and the roles of those with whom they must interact.

Finally, because the Informed category is given equal weight, the RACI Matrix encourages communication between roles. Communication is the key to clearly understanding expectations, which results in a smooth project.

RACI Matrices

A RACI matrix is a collection of all project activities associated with the people or roles responsible for each. Your matrix should include all project elements, including planning, testing, design, and support.

To create a RACI matrix, consider the following steps: 

  • Decide How to Chart the Matrix: You can use any number of tools or templates, including a spreadsheet, whiteboard, or software solution.
  • Identify the Project Tasks or Deliverables: Meet with key stakeholders to develop a list of project tasks. For this discussion, tasks include necessary activities, like meetings or events, as well as tangible deliverables, like features or products. Plot tasks across the X or Y axis of the matrix. For example, if you are charting a software project developed under Agile, the sprint demo meeting may be a required activity and should be included in the matrix as a task. Don’t forget to add maintenance of the RACI Matrix as its own task. The project manager usually maintains the RACI Matrix.
  • Identify the Project Roles: Project roles are labeled across the other axis of the matrix. The project roles make the matrix more understandable and can be useful for adding any data you may have forgotten. As you identify roles, add any tasks that apply to those roles on the task axis. The task axis is also useful for identifying roles and clarifying resource allocation. This is a good time to assign names to roles as well — one name per role is optimal.
  • Label the Intersections of the Axes: Where the X and Y axes intersect, label the intersection with an R, A, C , or I to finalize the matrix with who should be responsible, accountable, consulted, or informed on each task.

RACI Guidelines

While RACI matrices will differ by project, there are some broad guidelines that you should always follow. Above all, your matrix should encourage teamwork and inform all people of their roles and assignments. We’ve laid out additional best practices below: 

  • Avoid multiple levels of oversight – one level is enough 
  • Encourage teamwork
  • Maintain chart fluidity – make changes as needed and let people know when things change
  • Assign only one Accountable per task
  • Ensure Accountable assignees have authority to ensure the task is complete
  • Avoid too many consultants as they can take up too much time (waiting for answers, gathering input, etc.) while too few can damage performance, so try to find the "sweet spot”  
  • Inform everyone with a role of their assignment

Finding the Right RACI Template

RACI templates save time and provide a starting point for building your chart. Choose a simple, customizable template to ensure that it is as useful as possible for all team and project types.

Some templates use the X axis for the tasks and Y for roles, and others do the opposite. If tasks exceed roles, as they generally do, it is easier to use the X axis for tasks and the Y for roles as you will be able to see the greatest number of roles per task at a glance on most computer monitors. On the other hand, you may find it easier to filter a chart based on role (for instance, filtering to show only the “I” roles for a given task) with the tasks on the X axis. In addition, most templates use some form of color-coding.

Regardless of which template you select, using one will eliminate a lot of basic work in constructing the chart and will free your time to define roles and tasks.

RACI Project Management

RACI project management focuses on creating and managing a RACI matrix to identify and resolve conflicts in roles and revise role categorization. You should approach analysis as a team and encourage all roles to provide feedback.

A RACI Matrix is analyzed vertically and horizontally. Here are some things to look for when reviewing the role axis (whether this is horizontal or vertical):

  • If one role has too many responsibilities, should some responsibilities be reallocated or should more people be assigned to the role?
  • If only one person is Accountable, is it reasonable to expect that person to make all decisions and could it threaten the project by creating a bottleneck?
  • Here are some things to look for when reviewing the Task axis (whether this is horizontal or vertical):
  • If there is a task with no one Responsible, should someone be assigned or should the task be eliminated?
  • If there is a task where no one is Accountable, who has decision-making authority?
  • If there are multiple people Accountable for a task, avoid conflicts by making a single person accountable. 
  • If too many people must be consulted, evaluate whether one person can be assigned who talks with others involved.

It is common, during the life of a project, to have team members experience role confusion. A RACI matrix is useful for clearly identifying roles associated with a project and improving productivity, especially when you’re suffering from role confusion. Some signs of role confusion are:

  • Concern over who makes decisions —Decision-makers are usually labeled as Accountable, but it may be that decisions are being made by the Responsible party. If that’s the case, the team should know who makes decisions in each situation.
  • Finger pointing —If work is not completed on time, finger pointing may result. The key to avoiding this is knowing who is Responsible. 
  • Poor resource allocation —The RACI Matrix should make resource allocation very clear, but sometimes a single task can be extremely taxing, leading to some issues concerning who should be doing what and when.
  • Lack of action because of ineffective communications —If someone is not Informed, they may not know to perform a task.
  • Too many consultations because the wrong people are consulted —The Consulted should be clearly labeled to avoid jeopardizing the project schedule.

It is the duty of a project manager to step in if role confusion is suspected and clarify roles to ensure that everyone is aware of expectations.

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Responsibility Assignment Matrix: A Complete Overview

Dive into the world of Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAMs), which helps assign roles and responsibilities and how they streamline Project Management. This comprehensive blog explains their purpose, benefits, and practical use, enabling effective role definition and accountability in project teams. Continue reading!


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This comprehensive blog aims to provide you with a complete overview of the Responsibility Assignment Matrix and its pivotal role in Project Management and organisational structure. 

Table of Content 

1) What is a Responsibility Assignment Matrix in Project Management? 

2)  Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) goal in Project Management 

3) How to create a Responsibility Assignment Matrix? 

4) Benefits of Responsibility Assignment Matrix 

5) Developing Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) best practices 

6) Conclusion  

What is a Responsibility Assignment Matrix in Project Management? 

A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) in project management is a tool that outlines and defines the roles and responsibilities of individuals or groups involved in a project. Its purpose is to ensure that everyone understands their specific duties and tasks. The primary purpose of a RAM is to bring clarity to the project structure, helping to prevent confusion, overlap, and accountability issues throughout the project lifecycle.

RAM in Project Management is also known as Responsible, Accountable, Consulted and Informed (RACI). RACI represents different levels of roles and responsibilities for individuals or teams:

a) Responsible: The individual or group in responsible for finishing a certain job or project. They are the ones who perform the work.

b) Accountable: The individuals who have complete responsibility and decision-making authority over the job or result. They ensure that the task is completed and of satisfactory quality.

c) Consulted: Individuals or stakeholders are consulted for their views or skills before to making a decision or taking actions. They contribute essential insights but may not be directly responsible for the task.

d) Informed: Individuals or stakeholders who need regular updates on the task’s progress or result. They are not actively involved in its conclusion, but they must be notified of any advancements.  

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Responsibility Assignment Matrix goal in Project Management 

The primary goal of a Responsibility Assignment Matrix in Project Management is to clearly define and communicate the roles and responsibilities of individuals or teams involved in a project. Here are the key goals of using a RAM in Project Management: 

a) Clear roles and responsibilities: The RAM establishes clear roles and responsibilities for each team member, minimising confusion and conflicts.

b) Enhanced communication: Documenting roles and responsibilities concisely in the RAM facilitates effective communication within the project team. Also, enabling quick identification of contacts for specific issues or inquires.

c) Conflict resolution: BY operating a reference point, the RAM helps to resolve conflicts or misunderstandings about responsibilities, providing a foundation for conversation and conflict resolution.

d) Improved project control: With the RAM in place, Project Managers and stakeholders can more easily monitor project progress, identifying task accountability and monitoring work package status.

e) Efficiency and accountability: By allocating responsibility to each project aspect, the RAM promotes accountability among team members, resulting in increased efficiency as everyone understands their duties and expectations.

f) Risk Management : The clear roles of RAM help detect potential hazards associated with functional gaps or overlaps, enabling proactive risk mitigation strategies.  

g) Optimal Resource Allocation: Project managers can optimise resource allocation by understanding task ownership and workload distribution as described in the RAM.

Ready to lead digital service projects to success? Register for our CDSPM (Certified Digital Services Project Manager) Course  today!   

How to create a Responsibility Assignment Matrix? 

How to Create a Responsibility Assignment Matrix

Identify the project scope 

Start by recognising the project's scope or the exact purpose for which you are building RAM. This includes establishing project objectives, outcomes, and critical milestones.

Define roles and responsibilities 

a) Identify the key roles involved in the project. Common roles may include Project Manager , Team Leader, Team Member, Stakeholders, and other relevant positions. 

b) Clearly define the responsibilities associated with each role. These responsibilities should be specific and measurable so there is no ambiguity. 

Choose a framework - RACI, RASCI, or DACI 

a) Select a framework for your RAM. The most commonly used frameworks are RACI, RASCI, and DACI: 

b) RACI: RACI   Stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed. It outlines who is in charge of a task, who is answerable for following it through to completion, who should be consulted, and who should be informed. 

c) RASCI: RASCI Similar to RACI, but with an additional role, the "S" for Support. This framework further clarifies who provides support for a task. 

d) DACI: This framework is similar to RASCI but adds the role of Driver. The Driver is responsible for ensuring that a task is completed. 

Assign roles using the framework 

a) For each task or work package within the project, assign the relevant roles using the chosen framework. Each task should have a Responsible person, an Accountable person, and, if necessary, people who need to be Consulted, Informed, or Supported. 

b) Be specific and ensure that there is only one person designated as "Accountable" for each task to avoid confusion. 

Document the RAM 

a) Create a table or chart that lists all the tasks or work packages on one axis and the identified roles on the other. 

b) Fill in the matrix with the appropriate role designations (R, A, C, I, S, D) for each task and role. 

Review and validate 

Share the RAM with the project team and stakeholders for evaluation and approval. Confirm that everyone agrees on the roles and responsibilities.

Implement and communicate 

Once the RAM has been completed and approved, communicate it to the project team and other stakeholders. Ensure that everyone understands their jobs and responsibilities. 

Regularly update the RAM 

As the project evolves, it is critical to improve the RAM as necessary. Roles and duties might shift, and new tasks may develop. Keep the RAM current to reflect the project's evolving needs.

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Benefits of Responsibility Assignment Matrix

Benefits of Responsibility Assignment Matrix

a) Clarify roles and responsibilities: A RAM clearly defines who is responsible for each task, which helps prevent confusion and ensures that team members understand their roles.

b) Improved communication: The RAM serves as a central reference point for roles and responsibilities, promoting effective communication within the project team. Team members can quickly identify who to contact for specific issues or questions.

c) Conflict resolution: When there is a dispute or ambiguity regarding responsibilities, the RAM provides a basis for discussion and conflict resolution. It helps identify where accountability lies and facilitates problem-solving.

d) Enhanced project control: The RAM allows Project Managers and stakeholders to monitor and manage the project's development.  It helps you to track the status of assignments and ensure that tasks are getting done as planned.

e) Efficiency and accountability: Clearly defined roles and responsibilities create a sense of responsibility among team members, maybe resulting in improved productivity. When people understand what is required of them, and they are more likely to fulfil it.

f) Resource allocation: The RAM helps Project Managers optimise resource allocation by understanding who is responsible for specific tasks. This ensures that workloads are distributed evenly and that resources are used efficiently. 

Developing Responsibility Assignment Matrix best practices 

Developing a Responsibility Assignment Matrix is a critical aspect of project management. To create an effective RAM, consider the following best practices: 

a) Involve key stakeholders: Define roles and responsibilities after consulting with project stakeholders, team members, and subject matter experts. Their participation can provide useful information about the project's objectives. 

b) Keep it simple: Use a simple framework (e.g., RACI, RASCI, or DACI) that team members are able to quickly understand and use.

c) Use clear and specific language: In order to prevent confusion, write tasks clearly and precisely. Avoid using confusing or unclear terms that may lead to confusion.

d) Designate a single "accountable" person: Assign only one person as "Accountable" for each task. This individual is ultimately responsible for the task's completion. Multiple accountable persons can lead to confusion and accountability issues. 

e) Consult and inform appropriately:   It is important to carefully consider the individuals who need to be consulted and informed for each task. Avoid unnecessary involvement, which can lead to inefficiency. Ensure that the right people are included in these roles. 

f) Review and validate with the team: Share the RAM with the project team and stakeholders for feedback and validation. Ensure that all parties agree with the assigned roles and responsibilities. 

g) Document assumptions and clarifications: If certain roles and responsibilities are based on assumptions or require clarification, document these notes alongside the RAM. This can help avoid misunderstandings in the future. 

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A Responsibility Assignment Matrix is an important tool in Project Management and organisational systems. Its importance comes from its capacity to define, assign, and explain the roles and responsibilities, resulting in improved project effectiveness and performance.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Creating a Responsibility Matrix is appropriate for the project's initiation stage. It outlines roles, duties, and communication channels to promote responsibility throughout the project's lifecycle. 

The Responsibility Assignment Matrix or RACI model divides tasks as Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, or Informed. It promotes transparency and accountability among the project group.

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RACI model: A map for team structure (with template)

Hero image with an icon of a Gantt chart for product roadmaps and project management

A few weeks back, in a burst of misguided optimism, I found myself in an escape room with eight of my most brilliant friends. I was confident we'd bust out in record time, but we quickly realized our error: too many cooks, not enough coordination.

We really could have used RACI. The RACI model—which stands for responsible, accountable, consulted, and informed—would have gotten us the Instagram-worthy escape time we'd hoped for. This project management model ensures that there are clear roles, no conflicting ideas, and a clear communication process. Here, I'll unpack the RACI model and how it can streamline potentially chaotic projects—and perhaps save you from your own escape room disaster.

Table of contents:

What is the RACI model?

The RACI model, sometimes called a responsibility assignment matrix (RAM), is a project management tool for assigning roles and responsibilities to the various stakeholders of a project. Think of it as a roadmap for who's doing what. It's the secret ingredient to making sure your projects don't implode in a fiery mess of miscommunication, redundant work, and misalignment.

RACI is an acronym that stands for responsible , accountable , consulted , and informed . Let's break each of those down.

Responsible: This is the person who's actually doing the thing. Think creatives, developers, analysts, and other worker bees. If we're talking about making a sandwich, this is the person slapping the mayo on the bread.

Accountable: Typically in a leadership position, this is the person who's got the final say. If that sandwich ends up being terrible, this is who you send it back to.

Consulted: These are the folks you chat with before making decisions. Like, "Hey, do you think we should add pickles to this?" They give input, but they're not in the kitchen with you. In the work world, we're talking about people like subject-matter experts, legal teams, and quality assurance teams.

Informed: These people are just here for the updates. "Just so you know, we're going with pickles." Informed parties can include external stakeholders, end users, senior management, or anyone else who needs to know what's happening but isn't directly involved in the action.

Importantly, RACI isn't just for the overarching project—it's applied to each individual task within that project. You'll document your RACI roles in a RACI chart to be sure everything's clear and transparent—more on that below.

Graphic explaining what RACI stands for.

Why you need a RACI matrix

There's nothing worse than finding multiple people doing the same thing while working on a project, or neglecting an important task because everyone thinks it's not their job.

RACI is a management tool that helps distribute tasks and assign responsibilities in a clear and transparent way. It helps people know where to go for information or approval, prevents people from passing the buck, and makes sure everyone is clear on their primary responsibilities. 

Key RACI benefits include:

Clearly defines responsibilities and expectations: No more "Well, finance said it was ready to ship..." moments. Everyone knows their role, and there's no stepping on toes.

Reduces workflow confusion: It's like having a map in a maze. You know exactly where to go and what to do without running into dead ends or, worse, minotaurs.

Enhances understanding and clarity: Because there's always someone accountable, decisions are decisive, and responsibilities are unmistakably defined. It's like translating everyone's thoughts into a universal language where "I thought you meant..." becomes a phrase of the past. 

Flexible approach: RACI works for almost any project type. Whether setting up a new server or orchestrating a multi-channel marketing campaign, the RACI model can be tailored to fit your needs.

When should you use a RACI matrix?

You might ask yourself, "Self, how do I know when a RACI matrix is needed?" Let's sort that out.

Examples of projects where you should use RACI:

Office relocation: Ever tried moving your entire workspace without losing your favorite mug? Or your sanity? Who has the authority to choose the new location? If there's an issue with the new space, who's the point of contact? And before finalizing the seating arrangement, who should be consulted? RACI delegates tasks and defines the decision-making flow, ensuring a seamless transition.

Event planning: Organizing a corporate event or conference involves many moving parts. Who has the final say on the venue? Who gives approval when you need to know if karaoke is a yea or nay? And who should be consulted when deciding between a taco bar or sushi rolls? RACI helps you streamline the communication and decision-making processes.

Examples of projects where you shouldn't use RACI:

Simple tasks: If the task is straightforward, like "get more coffee filters for the break room," you probably don't need a matrix.

Short-term projects: If you're whipping up something quickly with a small team, the time spent creating a RACI might outweigh its benefits.

Well-established processes: For routine tasks that the team has been performing for years, introducing a RACI matrix is probably overkill.

What should a RACI matrix include?

Image of a RACI matrix example and key components (tasks, roles, responsibilities, and accountabilities)

A RACI chart has a specific structure. It's not just about listing out people's roles—to be effective, it needs a few other components.

Key components of a RACI matrix include:

Tasks: These are the specific activities or steps that need to be accomplished throughout the project. They form the backbone of the matrix, clarifying what needs to be done. Think of them as the items on your to-do list.

Roles: This refers to the individuals or teams involved in the project. From team members to stakeholders, this is everyone who's got some skin in the game.

Responsibilities: This is the nitty-gritty of who does what. It's where you hand out the jobs. Like, "Hey, you! You're on lead gen duty."

Accountabilities: This is the "buck stops here" role. It's about ownership, pinpointing who is ultimately answerable for the completion and quality of each task.

How to create a RACI matrix

Now that you know what RACI is, it's time to unpack the step-by-step process of crafting your own RACI matrix.

Map out the project landscape: Begin by pinpointing the scope of your project. What are the specific tasks that need to be accomplished? The level of detail is up to you. Put the tasks on the vertical left side of your chart. It's like making a grocery list, but with the added bonus of not having to decide if you really need that third pint of ice cream.

Identify key players: The lucky souls involved in this project are your stakeholders. They get prime real estate across the top of your chart.

Assignments: For each task, you'll want to determine who's responsible (the doer), who's accountable (the decision-maker), who needs to be consulted (the advisors), and who should be informed (the folks kept in the loop).

Stay adaptable and engaged: Projects evolve, and so should your RACI matrix. As you progress, changes or shifts might need to be addressed. Regularly revisit your RACI chart, tweak as needed, and keep communication lines open, making sure it remains a relevant and valuable tool.

And here are some golden rules for using the RACI model:

Every task should have at least one Responsible party . Someone's gotta roll up their sleeves and do it. Otherwise, it's just a free-for-all of "not my job" shrugs.

There is always one and only one Accountable for each task . Adding another is like having two quarterbacks in a football game. Unless you're the 2008 Miami Dolphins, it just doesn't work.

Only the Responsible and Accountable roles are mandatory for each task. This ensures that for every activity, there's someone doing the work and someone ensuring it's done right. Everyone else is just there for support.

Keep it simple. If your grandma can't figure out your RACI chart, you're doing it wrong. Make it clear and understandable.

And there you have it. With these ingredients and rules in hand, you're well on your way to creating a RACI chart that'll make your project run smoother than freshly churned butter.

Example RACI chart and template

A RACI matrix is where you can see who's doing what at a glance.

Project tasks are in the left column

Project roles are in the top row

Each task gets a letter: R, A, C, or I

Letters are applied at the intersections of rows and columns to signal which role is performing each task

Next time you're drowning in a sea of "Who's on first?" whip out this RACI template to chart your way to clarity.  But remember: the magic isn't in the template, but in the thoughtful application of the RACI model.

Image of a RACI matrix template

RACI matrix alternatives

The RACI matrix is a staple in project management, but like with any tool, sometimes you need a different wrench for a different bolt. If RACI doesn't work for you, here are some alternatives.

RAS (Responsible, Approve, Support): This simplified version of RACI might be a good fit if your team doesn't need the "Consulted" and "Informed" distinctions. RAS is perfect for those "let's not make this harder than it needs to be" projects.

RAPID (Recommend, Agree, Perform, Input, Decide): This one's ideal for decision-making processes. If your project involves a lot of decisions that need input from various stakeholders, RAPID can help streamline who does what.

CARS (Consulted, Approve, Responsible, Support): This is another RACI variation emphasizing supportive functions and approval authority. CARS is for you if your project is about getting those green lights (car joke).

RASCI (Responsible, Approve, Support, Consulted, Informed): RACI's overachieving cousin, RASCI includes the "Support" role, which can be crucial for projects where certain team members provide resources or support without being directly involved.

DACI (Driver, Approver, Contributor, Informed): This model is handy for projects with a clear "driver," or leader. It emphasizes the leadership role while still keeping everyone else in the loop. Use DACI when someone's clearly wearing the captain's hat, but you still need a crew. 

CLAM (Collaborate, Lead, Agree, Monitor): CLAM might be the way to go if your project is highly collaborative. If it feels like a group project in school, where everyone needs to pitch in, give CLAM a shot.

Choosing the right model depends on your project's specific needs and your team's dynamics. While RACI is a fantastic starting point, don't be afraid to explore these alternatives to find the perfect fit for your next endeavor. And if all else fails, just make up your own acronym. Who's stopping you?

Unlock the power of RACI

I can't help but think back to my escape room fiasco. If only we'd designated someone responsible for deciphering the codes, and another accountable for keeping us on track. A couple could've been consulted for their puzzle-solving prowess, and the rest, well, they could've been informed—preferably from a distance. 

Related reading:

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Allisa Boulette

Based in New England, Allisa is a content marketer and small business owner who hopes to make the internet a more interesting place than she found it. When she’s not working, you can find her lying very still not doing anything.

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How to use RACI charts for improved project ownership and team collaboration

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Everyone’s been there — a new major project lands on your manager’s desk and the team comes together to figure out how to accomplish it. But where do you start? Who’s responsible for what? And how do you get to the finish line together?

What is a RACI chart?

A RACI chart delineates roles among team members across a given project: Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed.

A RACI chart is also known as a responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) or project assignment matrix (PAM). RACI is a simple table that goes a long way in identifying who should be doing what in a project or campaign. 

Using project management frameworks like the RACI model, you can build a workflow where everyone has input and ownership from start to finish.


You may be saying, “haven’t I heard of this before?” That’s likely — it’s popular among scrum masters and agile managers . But there are also a few similar models that get confused with RACI, particularly RAPID and DACI, which are about decision-making and group consensus.

So, what’s the difference? While RAPID and DACI are designed as the step your group takes before initiating action, RACI is the plan that sets up who will make that action.

Why are RACI charts important for project management?

A RACI chart gives everyone involved a clear view of each individual’s role. In project management , that can make a world of difference in your success. Establishing clear roles can lead to higher employee engagement and easier agile decision-making . This can contribute to up to 53% more efficiency than before you had defined roles. 

A team that was previously misaligned and unclear on their roles and responsibilities can find significant progress in their next project by providing role clarity and direction through a RACI matrix.

2. Centralize communication

Your team is struggling to communicate with disorganized email threads, direct instant message pings, and comments that get lost in the shuffle. 

That’s bad news (and a big time-waster) for your projects. A number of studies show that communication is one of the most common and frequent causes of project failure . When team members have too many places to check for information, wires are crossed, deadlines are missed, tasks are forgotten, and confusion builds. 

Project management software keeps all of your communication — from timelines and status updates to feedback and questions — in one single place that’s easily accessible to everyone. This breaks down silos so that everybody can not only share knowledge, but effectively manage how and where they share it. 

Understanding the RACI Model

When should you use a RACI Matrix? Don’t feel pressured to establish RACI on everyday tasks, like checking emails or answering customer calls. But when a project has invested stakeholders and the potential for long-term impact, like improving an app user interface or launching a new product, the RACI chart can keep you in line from the get-go.

Let’s dive into the four roles of the RACI matrix: Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed.

Responsible: Performing the tasks

The “R” in your model takes the role of Performer. The responsible individual is delegated a responsibility, like “design home page wireframe,” from the accountable person, and must complete that responsibility within agreed-upon parameters and an agreed-upon deadline. You may have multiple responsible individuals for one task; make sure you balance this appropriately and make it clear exactly who should be doing what at each stage of the process.

Accountable: Overseeing the project

The “A” is the accountable individual whose job it is to ensure the task is completed by all the responsible members. Unlike responsibilities, accountabilities shouldn’t be relegated; keep this assignment to only one accountable individual who acts as the decision-maker and shepherd throughout the project, ensuring the task is completed to an acceptable standard.

Consulted: Providing information

The “C,” or consulted individual, is the knowledge-holder on the team. They’re available for help, extra context, and advice on the task. Let’s say you’re responsible for designing a wireframe. You may want to consult your website administrator to make sure you have full access to the content management system and won’t break anything with your new CSS ideas. 

The consulted individual will provide you with all the information and access you need before you proceed with the task. You might have one or up to three consulted individuals depending on a task and its complexity; identify who these people are early on so you can loop them into the project and its workflow.

Informed: Gets status updates

Your “I” is the informed approver or stakeholder who wants or needs information about your project’s project. The “I” can be many people, like a leadership team, or the department head who is delivering the project upward. This promotes internal transparency and also ensures two things: 1) recognition that the project is being completed on time and within expectations and 2) guarantees that the project gets approval and aligns with stakeholders’ intent.

Creating a RACI Chart

Now that we know what a RACI chart is and what it’s designed for, let’s build one together. Let’s say our project is building a web page for a new service line. Who handles what tasks along the line to project completion?

Step 1: Identify tasks and workload

What needs to be done along the way to our project goal? Let’s identify some core tasks in a project, such as launching a new website:

  • Designing a homepage wireframe
  • Creating graphic design and animations
  • Identifying SEO keywords
  • Setting up the domain and server
  • Writing homepage copy

Within those main tasks, you may have smaller subtasks to perform, like approving wireframes or setting up billing info for the domain host . Work with your team to identify those subtasks so no surprises come up along the way that may interfere with your workflow and delay the deliverables.

Step 2: Identify roles

Your graphic designer isn’t going to be doing SEO keyword research, and your copywriter won’t be setting up your domain host. Sit down with your team and have a collaborative conversation to identify those roles . For example, your graphic design task and subtasks may look like the following:

Building graphic design and animations — Ariel 

  • Create website hero image — Natalie
  • Review and approve website hero image — Tessa
  • Animate hero image and convert to .mp4 file — Anji
  • Place finalized hero image in wireframe — Ariel

Across all of these subtasks, Natalie and Anji are responsible for individual tasks that contribute to the goal of building design and animations. Tessa is consulted to review and approve the initial image and ensure it follows brand guidelines. Ariel is accountable for the other three’s work and ensuring the final product gets delivered to the wireframe.

Step 3: Build your chart

Now that you have a better understanding of who will be doing what, place those tasks and roles into a chart so you can communicate it with the team at large and track progress as you go. 

Now that you have a better understanding of who will be doing what, place those tasks and roles into a chart so you can communicate it with the team at large and track progress as you go. Here’s an example of a RACI chart (and how to use it):

Step 4: Analyze your chart and identify gaps

Have a working session with your team to identify any gaps or overlaps within the chart, both to prevent duplicative work and also to catch any roadblocks before they happen. Follow some general guidelines for what your RACI model should look like, from identifying gaps and overlaps to analyzing the balance between assignees.

You’ll see there will be some overlaps and dependencies across the chart — for example, Jenna, the SEO manager, needs to identify the SEO keywords for the homepage before Edwin can begin copywriting. So for Edwin’s task, Jenna is consulted , but for Jenna’s task, she is responsible .

You’ll also notice there is only one Accountable individual per task. Think of this person as a task-level “project lead” who drives the boat — you don’t want more than one captain steering at the same time. 

You should also find ways to limit the number of both Responsible and Consulted individuals. When you have too many Rs , it may not be clear who exactly should do what—and that’s how you end up with tasks that end up by the wayside because no one takes responsibility .

Too many Cs means too many cooks offering conflicting opinions and information; make sure your responsible individuals are getting one clear directive to guide them along the way. 

And having not enough Is is indicative that there isn’t enough upward communication or transparency happening within your organization. Be sure your leadership and stakeholders have full buy-in and understanding of the project so it gets approved and implemented without incident.

Using a RACI Chart in Confluence

Now that you understand the foundational best practices of using a RACI chart, it’s time to build one using Confluence . Implement your RACI matrix into your Confluence docs to improve project communication and accountability.

Here’s how to add a RACI matrix in Confluence:

  • Click "Insert" on the top toolbar and select "Table" from the dropdown menu.
  • In the table dialog box, select the number of rows and columns you need for your RACI chart. For example, if you want to create a RACI chart for a project with four tasks, you can create a table with five rows and five columns.
  • The first row should contain the headers for the RACI chart. You can use the following headers: Task , Responsible , Accountable , Consulted , Informed
  • Pro tip: use colors or symbols to make the chart easier to read. For example, you can use green for responsible, yellow for consulted, blue for informed, and red for accountable.

You can then use this table on any relevant project Confluence page, from Project Charters to Kick-Off Agendas to even adding the page as a Trello card or within a Jira issue . This will help ensure team members understand their roles and responsibilities, no matter which Atlassian tool they’re using. Encouraging communication and accountability will help improve team performance — all adding up to successful outcomes.

Advanced RACI Techniques in Confluence

Your RACI model may change and expand as your project progresses, so it’s important to keep your chart up to date. Here are some detailed best practices:

Review and Update Regularly

Review and update your RACI charts on a regular basis to ensure that they accurately reflect the current state of the project. Make sure roles are up-to-date, tasks are marked as completed, and dependencies are outlined. Use Confluence to set up a schedule to review and update the chart, and assign a responsible team member to oversee the process.

Include Team Members in the Process

Tag all team members who are involved in the project when you update the chart. That way, everyone is aware of any changes and can confirm they understand their roles and responsibilities. Use comments in Confluence or direct messages to asynchronously communicate updates and changes to team members.

Document Changes

Whenever changes are made to the RACI chart, they should be documented in Confluence. This can include the date of the change, who made the change, and the reason for the change. This documentation can help to ensure that everyone is aware of any changes and that they understand the reasoning behind them.

Keep it Simple

The RACI chart should be easy to understand and navigate. In Confluence, you can use visual aids, such as colors or symbols, to help make the chart more accessible. Additionally, the chart should be concise, focusing only on the most important tasks and responsibilities. Subtasks can be mapped out in Trello or Jira for better project tracking.

Review Roles and Responsibilities

When you make any updates, always review the roles and responsibilities of each team member. As you add or adjust tasks, your team can help to identify any gaps or overlaps in responsibilities. Use task management features in Confluence to assign tasks and responsibilities to team members, then delegate further in Trello or Jira. Additionally, team managers can run the Roles and Responsibilities Play with their teams to clarify individual responsibilities and find gaps that need to be filled.

Ensure Consistency

Now, make sure your charts and assignments are consistent. Establish clear guidelines for how the chart should be used and ensure that all team members are aware of these guidelines. Additionally, you can use marketplace add-ons , templates, or macros in Confluence to keep the chart consistent across different projects or teams.

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Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RACI Matrix) Explained

Written by samantha ferguson.

Last updated 11th April 2024

There’s an old saying that ‘If everyone’s responsible, nobody’s responsible.’ And in project management, it often rings true.

When people don’t know exactly what they – and their colleagues – are responsible for, it’s easy for things to get missed, ignored, or left for others to deal with.

This is especially true nowadays, with projects more complex – and teams more distributed – than ever.

And it’s a situation that leads to confusion, frustration, and, potentially, project failure .

One way to mitigate this is the responsibility assignment matrix – sometimes called the RACI matrix.

In this post we’ll outline the core principles of the RACI Matrix – and explain why it may be a good idea for project managers to put in place for their projects!

What is a RACI matrix?

A RACI matrix is an essential project management tool used to define roles and responsibilities for a project or project task. It’s about defining who’s responsible for projects or tasks, and what level of input is expected of them.

These are the four categories of involvement in a project, and each individual or team involved in the project is assigned one of these project roles. 

Let’s first dig into what they mean…


The Responsible category is for a person or team who is actively involved in completing a task or project. To put it crudely, they’re the ones who are actually ‘doing the work.’


The Accountable category is for the person or team who’s ultimately responsible for the success or failure of the project, task or deliverable. They might not be the ones ‘doing’ the work, but they are the ones who are ultimately accountable for the outcome. 


The Consulted category is for teams or people who need to be consulted for their expertise or input along the way. They may not be directly involved in the work, but their input is important. For example – these people might be required to give feedback and sign off, or provide technical advice.


And the Informed category is for people who need to be kept informed of progress. They may provide input on a task or project, but more likely, they just require up-to-date info to understand where things are up to.

By clearly defining roles and responsibilities for a project using a RACI matrix, it’s easier to monitor progress and ensure successful completion. 

It also helps to eliminate misunderstandings about who is responsible for what by enshrining this in a clear, visual way.

How to create a RACI matrix

Creating a RACI matrix is easy to do. The matrix consists of two main elements – a table and a list of tasks, roles and responsibilities for the project or task.

The table is made up of columns for each individual involved in the project, and rows for each task or activity that needs to be completed. Each cell in the table will indicate the role for that person in relation to that particular task. The list should include a description of each task or activity, as well as the roles and responsibilities for each individual involved.

Let’s look at a classic project and consider how those categories would come into effect using the RACI model.

In this example we’ll consider a typical, run-of-the-mill web design project. So we start by adding a column for every person or team involved – we’ll go with client, project manager, web designer, graphic designer, front-end developer, back-end developer, content writers/editors/strategists and a QA team.

Then, down the left-hand column, we list the stages or tasks involved in that project. We’ll keep things broad and go with briefing and project outline, design, look and feel, user experience, front-end user interface, back end functionality and website content

Again, this is pretty broad, but you could also make it incredibly granular, highlighting every single task and every single person – and, actually, the RACI matrix is often at its best when done in this more detailed way.

Then, to complete our RACI matrix, we need to go through each empty box in our chart and fill it out with one of our four letters to denote whether that person or team is Responsible, Accountable, Consulted or Informed.

RACI matrix example

To further illustrate the idea, let’s look at a different example – designing and executing a content marketing strategy.

In this example you’ll notice that we have some individuals marked as “A&R” – this means they’re both accountable AND responsible. In other words, they’re tasked with doing the work – AND accountable for the results – which demonstrates how, sometimes, people can occupy more than one category in the matrix.

RACI matrix example

The beauty of this model is that you can read it in a couple of different ways.

You can view it row by row and work out who has what level of responsibility for a particular task.

Or you can use the columns to work out the requirements of a person or team across a whole project. In theory, you could pick out your role, then get a clear overview of all your responsibilities by simply working your way down the list.

Your RACI Matrix x Project.co

RACI charts are a key part of the project management process – particularly for complex projects – and can be managed with project management software like Project.co . 

Start by creating your project. Every project can be customised to include the tools you need.

create a responsibility assignment matrix

Next, invite your project team – this can be made up of internal team members, client team members, and even freelancers.

create a responsibility assignment matrix

The Project Notes section is a great place to leave important info that’s relevant to the whole project. This is a good place to store your RACI matrix. 

Project.co RACI matrix

You can also use the Embed tool to embed documents such as Google Sheets so they’re available from within your project to everyone involved.

Project.co embed tool

You can also include important RACI chart info from within the notes section of each task, as well as attaching tasks to individual people, dates and other important info.

Simply create the tasks you need to complete for your project and assign the responsible person or people to them. 

create a responsibility assignment matrix

Final thoughts

You don’t have to be a business analyst to create a RACI chart and use this powerful method to make your projects more streamlined, simple and efficient.

The bottom line is that a RACI matrix ensures every team member knows what’s expected of them – who’s accountable, who’s doing the work, who needs to be consulted, and who needs to be kept up to date.

And if you’re looking to take your project management game to the next level – sign up to Project.co today and get started for free!

Written by <a href="https://www.project.co/author/samanthaferguson/" target="_self">Samantha Ferguson</a>

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What is a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) in Project Management?

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Introduction to Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

Project management is a complex process that involves multiple stakeholders, tasks, and resources. To ensure the success of a project, it is crucial to assign clear roles and responsibilities to team members and accurately define their tasks. 

One tool that can help project managers achieve this goal is the Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM). In this article, we will explore the definition and benefits of RAM, as well as some examples.

If you’re looking for a RAM template that will help you assign roles and clarify responsibilities, Wrike has a customizable template ready to go.

What is a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) in project management?

A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) in project management, also known as a RACI chart or RACI matrix, details all the necessary stakeholders and clarifies responsibilities amongst cross-functional teams and their involvement level in a project. RACI stands for Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed and each letter corresponds to a team member.

A RAM in project management should be referred to by all parties throughout a project because it helps plan an individual’s roles and responsibilities before work begins. A RACI matrix ensures all stakeholders know who is responsible for completing a task or getting feedback on deliverables.

The four roles are broken down as follows:

  • Responsible: The person(s) completing the task
  • Accountable: The team member coordinating the actions, making decisions, and delegating to those responsible for the task
  • Consulted: The person(s) who will be communicated with regarding decisions and tasks
  • Informed: The person(s) who will be updated during the project and upon completion

Read more about RACI here . 

Identify and visualize roles seamlessly with Wrike

Responsibility assignment matrix example.

A common RAM   template looks like the example below. Notice how all stakeholders can have more than one role:

create a responsibility assignment matrix

Responsibility Assignment Matrix template

Below you can see a powerful RAM template . The chart helps with visualizing roles and workload clearly. Therefore, project managers and team members follow the progress easily and stay on track.

create a responsibility assignment matrix

Clarify roles with Wrike

In conclusion, RAM is a useful tool for any project manager who wants to ensure their team is clear on their responsibilities. It helps to establish a structured approach to project management, allowing for better communication, accountability, and ultimately, project success.

Using Wrike’s pre-built template, you can define the roles of each team member so everybody is on the same page. The template will also help you balance your workload and create complete transparency on your team structure.

What is a RACI Chart?

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Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Template | FREE Download

The Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) shows 'who does what' on a work package or task. It is a popular tool because it shows what is expected of each member of the project team 'at a glance'. Scheduling tools like Microsoft project allow multiple resources to be linked to a task, but there is no easy way to show what each resource is expected to do - RAMs fill the gap. stakeholdermap.com
  • See a screenshot of the template
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  • Download the Excel Template

Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Template

How to use the RAM template

  • Enter your project details on the first tab
  • Open the second tab named RAM
  • List your work packages down the left hand side (replacing Workpackage 1, 2, 3.. etc)
  • Enter the names of your project team in the columns. Replacing Person (1,2,3..)


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What is a Responsibility Assignment Matrix

Last updated: Feb 15, 2023

Table of contents

What is a RAM matrix used for?

How to make a ram or raci chart.

Learn what a Responsibility Assignment Matrix is and how to use one to make all your upcoming projects run smoothly.

Credit: track5/Getty Images

A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM), sometimes known as a RACI chart, is a tool used in project management to keep track of all responsibilities assigned to cross-functional teams on a specific task or assignment.

It’s known as a RACI chart because its acronym names the four key roles displayed in the matrix:

  • Responsible: Who is the person responsible for completing a task or making a decision?
  • Accountable: Who is accountable for the completion of the project overall and will sign off on deliverables and decisions?
  • Consulted: Who needs to be consulted to provide input on a particular task or item?
  • Informed: Who needs to be kept informed of project progress or completion?

A typical RAM template looks like this:

| Task | Annabelle (PM) | Jack (Technical Lead) | Dory (Technical Team Member) | | ---------- | ---------- | ---------- | ---------- | | Task 1 | A | I | R | | Task 2 | R | C | I | | Task 3 | C | R | C | | Task 4 | A | R/I | R |

The RAM matrix is used to document every task, item and decision involved in a project completion process. By keeping everything logged all in one place, a RAM matrix is an invaluable tool to any project manager or company leader for a few reasons.

  • Defines clear roles and responsibilities

There is nothing worse than a project being slowed down or stalled because of confusion over who was supposed to do what. In a RAM, every person or team involved can check to see which task or item.

  • Streamlines communication

Sometimes explaining directions in person or over a workplace communication tool can get confusing or be interpreted the wrong way. Even worse, one instance of miscommunication can tank an entire project or jeopardize a relationship with a client.

With a RAM, project managers don’t have to waste time directing questions to the responsible stakeholder in charge of making a decision. The chart informs everyone involved exactly who they can go to for answers, cutting out repetitive conversations and notifying the right people at the right time.

  • Distributes workloads evenly

No one ever wants to be the one in the group project that has to do everything. Team members with a higher workload are at a greater risk for burnout. A great benefit of a RAM is that everyone can see how the workload for a certain project is distributed. It’s also a great way to be transparent within workflows.

Don’t let the random letters confuse you. Building a RACI chart is surprisingly simple. It can also easily be tweaked to fit your organization and your particular project. According to the work management platform Wrike , here are four steps to follow when building a responsibility assignment matrix:

  • Identify all project roles

Start out with a list of everyone involved in a project, including every team, team member, manager and stakeholder.

  • Identify all project tasks

Then make a list of all the tasks and items needed to get a project done. These can include deliverables, activities, milestones and decisions.

  • Create a chart with a column for each role and a row for each task

In a spreadsheet—or any other tool you’d like—create a simple table by listing each person or role in the columns and each task or deliverable in the rows.

To get the most out of your RACI chart, try to make the roles as personal as possible. For example, instead of naming a role “technical lead,” try to use names, like “Jack.” This will give every person involved a sense of ownership, while also streamlining communication even further.

  • Assign “R,” “A,” “C” or “I” to each person involved

Once you have written out the names of each person and task, now comes the important part of assigning RACI to each person involved. Identify who is responsible, who is accountable, who needs to be consulted and who needs to be informed for every task in the project. A role can have more than one letter, but simplify it as much as you can. Bonus step: Add a color to each letter to make the roles stand out even more.

That’s it! You now have made a successful RACI chart. Review with your team and all stakeholders before you initiate a plan, and you are officially on your way to more effective project management.

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Responsibility Assignment Matrix

Responsibility Matrix

A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is sometimes called a RACI Chart, or Responsibility Matrix.

There are several avoidable excuses in the project management world, such as:

  • I didn’t think I was supposed to be doing that!
  • I thought (name other employee here) was doing that!
  • But the contractor was responsible for that!

The Responsibility Assignment Matrix will prevent this from happening on your project!

Responsibility Assignment Matrix Definition

The Association for Project Management (APM) definition is as follows:

A diagram or chart showing assigned responsibilities for elements of work. It is created by combining the work breakdown structure (WBS) with the organisational breakdown structure (OBS).

The APM (BoK 6th edition) further states that a RAM is used to assign the work packages to the people responsible for creating the project’s output.

So when you have a list of those involved in the project ( the OBS ) and the tasks in the project ( the WBS ) you can create your matrix!

Check what your organisation calls it, and use the same terminology.

A Responsibility Assignment Matrix could be at department and work-package level for larger projects, or individual people and task level for smaller projects.

A RACI chart is a matrix of the project tasks (from the WBS) against the people in the project (from the OBS). It ensures that everybody knows what they are expected to deliver, by giving every task has an accountable task owner.

RACI stands for;

  • Responsible – I’m involved with this task
  • Accountable – I’m accountable (own) this task
  • Consult – Consult me before you do anything
  • Inform – Inform me of your intentions and progress

Responsibility Assignment Matrix

Other definitions can be found in text books: Primary and Secondary ownership, Owner and Support, RASCI, etc.

Interestingly, there is some debate about the difference between “Accountable” and “Responsible” and an indication that originally the “A” was for Approve which does make some sense. Personally, I advocate the use of Accountable for one, and only one person on each task.

Creating a Responsibility Matrix

There are several tools that you can use to create these matrices. It really depends on the application that you have your task list available in. A list of tasks in Microsoft Project can be copied and pasted into other applications.

  • A WORD Table could be used. However you may be limited to the width of your paper, so this may be a problem for a large project.
  • An EXCEL Spreadsheet is a good choice, however care must be taken on setting up a ‘Print Area’ to share the document. (Print to pdf could be used)

Consider how you are going to share the matrix with the project team and other stakeholders when you create it.

One of the best ways to populate the matrix is at a project team meeting, asking for staff to state their involvement on a task by task basis. this will create a dialogue around each task  – the start of project communication .

Responsibilities in Microsoft Project

Although you can assign resources to tasks in Microsoft Projec t, you cannot define their roles in the RACI type format.

Microsoft Project Resource Names

Microsoft Project Resource Names

Personally, I encourage people to assign the accountable owner first, so that the first name on the Gantt chart is the accountable task owner.

I wrote about assignments in Microsoft Project in a previous blog .

Knowing that every task has an owner is vital if the project is to be completed on time. The Responsibility Assignment Matrix is the tool to use in order to make sure that task ownership is clear.

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    Draft the responsibility assignment matrix using a table with the project tasks listed on the left-hand column. Across the top add the name of everyone in the project. Where the tasks meet the project team member, assign whether they're responsible, accountable, consulted or informed. When completed, share the responsibility assignment matrix ...

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    RACI is a project management acronym for the different responsibility types within a project: Responsible, Accountable, Consulted, and Informed. The RACI matrix clarifies the roles named individuals or groups will play in the successful delivery of the project. Accurate RACI matrices can help ensure a project's success before it even begins.

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    The responsibility assignment matrix is a project management style with four main roles: responsible, accountable, consulted and informed (this is also referred to as a RACI matrix).

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    A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is a tool used in project management to identify and clarify the roles and responsibilities of the different people or groups working on a project. The goal of making a RAM is to make sure that all tasks are done and that responsibilities don't overlap or get missed. Here are some things you can learn ...

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    One tool that project managers use to keep these assignments clear is the Responsibility Assignment Matrix (also called the RAM, or the Responsibility Matrix). This matches deliverables with the people who are responsible for them. For every piece of the project, the matrix shows who needs to contribute what for the project to be completed.

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    Make sure that the Responsibility Assignment Matrix PMP is kept up to date as the project progresses so that everyone is aware of any changes in roles and responsibilities. Use the RAM matrix as a tool to help identify potential risks and issues related to the project so that they can be addressed early on.

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    A RACI chart (sometimes called a Responsibility Assignment Matrix) is a way to identify your project teams' roles and responsibilities for any task, milestone, or project deliverable. By following the RACI acronym, you can clarify responsibility and reduce confusion. RACI stands for: Responsible. This person is directly in charge of the work.

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    Figure 1 - The Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) / RACI Matrix. To do this well and accurately, the matrix can be completed using the following steps: Step 1: Identify all the participants and (facilities) supporters of the project. Step 2: Identify all the deliverables for the project. Step 3: Discuss with all team members how they can ...

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    A RACI matrix—often called a RACI chart or responsibility assignment matrix (RAM)—is a project management tool that captures the roles and responsibilities of project stakeholders. ... You can create a RACI matrix for effective project management in five steps using this RACI matrix template in FIgJam. Outline all tasks. Start by listing ...

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    Key Takeaway: A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) is a useful tool for project managers to assign tasks and responsibilities to team members. It can help improve communication, increase accountability, track progress more accurately and reduce risk. There are two main types of RAMs: Functional (F-RAM) and Projectized (P-RAM), each with ...

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    Responsibility assignment matrix. In business and project management, a responsibility assignment matrix [1] ( RAM ), also known as RACI matrix [2] ( / ˈreɪsi /) or linear responsibility chart [3] ( LRC ), is a model that describes the participation by various roles in completing tasks or deliverables [4] for a project or business process.

  16. RACI Chart: Definitions, Uses And Examples For Project ...

    A RACI chart, also called a RACI matrix, is a type of responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) in project management. In practice, it's a simple spreadsheet or table that lists all stakeholders on ...

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    Here's how to add a RACI matrix in Confluence: Click "Insert" on the top toolbar and select "Table" from the dropdown menu. In the table dialog box, select the number of rows and columns you need for your RACI chart. For example, if you want to create a RACI chart for a project with four tasks, you can create a table with five rows and five ...

  18. Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RACI Matrix) Explained

    How to create a RACI matrix. Creating a RACI matrix is easy to do. The matrix consists of two main elements - a table and a list of tasks, roles and responsibilities for the project or task. The table is made up of columns for each individual involved in the project, and rows for each task or activity that needs to be completed.

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    Download the Excel Template. This is a FREE Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) Template in Excel and OpenDocument Spreadsheet. The template is fully editable with Microsoft Excel and can be converted or changed to suit your project requirements. The template uses conditional formatting to change the color of each cell so that it is easy to ...

  21. What is a Responsibility Assignment Matrix

    Credit: track5/Getty Images. A Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM), sometimes known as a RACI chart, is a tool used in project management to keep track of all responsibilities assigned to cross-functional teams on a specific task or assignment. It's known as a RACI chart because its acronym names the four key roles displayed in the matrix:

  22. Creating a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM ...

    A Responsibility Assignment Matrix could be at department and work-package level for larger projects, or individual people and task level for smaller projects. Responsibility Assignment Matrix. A RACI chart is a matrix of the project tasks (from the WBS) against the people in the project (from the OBS). It ensures that everybody knows what they ...

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    Open the Process Steps tab. Click the grid icon next to the process step for which you want to create a responsibility assignment matrix. Select a team, a team role, or a user that you want to notify from the corresponding drop-down menus for one or more sections: ♦ Responsible. People who work to complete the task.