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How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

Published on May 6, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023.

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection .

Example: Hypothesis

Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.

Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more types of variables .

  • An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls.
  • A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

If there are any control variables , extraneous variables , or confounding variables , be sure to jot those down as you go to minimize the chances that research bias  will affect your results.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

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hypothesis example in science investigatory project

Step 1. Ask a question

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

Step 2. Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to ensure that you’re embarking on a relevant topic . This can also help you identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalize more complex constructs.

Step 3. Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

4. Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

  • The relevant variables
  • The specific group being studied
  • The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

5. Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in  if…then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis . The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

  • H 0 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has no effect on their final exam scores.
  • H 1 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has a positive effect on their final exam scores.
Research question Hypothesis Null hypothesis
What are the health benefits of eating an apple a day? Increasing apple consumption in over-60s will result in decreasing frequency of doctor’s visits. Increasing apple consumption in over-60s will have no effect on frequency of doctor’s visits.
Which airlines have the most delays? Low-cost airlines are more likely to have delays than premium airlines. Low-cost and premium airlines are equally likely to have delays.
Can flexible work arrangements improve job satisfaction? Employees who have flexible working hours will report greater job satisfaction than employees who work fixed hours. There is no relationship between working hour flexibility and job satisfaction.
How effective is high school sex education at reducing teen pregnancies? Teenagers who received sex education lessons throughout high school will have lower rates of unplanned pregnancy teenagers who did not receive any sex education. High school sex education has no effect on teen pregnancy rates.
What effect does daily use of social media have on the attention span of under-16s? There is a negative between time spent on social media and attention span in under-16s. There is no relationship between social media use and attention span in under-16s.

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility

 Statistics

  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

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A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Null and alternative hypotheses are used in statistical hypothesis testing . The null hypothesis of a test always predicts no effect or no relationship between variables, while the alternative hypothesis states your research prediction of an effect or relationship.

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

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Hypothesis Examples

Hypothesis Examples

A hypothesis is a prediction of the outcome of a test. It forms the basis for designing an experiment in the scientific method . A good hypothesis is testable, meaning it makes a prediction you can check with observation or experimentation. Here are different hypothesis examples.

Null Hypothesis Examples

The null hypothesis (H 0 ) is also known as the zero-difference or no-difference hypothesis. It predicts that changing one variable ( independent variable ) will have no effect on the variable being measured ( dependent variable ). Here are null hypothesis examples:

  • Plant growth is unaffected by temperature.
  • If you increase temperature, then solubility of salt will increase.
  • Incidence of skin cancer is unrelated to ultraviolet light exposure.
  • All brands of light bulb last equally long.
  • Cats have no preference for the color of cat food.
  • All daisies have the same number of petals.

Sometimes the null hypothesis shows there is a suspected correlation between two variables. For example, if you think plant growth is affected by temperature, you state the null hypothesis: “Plant growth is not affected by temperature.” Why do you do this, rather than say “If you change temperature, plant growth will be affected”? The answer is because it’s easier applying a statistical test that shows, with a high level of confidence, a null hypothesis is correct or incorrect.

Research Hypothesis Examples

A research hypothesis (H 1 ) is a type of hypothesis used to design an experiment. This type of hypothesis is often written as an if-then statement because it’s easy identifying the independent and dependent variables and seeing how one affects the other. If-then statements explore cause and effect. In other cases, the hypothesis shows a correlation between two variables. Here are some research hypothesis examples:

  • If you leave the lights on, then it takes longer for people to fall asleep.
  • If you refrigerate apples, they last longer before going bad.
  • If you keep the curtains closed, then you need less electricity to heat or cool the house (the electric bill is lower).
  • If you leave a bucket of water uncovered, then it evaporates more quickly.
  • Goldfish lose their color if they are not exposed to light.
  • Workers who take vacations are more productive than those who never take time off.

Is It Okay to Disprove a Hypothesis?

Yes! You may even choose to write your hypothesis in such a way that it can be disproved because it’s easier to prove a statement is wrong than to prove it is right. In other cases, if your prediction is incorrect, that doesn’t mean the science is bad. Revising a hypothesis is common. It demonstrates you learned something you did not know before you conducted the experiment.

Test yourself with a Scientific Method Quiz .

  • Mellenbergh, G.J. (2008). Chapter 8: Research designs: Testing of research hypotheses. In H.J. Adèr & G.J. Mellenbergh (eds.), Advising on Research Methods: A Consultant’s Companion . Huizen, The Netherlands: Johannes van Kessel Publishing.
  • Popper, Karl R. (1959). The Logic of Scientific Discovery . Hutchinson & Co. ISBN 3-1614-8410-X.
  • Schick, Theodore; Vaughn, Lewis (2002). How to think about weird things: critical thinking for a New Age . Boston: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. ISBN 0-7674-2048-9.
  • Tobi, Hilde; Kampen, Jarl K. (2018). “Research design: the methodology for interdisciplinary research framework”. Quality & Quantity . 52 (3): 1209–1225. doi: 10.1007/s11135-017-0513-8

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How to Do a Science Investigatory Project

Last Updated: February 2, 2024 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Bess Ruff, MA . Bess Ruff is a Geography PhD student at Florida State University. She received her MA in Environmental Science and Management from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 2016. She has conducted survey work for marine spatial planning projects in the Caribbean and provided research support as a graduate fellow for the Sustainable Fisheries Group. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 308,193 times.

A Science Investigatory Project (SIP) uses the scientific method to study and test an idea about how something works. It involves researching a topic, formulating a working theory (or hypothesis) that can be tested, conducting the experiment, and recording and reporting the results. You will probably need to follow this procedure if you are planning to enter a project in a school science fair, for instance. However, knowing how to do an SIP is useful for anyone interested in the sciences as well as anyone who wants to improve their problem-solving skills.

Employing the Scientific Method

Step 1 Ask a question.

  • Think about something that interests, surprises, or confuses you, and consider whether it is something you can reasonably investigate for a project. Formulate a single question that sums up you would like to examine. [1] X Research source
  • For instance, say you've heard that you can make a simple solar oven out of a pizza box. [2] X Research source You may, however, be skeptical as to whether this can be done, or done consistently at least. Therefore, your question might be: "Can a simple solar oven be made that works consistently in various conditions?"
  • Make sure the topic you select is manageable within your time frame, budget, and skill level, and that it doesn't break any rules for the assignment/fair/competition (for example, no animal testing). You can search for ideas online if you need help, but don't just copy a project you find there; this will also be against the rules and is unethical.
  • However, you can modify an existing project to test a different hypothesis or look into a question that was not answered by previous experiments. This isn't an ethical breach, and can often make for interesting results and discussions.

Step 2 Research your topic.

  • Be aware of the requirements for your project. Many science fairs require that you have at least three reputable academic sources such as peer-reviewed journal publications to use as references. [4] X Research source
  • Your sources will need to be unbiased (not tied to a product for sale, for instance), timely (not an encyclopedia from 1965), and credible (not some anonymous comment on a blog post). Web sources that are supported by a scientific organization or journal are a good bet. Ask your teacher or project director for guidance if you need it.
  • For instance, the search query "how to make a solar oven out of a pizza box" will produce a bounty of sources, some more scientifically-grounded (and thus reliable) than others. The hit on an on-topic article in a recognized, reputable periodical should be considered a valid source. [5] X Research source
  • On the other hand, blog posts, anonymous articles, and crowd-sourced materials probably won't make the cut. As valuable a resource as wikiHow is, it may not be considered a valid source for your SIP. It can, however, be helpful in introducing you to your chosen experiment and pointing you toward more academic sources. Choosing well-developed articles with numerous footnotes (that link to solid sources themselves) will improve the odds of acceptance, but discuss the issue with your instructor, fair organizer, etc.

Step 3 Form a hypothesis...

  • It is often helpful to turn your question into a hypothesis by thinking in "if / then" terms. You may want to frame your hypothesis (at least initially) as "If [I do this], then [this will happen]."
  • For our example, the hypothesis might be: "A solar oven made from a pizza box can consistently heat foods any time there is abundant sunshine."

Step 4 Design your experiment.

  • Consideration of variables is key in setting up your experiment. Scientific experiments have three types of variables: independent (those changed by you); dependent (those that change in response to the independent variable); and controlled (those that remain the same). [8] X Trustworthy Source Science Buddies Expert-sourced database of science projects, explanations, and educational material Go to source
  • When planning your experiment, consider the materials that you will need. Make sure they are readily available and affordable, or even better, use materials that are already in your house.
  • For our pizza box solar oven, the materials are easy to acquire and assemble. The oven, item cooked (s'mores, for instance), and full sunshine will be controlled variables. Other environmental conditions (time or day or time of year, for instance) could be the independent variable; and "done-ness" of the item the dependent variable.

Step 5 Conduct your experiment.

  • Closely follow the steps that you have planned to test your experiment. However, if your test can not be conducted as planned, reconfigure your steps or try different materials. (If you really want to win the science fair, this will be a big step for you!)
  • It is common practice for science fairs that you will need to conduct your test at least three times to ensure a scientifically-valid result. [10] X Trustworthy Source Science Buddies Expert-sourced database of science projects, explanations, and educational material Go to source
  • For our pizza box oven, then, let's say you decide to test your solar oven by placing it in direct sun on three similar, 90-degree Fahrenheit days in July, at three times each day (10 am, 2 pm, 6 pm).

Step 6 Record and analyze your results.

  • Sometimes your data may be best recorded as a graph, chart, or just a journal entry. However you record the data, make sure it is easy to review and analyze. Keep accurate records of all your results, even if they don't turn out the way you hoped or planned. This is also part of science! [11] X Research source
  • As per the solar oven tests at 10 am, 2 pm, and 6 pm on three sunny days, you will need to utilize your results. By recording the done-ness of your s'mores (by how melted the chocolate and marshmallow is, for instance), you may find that only the 2 pm placement was consistently successful. [12] X Research source

Step 7 Make your conclusion.

  • If you started out with a simple, clear, straightforward question, and a similar hypothesis, it should be easier to craft your conclusion.
  • Remember, concluding that your hypothesis was completely wrong does not make your SIP a failure. If you make clear, scientifically-grounded findings, and present them well, it can and will be a success.
  • In the pizza box solar oven example, our hypothesis was "A solar oven made from a pizza box can consistently heat foods any time there is abundant sunshine." Our conclusion, however, might be: "A solar oven made from a pizza box can only be consistently successful in heating foods in mid-day sun on a hot day."

Explaining and Presenting Your Project

Step 1 Know how your project will be evaluated.

  • For a science fair, for example, the judging could be based on the following criteria (adding up to 100%): research paper (50%); oral presentation (30%); display poster (20%).

Step 2 Create an abstract.

  • SIP abstracts are often limited to one page in length, and perhaps 250 words. In this short space, focus on the purpose of your experiment, procedures, results, and any possible applications. [14] X Research source

Step 3 Write a research paper

  • Use the guidelines provide by your teacher or the science fair director for information on how to construct your research paper.
  • As one example, your paper may need to be broken down into categories such as: 1) Title Page; 2) Introduction (where you identify your topic and hypothesis); 3) Materials & Methods (where you describe your experiment); 4) Results & Discoveries (where you identify your findings); 5) Conclusion & Recommendations (where you "answer" your hypothesis); 6) References (where you list your sources).

Step 4 Prepare your oral presentation.

  • Write up your research paper first, and use it as your guide in constructing your oral presentation. Follow a similar framework in outlining your hypothesis, experiments, results, and conclusions.
  • Focus on clarity and concision. Make sure everyone understands what you did, why you did it, and what you discovered in doing it.

Step 5 Make a visual aid.

  • Science fairs commonly use a standard size, three panel display board, approximately 36 inches high by 48 inches wide.
  • You should lay out your poster like the front page of a newspaper, with your title at the top, hypothesis and conclusion front and center, and supporting materials (methods, sources, etc.) clearly placed under headings on either side.
  • Use images, diagrams, and the like to spruce up the visual appeal of your poster, but don't sacrifice content for visual pizzazz.

Expert Q&A

Bess Ruff, MA

You Might Also Like

Conduct a Science Experiment

  • ↑ https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/intro-to-biology/science-of-biology/a/the-science-of-biology
  • ↑ http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/design-solar-cooker/
  • ↑ https://www.societyforscience.org/isef/international-rules/rules-for-all-projects/
  • ↑ http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/sunny-science-build-a-pizza-box-solar-oven/
  • ↑ http://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project_guide_index.shtml
  • ↑ http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/science-fair/en/
  • ↑ https://ctsciencefair.org/student-guide/abstract

About This Article

Bess Ruff, MA

To do a science investigatory project, start by thinking about a question you'd like to answer. For example, you may be wondering “Does the same kind of mold grow on different types of bread?” Then, once you have a question that's specific, form a hypothesis about what you think the answer will be. For this experiment, a good hypothesis might be “While all bread will produce the same kind of mold, the type of bread will impact how fast the mold grows.” With this hypothesis in mind, grab a few different kinds of of bread, set up your work station, and do your experiment at least 3 times to make sure the results are right. To learn how to record and analyze your results, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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Scientific Method: Step 3: HYPOTHESIS

  • Step 1: QUESTION
  • Step 2: RESEARCH
  • Step 3: HYPOTHESIS
  • Step 4: EXPERIMENT
  • Step 5: DATA
  • Step 6: CONCLUSION

Step 3: State your hypothesis

Now it's time to state your hypothesis . The hypothesis is an educated guess as to what will happen during your experiment. 

The hypothesis is often written using the words "IF" and "THEN." For example, " If I do not study, then I will fail the test." The "if' and "then" statements reflect your independent and dependent variables . 

The hypothesis should relate back to your original question and must be testable .

A word about variables...

Your experiment will include variables to measure and to explain any cause and effect. Below you will find some useful links describing the different types of variables.

  • "What are independent and dependent variables" NCES
  • [VIDEO] Biology: Independent vs. Dependent Variables (Nucleus Medical Media) Video explaining independent and dependent variables, with examples.

Resource Links

  • What is and How to Write a Good Hypothesis in Research? (Elsevier)
  • Hypothesis brochure from Penn State/Berks

  • << Previous: Step 2: RESEARCH
  • Next: Step 4: EXPERIMENT >>
  • Last Updated: May 9, 2024 10:59 AM
  • URL: https://harford.libguides.com/scientific_method

Want to create or adapt books like this? Learn more about how Pressbooks supports open publishing practices.

4. Creating a Hypothesis for Research-Based Capstone Projects

Learning Objectives

By the end of this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Explain the purpose and importance of a hypothesis in a research-based capstone project.
  • Compare and contrast a null and alternate hypothesis.
  • Describe the relationship between hypotheses and statistical testing.
  • Explain the characteristics of a good hypothesis.
  • Describe the relationship between the hypothesis and research-based capstone project objectives.
  • Formulate a hypothesis.

This chapter first introduces you to the importance of developing a hypothesis for a research-based capstone project.  The purpose of developing a hypothesis is explained and an example is provided.  The characteristics of a good hypothesis are illustrated and strategies for formulating a hypothesis are addressed.  Strategies for developing aims and objectives for a research-based capstone project and its relationship to the project’s hypothesis are addressed.  This chapter ends with a brief discussion of hypothesis testing and its correlation with data, statistical testing, and outcomes reporting.

Introduction

The development of a guiding question and supportive hypothesis is a necessary key step in any research-based capstone study.  The research question and associated hypothesis are interlinked and will influence the study’s design.  Furthermore, the capstone project’s primary objective should be coupled with the project’s hypothesis.  It is important for a research-based capstone project’s objectives to focus on outcomes that are important to stakeholders and that are clinically relevant.  Focusing resources, time, and dedication to the development of a relevant guiding question, hypothesis, and objectives will help to guide you through a successful research-based capstone project, influence the interpretation of the results, and impact future dissemination of information efforts (Farrugia, et al., 2009).

A research hypothesis is the statement created by a researcher when they speculate upon the outcome of their research-based capstone project.  Research-based capstone projects based on program design, development, and implementation that focus on an identified problem or need should also have a hypothesis. The hypothesis is fundamental to the completion of a research-based capstone project.  Without a hypothesis, you will not have a comprehensive capstone experience because learned critical elements of the research process and capstone project conclusions may be limited in scope.  Elements included in a good hypothesis include:

  • Developing a succinct question based on a reasonable, logical, and relevant problem or need
  • A scoping review of literature

The importance of the hypothesis is directly dependent on previously known facts, potential solutions, and expected results from the variables being analyzed.  Consequently, the hypothesis becomes the center of a research-based capstone study, the data obtained, and the conclusions reached.  With the data collected and reviewed, the hypothesis can be supported or not, based on the findings that have been gathered (Toledo, Flikkema & Toledo-Pereyra, 2011).  (Refer to Table 4.1:  Purpose and Importance of a Hypothesis).

Table 4.1:  Purpose and Importance of a Hypothesis

Source:  Mourougan, S., & Sethuraman, K. (2017). Hypothesis development and testing.  IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) ,  9 (5), 34-40.

Formulating a Hypothesis

As we have discussed, capstone projects usually begin with the identification of a problem or need.  Guiding questions, objectives, and a hypothesis provide a specific restatement of facts that may be tested for further review.  Whether experimental or observational, a hypothesis spells out an anticipated relationship between independent and dependent variables.  This relationship may or may not be true, which is why the research-based capstone project is being conducted (Malhotra, 2013).  A starting point for formulating a hypothesis is establishing a null hypothesis on the basis that the relationship between two or more variables is independent.  A null hypothesis assumes that there is no difference between participants in relation to their attitude, knowledge, personality, or any other variables that are being tested within a research-based capstone project.  Ultimately the objective of carrying out statistical tests is to accept the null hypothesis or reject it.  A rejected null hypothesis means that a change post-intervention occurred and that there is indeed a difference or a relationship between variables.  This is also referred to as the alternate hypothesis.   Therefore, it is important to consider the null hypothesis and alternate hypothesis when developing a research-based capstone project (Burke & Dempsey, 2022). Consequently, when formally testing statistical significance, the hypothesis should be stated as a null hypothesis.  (Refer to Table 4.2:  Alternate Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis Example)

Variables are measurements that are identified within a research-based capstone project.  Variables characterize a concept, or factor, that can have more than one value. Consequently, a factor becomes a variable by virtue of how it is used within a research-based capstone project.  Basically , there are two types of variables:

              Independent Variable:  An independent variable is also referred to as a predictor variable.  It is a condition,                                                               intervention, or characteristic that will predict or cause a given outcome

             Dependent Variable:    A dependent variable is also referred to as an outcome variable.  It is a response or                                                               effect that is presumed to vary depending on the independent variable

Table 4.2:  Alternate Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis Example 

Older adults over the age of 65 in independent residential settings

Telehealth OT sessions focusing on fall prevention using a narrative learning approach to home safety

Reduced fear and risk of falling

6 web-based 45 minute sessions

Telehealth OT sessions focusing on fall prevention using a narrative approach to home safety

 Risk of falling and Fear of Falling

 

Older adults aged 65 or older that participate in a telehealth OT fall prevention program that

uses a narrative learning approach to home safety do not decrease their risk of and fear of falling

 

Older adults aged 65 or older that participate in a telehealth OT fall prevention program that uses a

narrative learning approach to home safety will decrease their risk and fear of falling.

 

A well-grounded hypothesis indicates that the researcher has sufficient knowledge in a specific area to undertake a research-based capstone project.  Furthermore, a well-grounded hypothesis gives direction to the collection and interpretation of data (Mourougan & Sethuraman, 2017).

Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

A good hypothesis is based on a good guiding question (refer to Chapter 3).  The hypothesis is developed from the guiding question and also from the main elements of a research-based capstone project:  sampling strategy, intervention, comparison (if applicable), and outcomes.  Simply, the main elements of a research-based capstone project are summarized in a form that establishes the basis for testing, statistical, and ultimately clinical significance (Refer to Table 4.3:  Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis).

Table 4.3:  Characteristics of Good Hypothesis

Drafting an Objective(s) for a Research-based Capstone or Capstone Project

While penning down  your capstone topic, PICO question, and hypothesis can be a great deal of time and effort, drafting study objectives can be viewed as an extension of your research-based capstone project’s hypothesis. The study objective(s) define the specific aims of the project and should be clearly stated in the introduction of the research-based capstone or capstone protocol.  Furthermore, study objectives are active statements about how a capstone project is going to answer the specific guiding question by indicating the overall nature and scope of the capstone project (Farrugia, et al., 2010; Malhotra, 2013).

The initial capstone journey that one navigates is typically comprised of scoping the literature (phase 1), conceptualizing a guiding question, formulating a hypothesis (in the case of a research-based capstone project), and drafting project aims and objectives.  A well-structured process, as described within this guidebook can be helpful as you continue your capstone experience (Malhotra, 2013).

Hypothesis Testing for Research-Based Capstone Projects

The purpose of hypothesis testing is to make an inference about the population of interest based on a random sample taken from that population.  Hypothesis testing is a statistical technique that will indicate whether a stated hypothesis is supported. It is during this phase of the research-based capstone project that you will meet with your institution’s statistician, mentor, and capstone instructor(s) to determine the appropriate method for testing:   whether nothing happened (null hypothesis) or something happened (alternate hypothesis).  Although we have briefly addressed the purpose of hypothesis testing, the concept of statistical testing is complex; therefore, the details for this component of a research-based capstone project are beyond the scope of this guidebook

Designing a hypothesis and objectives are supported by a good guiding question and will influence the design for a capstone project. Acting on the principles of creating an appropriate hypothesis and study objectives, as outlined in this chapter, you will be on your way to creating a research-based capstone project that will produce clinically relevant results that can effectively contribute to evidence-based practice.

Case Study:  Creating a Hypothesis

  • Since Glynn’s PIO question (see below) has been approved by her mentor and capstone instructors they have developed the following hypothesis and study objectives:

Study:  A Health Literacy Workshop for Occupational Therapists Incorporating Elements of the Universal Precautions Toolkit

  • Research Question: Does a ( I) health literacy universal precautions workshop for (P) occupational therapy practitioners (O) improve their working knowledge about health literacy, and increase their self-perceived ability to identify, assess and implement client-centered interventions that optimize outcomes for low-health literate patients?
  • Null Hypothesis: A health literacy universal precautions workshop for occupational therapy practitioners does not improve their working knowledge of health literacy and does not increase their self-perceived ability to identify, assess, and implement client-centered interventions that optimize outcomes for low-health literature patients
  • Alternate Hypothesis: A health literacy universal precautions workshop for occupational therapy practitioners improves their working knowledge of health literacy, and increases their self-perceived ability to identify, assess, and implement client-centered interventions that optimize outcomes for low-health literature patients.
  • Study Objective: The goal of this research-based capstone project is to determine if a health literacy workshop series for occupational therapists could improve their working knowledge of health literacy, and increase their self-perceived ability to identify, assess, and implement client-centered interventions for at-risk patients.
  • Glynn will begin Phase two of literature scoping (reviewed in next chapter)
  • Glynn will meet with the institution’s statistician, their mentor, and capstone instructor(s) to discuss and determine the statistical technique that can be used to effectively test her hypothesis and guide her research methods, data collection, and analysis of results.
  • Glynn will need IRB approval for her research-based capstone project and will begin by reviewing her school’s IRB website and application process.
  • Does a ( I) health literacy universal precautions workshop for (P) occupational therapy practitioners (O) improve their working knowledge about health literacy, and increase their self-perceived ability to identify, assess and implement client-centered interventions that optimize outcomes for low-health literate patients?

Optimizing Your Capstone Experience: A Guidebook for Allied Health Professionals Copyright © 2023 by Virginia E. Koenig is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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What is a Science Investigatory Project?

Dr Harry Hothi

  • By Dr Harry Hothi
  • August 27, 2020

Science Investigatory Project

Many of the STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) PhD students that we’ve interviewed on our site have also been active STEM ambassadors. This means that they engage with school children to help them learn more about scientific research and become enthused with STEM subjects. This can be in the form of giving talks at schools, producing online videos and also becoming involved as mentors in science investigatory projects. This page gives you more detail about the latter.

A science investigatory project (SIP) refers to a science-based research project or study that is performed by school children. An SIP is usually a science experiment performed in a classroom setting with the class separated into small groups, but can also form part of a scientific exhibition or fair project.

The main aim of a science investigatory project is for it to provide school aged children with an engaging way to learn more about science and the concept of performing scientific research. The approaches used are often broadly aligned with those used by PhD students carrying out a research project. The hope here is that it sparks an interest in the children about scientific concepts or STEM subjects in general and that this interest is carried forward to the university level.

These are intended to be a fun way to learn about the scientific process and research. If you as PhD student have the opportunity to become involved in an SIP, then definitely take it up! If you do, then approach the exercise with the aim of teaching the school children about the following 6 research concepts:

  • Defining a Research Question . This could happen after a classroom lesson introducing the children to a new concept. Depending on their age, encourage them to spend time reading up about the subject independently (i.e. a first review of literature using Google searches). Guide them in coming up with a research question that they genuinely don’t know the answer to yet. Can they find out what a dependent variable is and an independent variable? Also help them understand what constitutes a controlled experiment. A popular investigatory project is one based around finding out if used cooking oil can be purified using a sedimentation method so that it can be recycled.
  • Formulating a Null Hypothesis . Help the children understand the concept of the hypothesis and null hypothesis and refine the research question into this format. The null hypothesis for the above example could be ‘sedimentation is not able to purify used cooking oil’.
  • Agreeing a Study Design . Come up with the scientific method needed to test the hypothesis and run the experiments to collect data.
  • Collecting and Interpreting Results . Encourage the children to discuss the results they find and what they could mean. Using our example, can they see any differences between unused oil and oil that they tried to purify? Did the process work?
  • Concluding the Study . Have them think about their results and what their original null hypothesis was. Do they think the null hypothesis is true – i.e. did they show that sedimentation was not able to purify used cooking oil?
  • Presenting the Work . This should be a fun way to learn about the important skill of presenting your research. This might be in the form of a written page describing what they did and what they found and including a summary graph of results. Another good approach is to encourage them to give short presentations using photos of their experimental setup.

Science Investigatory Project STEM

Getting involved in a science investigatory project can be a great outreach activity to promote STEM subjects and scientific research to children. Running a science experiment with them and teaching them to think about the scientific method used can be a lot of fun too. I definitely recommend trying it even just once during your time as a PhD student.

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Fabian’s in the final year of his PhD research at Maastricht University. His project is about how humans learn numbers and how hands might help that process; this is especially useful for children developing their maths skills.

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Null Hypothesis Examples

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In statistical analysis, the null hypothesis assumes there is no meaningful relationship between two variables. Testing the null hypothesis can tell you whether your results are due to the effect of manipulating ​a dependent variable or due to chance. It's often used in conjunction with an alternative hypothesis, which assumes there is, in fact, a relationship between two variables.

The null hypothesis is among the easiest hypothesis to test using statistical analysis, making it perhaps the most valuable hypothesis for the scientific method. By evaluating a null hypothesis in addition to another hypothesis, researchers can support their conclusions with a higher level of confidence. Below are examples of how you might formulate a null hypothesis to fit certain questions.

What Is the Null Hypothesis?

The null hypothesis states there is no relationship between the measured phenomenon (the dependent variable ) and the independent variable , which is the variable an experimenter typically controls or changes. You do not​ need to believe that the null hypothesis is true to test it. On the contrary, you will likely suspect there is a relationship between a set of variables. One way to prove that this is the case is to reject the null hypothesis. Rejecting a hypothesis does not mean an experiment was "bad" or that it didn't produce results. In fact, it is often one of the first steps toward further inquiry.

To distinguish it from other hypotheses , the null hypothesis is written as ​ H 0  (which is read as “H-nought,” "H-null," or "H-zero"). A significance test is used to determine the likelihood that the results supporting the null hypothesis are not due to chance. A confidence level of 95% or 99% is common. Keep in mind, even if the confidence level is high, there is still a small chance the null hypothesis is not true, perhaps because the experimenter did not account for a critical factor or because of chance. This is one reason why it's important to repeat experiments.

Examples of the Null Hypothesis

To write a null hypothesis, first start by asking a question. Rephrase that question in a form that assumes no relationship between the variables. In other words, assume a treatment has no effect. Write your hypothesis in a way that reflects this.

Are teens better at math than adults? Age has no effect on mathematical ability.
Does taking aspirin every day reduce the chance of having a heart attack? Taking aspirin daily does not affect heart attack risk.
Do teens use cell phones to access the internet more than adults? Age has no effect on how cell phones are used for internet access.
Do cats care about the color of their food? Cats express no food preference based on color.
Does chewing willow bark relieve pain? There is no difference in pain relief after chewing willow bark versus taking a placebo.

Other Types of Hypotheses

In addition to the null hypothesis, the alternative hypothesis is also a staple in traditional significance tests . It's essentially the opposite of the null hypothesis because it assumes the claim in question is true. For the first item in the table above, for example, an alternative hypothesis might be "Age does have an effect on mathematical ability."

Key Takeaways

  • In hypothesis testing, the null hypothesis assumes no relationship between two variables, providing a baseline for statistical analysis.
  • Rejecting the null hypothesis suggests there is evidence of a relationship between variables.
  • By formulating a null hypothesis, researchers can systematically test assumptions and draw more reliable conclusions from their experiments.
  • Difference Between Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables
  • What Is a Hypothesis? (Science)
  • What 'Fail to Reject' Means in a Hypothesis Test
  • Definition of a Hypothesis
  • Null Hypothesis Definition and Examples
  • Scientific Method Vocabulary Terms
  • Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis
  • Hypothesis Test for the Difference of Two Population Proportions
  • How to Conduct a Hypothesis Test
  • What Is a P-Value?
  • What Are the Elements of a Good Hypothesis?
  • Hypothesis Test Example
  • What Is the Difference Between Alpha and P-Values?
  • Understanding Path Analysis
  • An Example of a Hypothesis Test

hypothesis example in science investigatory project

How To : The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

Most of us have conducted an investigatory science project without even knowing it, or at least without knowing that's what it was called. Most science experiments performed, from elementary to high school students and all the way up to professional scientists, are investigatory projects.

What's an Investigatory Project Exactly?

An investigatory project is basically any science experiment where you start with an issue or problem and conduct research or an investigation to decide what you think the outcome will be. After you've created your hypothesis or proposal, you can conduct a controlled experiment using the scientific method to arrive at a conclusion.

What's the Scientific Method?

For those of us who have forgotten the various steps of the scientific method, let me clear that up right here:

The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

Remember, however, that a successful investigatory science project does not necessarily have to result in the intended outcome. The purpose of these projects is to think critically, and if the solution doesn't work out, that doesn't mean your project will fail.

What Kind of Investigatory Projects Are There?

In order to conduct a great investigatory experiment, you have to ask an interesting question and be able to conduct an experiment that can hopefully answer that question. The harder and more intriguing the initial question is, the better the resulting investigation and experiment will be.

I've listed a few examples below of some of the best investigatory experiments out there, so hopefully you'll have no problem coming up with an idea.

Project #1: Making Soap Out of Guava

Basic hygiene should be available to everyone, but what about people who live in areas without easy access to grocery stores or pharmacies? This is a great question that makes you think about scientific alternatives to store-bought soap.

Below is an example project that creates soap from guava leaf extract and sodium hydroxide, but there's no shortage of materials you can use to replace the guava, like coconut oil or a fat like lard, butter or even the grease from your kitchen .

Project #2: Used Cooking Oil as a Substitute for Diesel

We all know how lucrative the oil business is, but what if the next huge innovation in oil was sitting right inside your kitchen cabinet? With the high prices of regular gasoline and diesel fuel, the possibility of creating a usable diesel fuel from household cooking oils is pretty exciting.

Although creating diesel fuel out of cooking oils that will run a BMW may sound like a reach, it still makes for a great project. And who knows, maybe in doing this you'll actually figure out what was missing from previous attempts . Being an instant billionaire doesn't sound too bad to me.

The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

If you're interested in trying it for yourself, there's a great step-by-step guide with a full ingredients list and photos over on Make .

Project #3: Create Another Alternative Fuel

If biodiesel isn't your forte, you can try making oxyhydrogen gas or creating hydrogen gas via electrolysis or vice versa, creating electricity from hydrogen gas .

The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

Project #4: Purifying Used Cooking Oil

Speaking of oil, if you use it to cook, you know that a lot of it goes to waste. But what if you could clean that oil and use it over and over again? Not only would that save money, but it would also benefit the environment since most people do not properly dispose of used cooking oil (no, pouring it down the drain doesn't count).

Your project goal would be to research methods of filtration or purification and test it on cooking oils. To easily demonstrate which method works best, try cooking some food in the oil produced by each one. Good food can go a long way when it comes to winning people over.

The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

Check out the abstract and description of a similar project here .

Project #5: Alternative Methods of Producing Iodized Salt

In areas isolated from the sea, IDD or Iodine Deficiency Disease, is very common. Since these areas do not have easy access to marine foods or grocery stores, the population becomes very susceptible to the disease due to a lack of iodine in the diet. In order to combat this, researchers and doctors have begun infusing iodine into regular table salts.

If not iodine is readily available, it can be chemically made either with sulfuric acid and alkali metal iodide or hydrochloric acid and hydroxide peroxide .

But perhaps there are other more accessible ways to create an iodized salt that people could make at home. For a starting point, take a look at this previous experiment .

Project #6: Making Biodegradable Plastic

Plastic bags are actually illegal in Santa Monica , CA (and soon to be Los Angeles ) because of their threat to the environment due to insane resistance to biodegradation. I didn't think they were that bad, but one plastic bag can take up to 1,000 years to break down completely, and it can even ruin your car along the way. So, creating a better biodegradable plastic bag would be a huge achievement.

The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

The only question is how one would go about doing so, and what materials could be used? That's the question you can answer for your project. This project used cassava starch as an effective component for a biodegradable plastic, but you could try using a few different starches and see what works best.

Project #7: Solar Water Purification

One of the biggest world problems is finding clean water. While we in the states can find purified or drinkable tap water almost anywhere, millions of people around the world don't have access to clean drinking water.

A few students decided to investigate a potential purification process using the sun's energy and an aluminum sheet. Watch the video below for more information and a complete walkthrough of their scientific process.

And if you're an overachiever, you can step it up a notch and try purifying pee instead .

Project #8: Perfecting the Paper Bridge

Of course, an investigatory project doesn't always have to answer such grand questions. This experiment looks to discover how to build the strongest paper bridge by varying how the pieces are held together. So, the question is, "How do design changes affect a load bearing structure?"

The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

Check out the video below for more information on replicating the project yourself.

Project #9: Making Instant Ice

It's summer time and the degrees are already hitting triple digits in some areas. When it's this hot, there are few things better than a glass of ice chilled water or lemonade. But what happens if you don't have ice? Can you create your own ice or cool drinks quickly by another method? Check out this clip from King of Random .

Cool, huh? But how does it work? Is there any other way to replicate this? Well, let the investigation begin. Figure out what your hypotheses will be and follow along with this video for you own investigatory project.

For more information and additional photos, be sure to check out the King of Random's full tutorial .

Project #10: Increase the Shelf-Life of Fruits and Veggies

Extending the shelf-life of perishable fruits and vegetables can make a huge difference for small farmers, street-side vendors and even your average Joe—groceries aren't cheap. What is an inexpensive and easily accessible way to make produce stay fresh longer?

The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

That's the question behind this great investigatory science project featured here . While these researchers focused exclusively on chitosan coating on bananas, you can branch out (no pun intended) and try an assortment of other fruits, veggies and possible coating materials.

For more information on how to keep your fruits and vegetables fresh for longer, check out my previous article , or Yumi's recent illustration for other ideas.

Project #11: Slow the Ripening of Sliced or Chopped Produce

You could also focus your project on keeping fruits and vegetables from browning after they've already been cut up. There are various methods and materials you can use to slow down the ripening process, such as honey and lemon juice. Watch the video below and read this tutorial for more information and ideas.

Your project could revolve around finding the best option, and testing out some of your own browning-prevention solutions to see if you can come up with a better one.

Project #12: Improve Memory by Thinking Dirty

If my memory was any good I would be fluent in Spanish and never need to look up the Quadratic Formula again. But my problems are more superficial, like forgetting where I put my keys or what time my dentist appointment was supposed to be. There are folks out there who do suffer from real memory problems, so figuring out how to help improve memory makes for a great investigatory project.

The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

There are tons of studies on memory and memory loss that you can research. But for your investigatory science project, you will want to come up with your own hypothesis based on that information and test it out. Does using colors to form associations help with memory? Does linking an image with a memory increase its hold in the carrier's head? What about drinking grape juice or sniffing rosemary ? These are the types of questions you may look to answer.

This article contends that memory can be improved by looking at NSFW images or thinking of dirty associations. Come up with your own theory and let the brain hacking begin.

Project #13: Improving Social Anxiety by Manipulating the Body & Mind

Science experiments don't always have to include chemicals or test tubes. The science of the mind can be just as interesting. So what's the investigation consist of?

Can you truly affect the way you act and feel by simply changing your posture? Does acting a certain way manipulate the mind drastically enough to actually change the way you feel?

Check out Amy Cuddy's awesome TED Talk for more ideas for additional questions you could ask.

Project #14: Kitchen DNA Extraction

You may think studying DNA is only for professionals with super expensive lab equipment, but you can actually extract DNA from any living thing with a few basic ingredients you probably have in your kitchen like dish soap and rubbing alcohol.

The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

Decide on something to vary, like different fruits and vegetables or types of dish soap, and come up with a hypothesis regarding which will allow you to collect the most DNA material.

You can also find more information, as well as another way to perform the experiment, here .

Project #15: Make Homemade Glue from Milk

With milk, white vinegar and baking soda, you can make your own glue right at home. Make it an investigatory project by changing up the recipe and testing which results in the strongest glue. You could also try varying the ingredients to make it dry faster, or work on different materials (wood vs. plastic vs. paper).

The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

Project #16: Make a Battery Out of Fruits and Vegetables

How can you power a small light or device without electricity? You can make a DIY battery with a few different types of fruits and vegetables. Anything from a lemon to an apple , potato , or even passion fruit will work.

The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to Kickstart Your Project

Pick a few different fruits or vegetables and form a hypothesis as to which will make the battery that puts out the most energy or lasts the longest. Once you've built your batteries, hook up a volt meter to read the output and see which one is the best.

What's Your Favorite?

Know of an awesome investigatory project that's not on the list, like wireless electricity or cheaper x-ray machines ? Let us know in the comments below. If you decide to use any of these ideas for your own project, be sure to take some photos and show off your results over in the Inspiration section !

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15 Comments

It's the best thing av seen

these things are really useful............

All of this was perfect for my Investigatory Project . ! :D

"All of this 'were' perfect for my Investigatory Project"

"all of 'these' were perfect for my investigatory project

heheh !! all of these examples above are usefull.. great job kuya's ang ate's heheh muah muah

how i can make a gameor a toy based on a scientific principal for class x

It really helps me to find a good topic for my investigatory project. Thanks. :)

how about devices that remove particles from the smoke/gas

yes biodegradable plastic bag is better but how ?

i like it so much i have now a science investigatory project

thanx for these I`ve enjoy it... i have now a sip

Is it possible to invent a machine that automatically segregate our trash? I want to make it possible through SIP...

nice and amazing

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70 Best High School Science Fair Projects in Every Subject

Fire up the Bunsen burners!

Collage of high school science fair projects, including 3D printed cars and a DIY vacuum chamber

The cool thing about high school science fair projects is that kids are old enough to tackle some pretty amazing concepts. Some science experiments for high school are just advanced versions of simpler projects they did when they were younger, with detailed calculations or fewer instructions. Other projects involve fire, chemicals, or other materials they couldn’t use before.

Note: Some of these projects were written as classroom labs but can be adapted to become science fair projects too. Just consider variables that you can change up, like materials or other parameters. That changes a classroom activity into a true scientific method experiment!

To make it easier to find the right high school science fair project idea for you, we’ve rated all the projects by difficulty and the materials needed:

Difficulty:

  • Easy: Low or no-prep experiments you can do pretty much anytime
  • Medium: These take a little more setup or a longer time to complete
  • Advanced: Experiments like these take a fairly big commitment of time or effort
  • Basic: Simple items you probably already have around the house
  • Medium: Items that you might not already have but are easy to get your hands on
  • Advanced: These require specialized or more expensive supplies to complete
  • Biology and Life Sciences High School Science Fair Projects

Chemistry High School Science Fair Projects

Physics high school science fair projects, engineering high school stem fair projects, biology and life science high school science fair projects.

Explore the living world with these biology science project ideas, learning more about plants, animals, the environment, and much more.

Extract DNA from an onion

Difficulty: Medium / Materials: Medium

You don’t need a lot of supplies to perform this experiment, but it’s impressive nonetheless. Turn this into a science fair project by trying it with other fruits and vegetables too.

Re-create Mendel’s pea plant experiment

Gregor Mendel’s pea plant experiments were some of the first to explore inherited traits and genetics. Try your own cross-pollination experiments with fast-growing plants like peas or beans.

Make plants move with light

By this age, kids know that many plants move toward sunlight, a process known as phototropism. So high school science fair projects on this topic need to introduce variables into the process, like covering seedling parts with different materials to see the effects.

Test the 5-second rule

We’d all like to know the answer to this one: Is it really safe to eat food you’ve dropped on the floor? Design and conduct an experiment to find out (although we think we might already know the answer).

Find out if color affects taste

Just how interlinked are all our senses? Does the sight of food affect how it tastes? Find out with a fun food science fair project like this one!

See the effects of antibiotics on bacteria

Test tubes containing various bacteria

Difficulty: Medium / Materials: Advanced

Bacteria can be divided into two groups: gram-positive and gram-negative. In this experiment, students first determine the two groups, then try the effects of various antibiotics on them. You can get a gram stain kit , bacillus cereus and rhodospirillum rubrum cultures, and antibiotic discs from Home Science Tools.

Learn more: Antibiotics Project at Home Science Tools

Witness the carbon cycle in action

Test tubes filled with plants and green and blue liquid

Experiment with the effects of light on the carbon cycle. Make this science fair project even more interesting by adding some small aquatic animals like snails or fish into the mix.

Learn more: Carbon Cycle at Science Lessons That Rock

Look for cell mitosis in an onion

Cell mitosis (division) is actually easy to see in action when you look at onion root tips under a microscope. Students will be amazed to see science theory become science reality right before their eyes. Adapt this lab into a high school science fair project by applying the process to other organisms too.

Test the effects of disinfectants

Petri dish divided in half with bacteria and paper disks on the surface

Grow bacteria in a petri dish along with paper disks soaked in various antiseptics and disinfectants. You’ll be able to see which ones effectively inhibit bacteria growth.

Learn more: Effectiveness of Antiseptics and Disinfectants at Amy Brown Science

Pit hydroponics against soil

Growing vegetables without soil (hydroponics) is a popular trend, allowing people to garden just about anywhere.

More Life Sciences and Biology Science Fair Projects for High School

Use these questions and ideas to design your own experiment:

  • Explore ways to prevent soil erosion.
  • What are the most accurate methods of predicting various weather patterns?
  • Try out various fertilization methods to find the best and safest way to increase crop yield.
  • What’s the best way to prevent mold growth on food for long-term storage?
  • Does exposure to smoke or other air pollutants affect plant growth?
  • Compare the chemical and/or bacterial content of various water sources (bottled, tap, spring, well water, etc.).
  • Explore ways to clean up after an oil spill on land or water.
  • Conduct a wildlife field survey in a given area and compare it to results from previous surveys.
  • Find a new use for plastic bottles or bags to keep them out of landfills.
  • Devise a way to desalinate seawater and make it safe to drink.

Bunsen burners, beakers and test tubes, and the possibility of (controlled) explosions? No wonder chemistry is such a popular topic for high school science fair projects!

Break apart covalent bonds

Tub of water with battery leads in it

Break the covalent bond of H 2 O into H and O with this simple experiment. You only need simple supplies for this one. Turn it into a science fair project by changing up the variables—does the temperature of the water matter? What happens if you try this with other liquids?

Learn more: Covalent Bonds at Teaching Without Chairs

Measure the calories in various foods

Are the calorie counts on your favorite snacks accurate? Build your own calorimeter and find out! This kit from Home Science Tools has all the supplies you’ll need.

Detect latent fingerprints

Fingerprint divided into two, one half yellow and one half black

Forensic science is engrossing and can lead to important career opportunities too. Explore the chemistry needed to detect latent (invisible) fingerprints, just like they do for crime scenes!

Learn more: Fingerprints Project at Hub Pages

Use Alka-Seltzer to explore reaction rate

Difficulty: Easy / Materials: Easy

Tweak this basic concept to create a variety of high school chemistry science fair projects. Change the temperature, surface area, pressure, and more to see how reaction rates change.

Determine whether sports drinks provide more electrolytes than OJ

Are those pricey sports drinks really worth it? Try this experiment to find out. You’ll need some special equipment for this one; buy a complete kit at Home Science Tools .

Turn flames into a rainbow

You’ll need to get your hands on a few different chemicals for this experiment, but the wow factor will make it worth the effort! Make it a science project by seeing if different materials, air temperature, or other factors change the results.

Discover the size of a mole

Supplies needed for mole experiment, included scale, salt, and chalk

The mole is a key concept in chemistry, so it’s important to ensure students really understand it. This experiment uses simple materials like salt and chalk to make an abstract concept more concrete. Make it a project by applying the same procedure to a variety of substances, or determining whether outside variables have an effect on the results.

Learn more: How Big Is a Mole? at Amy Brown Science

Cook up candy to learn mole and molecule calculations

Aluminum foil bowl filled with bubbling liquid over a bunsen burner

This edible experiment lets students make their own peppermint hard candy while they calculate mass, moles, molecules, and formula weights. Tweak the formulas to create different types of candy and make this into a sweet science fair project!

Learn more: Candy Chemistry at Dunigan Science on TpT

Make soap to understand saponification

Colorful soaps from saponification science experiments for high school

Take a closer look at an everyday item: soap! Use oils and other ingredients to make your own soap, learning about esters and saponification. Tinker with the formula to find one that fits a particular set of parameters.

Learn more: Saponification at Chemistry Solutions on TpT

Uncover the secrets of evaporation

Explore the factors that affect evaporation, then come up with ways to slow them down or speed them up for a simple science fair project.

Learn more: Evaporation at Science Projects

More Chemistry Science Fair Projects for High School

These questions and ideas can spark ideas for a unique experiment:

  • Compare the properties of sugar and artificial sweeteners.
  • Explore the impact of temperature, concentration, and seeding on crystal growth.
  • Test various antacids on the market to find the most effective product.
  • What is the optimum temperature for yeast production when baking bread from scratch?
  • Compare the vitamin C content of various fruits and vegetables.
  • How does temperature affect enzyme-catalyzed reactions?
  • Investigate the effects of pH on an acid-base chemical reaction.
  • Devise a new natural way to test pH levels (such as cabbage leaves).
  • What’s the best way to slow down metal oxidation (the form of rust)?
  • How do changes in ingredients and method affect the results of a baking recipe?

When you think of physics science projects for high school, the first thing that comes to mind is probably the classic build-a-bridge. But there are plenty of other ways for teens to get hands-on with physics concepts. Here are some to try.

Remove the air in a DIY vacuum chamber

DIY vacuum chamber made from a jar and large hypodermic needle

You can use a vacuum chamber to do lots of cool high school science fair projects, but a ready-made one can be expensive. Try this project to make your own with basic supplies.

Learn more: Vacuum Chamber at Instructables

Put together a mini Tesla coil

Looking for a simple but showy high school science fair project? Build your own mini Tesla coil and wow the crowd!

Boil water in a paper cup

Logic tells us we shouldn’t set a paper cup over a heat source, right? Yet it’s actually possible to boil water in a paper cup without burning the cup up! Learn about heat transfer and thermal conductivity with this experiment. Go deeper by trying other liquids like honey to see what happens.

Build a better light bulb

Emulate Edison and build your own simple light bulb. You can turn this into a science fair project by experimenting with different types of materials for filaments.

Measure the speed of light—with your microwave

Grab an egg and head to your microwave for this surprisingly simple experiment. By measuring the distance between cooked portions of egg whites, you’ll be able to calculate the wavelength of the microwaves in your oven and, in turn, the speed of light.

Generate a Lichtenberg figure

Lichtenberg figure generated on a sheet of Plexiglass

See electricity in action when you generate and capture a Lichtenberg figure with polyethylene sheets, wood, or even acrylic and toner. Change the electrical intensity and materials to see what types of patterns you can create.

Learn more: Lichtenberg Figure at Science Notes

Explore the power of friction with sticky note pads

Difficulty: Medium / Materials: Basic

Ever try to pull a piece of paper out of the middle of a big stack? It’s harder than you think it would be! That’s due to the power of friction. In this experiment, students interleave the sheets of two sticky note pads, then measure how much weight it takes to pull them apart. The results are astonishing!

Build a cloud chamber to prove background radiation

Ready to dip your toe into particle physics? Learn about background radiation and build a cloud chamber to prove the existence of muons.

Measure the effect of temperature on resistance

A beaker with a tungsten rod, connected to a multimeter

This is a popular and classic science fair experiment in physics. You’ll need a few specialized supplies, but they’re pretty easy to find.

Learn more: Temperature and Resistance at Science Project

Launch the best bottle rocket

A basic bottle rocket is pretty easy to build, but it opens the door to lots of different science fair projects. Design a powerful launcher, alter the rocket so it flies higher or farther, or use only recycled materials for your flyer.

More Physics Science Fair Projects for High School

Design your own experiment in response to these questions and prompts.

  • Determine the most efficient solar panel design and placement.
  • What’s the best way to eliminate friction between two objects?
  • Explore the best methods of insulating an object against heat loss.
  • What effect does temperature have on batteries when stored for long periods of time?
  • Test the effects of magnets or electromagnetic fields on plants or other living organisms.
  • Determine the best angle and speed of a bat swing in baseball.
  • What’s the best way to soundproof an area or reduce noise produced by an item?
  • Explore methods for reducing air resistance in automotive design.
  • Use the concepts of torque and rotation to perfect a golf swing.
  • Compare the strength and durability of various building materials.

Many schools are changing up their science fairs to STEM fairs, to encourage students with an interest in engineering to participate. Many great engineering science fair projects start with a STEM challenge, like those shown here. Use these ideas to spark a full-blown project to build something new and amazing!

Solve a current environmental issue

A science fair project can also be an entry into the Slingshot Challenge . Students produce a 1-minute video with a solution to a current environmental problem (think: uniting creative waste reducers on social media or rehabilitating forests affected by fire) for the chance to receive up to $10,000 in funding.

Construct a model maglev train

Maglev model train built from magnets and wood craft sticks on green felt

Maglev trains may just be the future of mass transportation. Build a model at home, and explore ways to implement the technology on a wider basis.

Learn more: Maglev Model Train at Supermagnete

Design a more efficient wind turbine

Wind energy is renewable, making it a good solution for the fossil fuel problem. For a smart science fair project, experiment to find the most efficient wind turbine design for a given situation.

Re-create Da Vinci’s flying machine

Da Vinci flying machine built from a paper cup and other basic supplies

Da Vinci sketched several models of “flying machines” and hoped to soar through the sky. Do some research into his models and try to reconstruct one of your own.

Learn more: Da Vinci Flying Machine at Student Savvy

Design a heart-rate monitor

Smartwatches are ubiquitous these days, so pretty much anyone can wear a heart-rate monitor on their wrist. But do they work any better than one you can build yourself? Get the specialized items you need like the Arduino LilyPad Board on Amazon.

Race 3D printed cars

Simple 3-D printed race cars with vegetables strapped to them (Science Experiments for High School)

3D printers are a marvel of the modern era, and budding engineers should definitely learn to use them. Use Tinkercad or a similar program to design and print race cars that can support a defined weight, then see which can roll the fastest! (No 3D printer in your STEM lab? Check the local library. Many of them have 3D printers available for patrons to use.)

Learn more: 3D Printed Cars at Instructables

Grow veggies in a hydroponic garden

Vertical hydroponic garden made from PVC pipes and aluminum downspouts

Hydroponics is the gardening wave of the future, making it easy to grow plants anywhere with minimal soil required. For a science fair STEM engineering challenge, design and construct your own hydroponic garden capable of growing vegetables to feed a family. This model is just one possible option.

Learn more: Hydroponics at Instructables

Grab items with a mechanical claw

KiwiCo hydraulic claw kit (Science Experiments for High School)

Delve into robotics with this engineering project. This kit includes all the materials you need, with complete video instructions. Once you’ve built the basic structure, tinker around with the design to improve its strength, accuracy, or other traits.

Learn more: Hydraulic Claw at KiwiCo

Construct a crystal radio

Homemade crystal radio set (Science Experiments for High School)

Return to the good old days and build a radio from scratch. This makes a cool science fair project if you experiment with different types of materials for the antenna. It takes some specialized equipment, but fortunately, Home Science Tools has an all-in-one kit for this project.

Learn more: Crystal Radio at Scitoys.com

Build a burglar alarm

Simple electronic burglar alarm with a cell phone

The challenge? Set up a system to alert you when someone has broken into your house or classroom. This can take any form students can dream up, and you can customize this STEM high school science experiment for multiple skill levels. Keep it simple with an alarm that makes a sound that can be heard from a specified distance. Or kick it up a notch and require the alarm system to send a notification to a cell phone, like the project at the link.

Learn more: Intruder Alarm at Instructables

Walk across a plastic bottle bridge

Students sitting on a large bridge made of plastic bottles

Balsa wood bridges are OK, but this plastic bottle bridge is really impressive! In fact, students can build all sorts of structures using the concept detailed at the link. It’s the ultimate upcycled STEM challenge!

Learn more: TrussFab Structures at Instructables

Looking for more science content? Check out the Best Science Websites for Middle and High School .

Plus, get all the latest teaching tips and tricks when you sign up for our newsletters .

Explore high school science fair projects in biology, chemistry, physics, engineering and more, from easy projects to advanced ideas.

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23+ Science Investigatory Project Topics for Curious Minds

science investigatory project topics

Science investigatory projects are a great way for students to explore various scientific concepts and principles in a fun and engaging way. These projects allow students to apply their knowledge of scientific methods, research skills, and creativity to solve real-world problems.

If you’re looking for science investigatory project topics, you’ve come to the right place. In this blog post, we’ll explore what science investigatory projects are, their significance, and the elements that make up a successful project. We’ll also provide a list of 23+ exciting science investigatory project topics that will surely ignite your curiosity and imagination. Also, we will discuss how you can find the right topic for your Science Investigatory Project.

What is the Science Investigatory Project?

Table of Contents

A Science Investigatory Project (SIP) is a research-based project that allows students to apply scientific methods to investigate a problem or question of interest. It is an opportunity for students to explore their curiosity and creativity while developing important skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication.

SIPs are typically done by students in high school or college, but they can also be done by younger students under the guidance of a teacher or mentor. These projects can cover a wide range of topics in various fields of science such as biology, chemistry, physics, environmental science, and more.

Significance of Science Investigatory Project

science investigatory project (SIP) is a research project that allows students to explore scientific topics of their choice through hands-on experimentation and analysis. SIPs are often conducted by students in high school or college, and they provide a unique opportunity to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills while also exploring areas of interest. Here are some of the significant benefits of conducting a science investigatory project:

1. Develops research skills

SIPs help students develop research skills, including gathering and analyzing data, identifying relevant sources, and synthesizing information. These skills are essential for success in college and beyond.

2. Promotes scientific inquiry

SIPs encourage students to ask questions, generate hypotheses, and design experiments to test their ideas. This process promotes scientific inquiry and helps students understand the scientific method.

3. Encourages creativity

SIPs provide students with the opportunity to think creatively and come up with innovative solutions to problems. This encourages creativity and helps students develop new ways of looking at the world.

4. Enhances problem-solving skills

SIPs require students to identify problems and design solutions to address them. This process helps students develop problem-solving skills that are valuable in many fields.

5. Fosters independent learning

SIPs encourage students to take ownership of their learning and work independently. This helps students develop self-directed learning skills that are essential for success in college and beyond.

6. Prepares for college and career

SIPs help students develop skills that are essential for success in college and in many careers, including research, critical thinking, problem-solving, and communication.

7. Contributes to scientific knowledge

SIPs can contribute to the scientific knowledge base by generating new data and insights into scientific topics. This can have a significant impact on the field and can inspire future research.

Overall, science investigatory projects provide students with a unique opportunity to explore scientific topics of their choice and develop important skills that are valuable for success in many fields. By conducting a SIP, students can enhance their understanding of scientific concepts, develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills, and make meaningful contributions to scientific knowledge.

Here in this section, we will tell you the top 23+ science investigatory project topics for curious minds:

1. Investigating the effects of caffeine on plant growth

This project involves growing plants in different concentrations of caffeine and measuring their growth over time.

2. Investigating the effects of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis

This project involves measuring the rate of photosynthesis at different temperatures to determine the optimal temperature for plant growth.

3. Investigating the effects of different types of soil on plant growth

This project involves growing plants in different types of soil to determine which type of soil is best for plant growth.

4. Investigating the effects of music on plant growth

This project involves playing different types of music to plants and measuring their growth over time.

5. Investigating the effects of pH on enzyme activity

This project involves measuring the activity of enzymes at different pH levels to determine the optimal pH for enzyme activity.

6. Investigating the effects of different types of light on plant growth

This project involves growing plants under different types of light to determine which type of light is best for plant growth.

7. Investigating the effects of different types of fertilizer on plant growth

This project involves growing plants in different types of fertilizer to determine which type of fertilizer is best for plant growth.

8. Investigating the effects of water pollution on fish

This project involves exposing fish to different types of water pollutants and measuring their survival rate over time.

9. Investigating the effects of air pollution on plant growth

This project involves exposing plants to different types of air pollutants and measuring their growth over time.

10. Investigating the effects of different types of insulation on heat loss

This project involves measuring the rate of heat loss through different types of insulation to determine which type of insulation is most effective.

11. Investigating the effects of different types of packaging on food preservation

This project involves storing food in different types of packaging to determine which type of packaging is best for food preservation.

12. Investigating the effects of different types of cleaning products on bacteria growth

This project involves testing different types of cleaning products on bacteria growth to determine which product is most effective at killing bacteria.

13. Investigating the effects of different types of water filters on water quality

This project involves testing different types of water filters to determine which type is most effective at removing contaminants from water.

14. Investigating the effects of different types of antacids on stomach acid

This project involves testing different types of antacids on stomach acid to determine which type is most effective at neutralizing acid.

15. Investigating the effects of different types of sunscreen on UV radiation

This project involves testing different types of sunscreen to determine which type is most effective at blocking UV radiation.

16. Investigating the effects of different types of exercise on heart rate

This project involves measuring heart rate during different types of exercise to determine which type of exercise is most effective at increasing heart rate.

17. Investigating the effects of different types of food on blood sugar

This project involves testing the effects of different types of food on blood sugar levels to determine which type of food is best for managing blood sugar.

18. Investigating the effects of different types of disinfectants on bacteria growth

This project involves testing different types of disinfectants on bacteria growth to determine which disinfectant is most effective at killing bacteria.

19. Investigating the effects of different types of music on memory retention

This project involves testing the effects of different types of music on memory retention to determine which type of music is most effective at enhancing memory.

20. Investigating the effects of different types of cooking oils on cholesterol levels

This project involves testing the effects of different types of cooking oils on cholesterol levels to determine which type of oil is best for managing cholesterol.

21. Investigating the effects of different types of toothpaste on tooth decay

This project involves testing different types of toothpaste on tooth decay to determine which type is most effective at preventing tooth decay.

22. Investigating the effects of different types of preservatives on food spoilage

This project involves testing different types of preservatives on food spoilage to determine which type is most effective at preventing food spoilage.

23. Investigating the effects of different types of hand sanitizers on bacteria growth

This project involves testing different types of hand sanitizers on bacteria growth to determine which type is most effective at killing bacteria.

24. Investigating the effects of different types of music on plant growth

This project involves playing different types of music to plants and measuring their growth over time to determine which type of music is most effective at enhancing plant growth.

25. Investigating the effects of different types of exercise on muscle growth

This project involves measuring muscle growth during different types of exercise to determine which type of exercise is most effective at increasing muscle mass.

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Elements of Science Investigatory Project

A successful science investigatory project typically consists of several elements. These elements include:

1. Research question or problem statement

The project should have a clear research question or problem statement that the student is attempting to investigate.

2. Hypothesis

The project should have a clear hypothesis that the student is testing.

3. Experimental design

The project should have a clear experimental design that includes the materials and methods used to conduct the experiment.

4. Data collection and analysis

The project should include data collection and analysis methods that are appropriate for the experiment.

The project should include a clear presentation of the results of the experiment.

6. Conclusion

The project should have a clear conclusion that summarizes the findings of the experiment and discusses their significance.

How to Find Science Investigatory Project Topics

Finding the right science investigatory project topics can be challenging, but there are several ways to get started. Here are some tips for finding science investigatory project ideas:

1. Identify your interests

Start by identifying your interests in science. Do you have a particular area of science that you enjoy? What are some problems or questions in that field that you find interesting?

2. Research current events

Look for current events in science that are relevant to your interests. This can help you identify problems or questions that are currently being investigated.

3. Brainstorm with others

Talk to your friends, family, or classmates about their interests in science. Brainstorm together to come up with ideas for science investigatory projects.

4. Use online resources

There are many online resources that can help you find science investigatory project ideas. Check out science websites, blogs, and forums for ideas, or browse through science fair project databases to see what others have done in the past.

5. Consult with a teacher or mentor

If you’re still struggling to find an idea, consult with a science teacher or mentor. They can offer guidance and help you brainstorm ideas based on your interests and skill level.

How to Choose the Right Science Investigatory Project Topics

Choosing the right science investigatory project topics can make all the difference when it comes to the success of your project. Here are some tips to help you choose the right idea:

1. Choose a topic that interests you

Choose a topic that you find interesting and that you’re passionate about. This will make the project more enjoyable and motivate you to do your best.

2. Choose a topic that’s feasible

Choose a topic that’s realistic and feasible given your time, resources, and skill level. Avoid choosing a topic that’s too complex or requires expensive equipment or materials that you don’t have access to.

3. Choose a topic that’s relevant

Choose a topic that’s relevant to your community or society. This will make the project more meaningful and have a greater impact.

4. Choose a topic that’s original

Choose a topic that’s original and hasn’t been done before. This will make the project more interesting and unique.

5. Choose a topic that’s challenging

Choose a topic that’s challenging but still achievable. This will make the project more rewarding and help you develop new skills.

Significance of Choosing Science Investigatory Project Topics

Choosing the right science investigatory project topics is crucial to the success of your project. Here are some reasons why choosing the right idea is so important:

1. It determines the success of your project

Choosing the right idea can make all the difference when it comes to the success of your project. A well-chosen idea will make the project more enjoyable, more meaningful, and more likely to succeed.

2. It determines the level of engagement

Choosing the right idea will increase your level of engagement with the project. You’ll be more motivated to work on the project and more interested in the results.

3. It helps develop critical thinking skills

Choosing the right idea requires critical thinking and problem-solving skills. By choosing a challenging and original idea, you’ll develop new skills and improve existing ones.

4. It makes the project more relevant

Choosing a topic that’s relevant to your community or society will make the project more meaningful and have a greater impact.

5. It makes the project more interesting

Choosing a topic that’s interesting and unique will make the project more engaging and enjoyable.

This is the end of this post which is about science investigatory project topics. On the other hand, science investigatory projects are a great way to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills while exploring topics that interest you. With the right idea and a solid plan, you can create a successful project that has a meaningful impact on your community or society. 

By following the tips outlined in this post and exploring the 23+ science investigatory project topics provided, you’re sure to find an idea that sparks your curiosity and inspires you to explore the fascinating world of science. So, get your science on and start exploring the possibilities today!

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110+ Best Science Investigatory Project Topics: Dive into Science

Science Investigatory Project Topics

  • Post author By admin
  • September 29, 2023

Explore a wide range of science investigatory project topics to engage in innovative research and make significant contributions to the field.

Get ready to dive headfirst into the thrilling world of Science Investigatory Project (SIP) topics! Imagine a journey where you become a scientist, an explorer of the unknown, and a solver of real-world puzzles.

This is what SIP offers – a chance to channel your inner curiosity and creativity into the fascinating realm of science.

From unlocking the secrets of life in biology to experimenting with the wonders of chemistry, from unraveling the mysteries of the universe in physics to addressing vital environmental issues – SIP topics are your keys to a world of exploration.

In this adventure, we’ll guide you through an array of captivating SIP ideas. These topics aren’t just assignments; they’re opportunities to uncover new knowledge, make a difference, and have a blast along the way.

So, gear up for an exciting journey, as we unveil the science topics that could spark your imagination and fuel your passion for discovery. Let’s begin!

Table of Contents

What is a Science Investigatory Project?

Imagine stepping into the shoes of a scientist – asking questions, running experiments, and discovering the secrets of the world around you. That’s exactly what a Science Investigatory Project, or SIP, is all about.

At its core, a SIP is a thrilling journey of scientific exploration. It’s a project that challenges you to pick a problem, make educated guesses (that’s your hypothesis), roll up your sleeves for experiments, collect data, and connect the dots to find answers.

Here’s how it works

Step 1: the mystery.

You start with a question – something that piques your curiosity. It could be anything from “Why do plants grow towards the light?” to “What makes the sky blue?” Your SIP is your ticket to unravel these mysteries.

Step 2: The Guess

Next comes your hypothesis – a fancy word for your best guess at the answer. It’s like saying, “I think this is what’s happening, and here’s why.”

Step 3: The Detective Work

Now, it’s time for the fun part – experimenting! You set up tests, tweak variables, and observe closely. Whether you’re mixing chemicals, observing insects, or measuring temperature, you’re the scientist in charge.

Step 4: Clues and Evidence

As you experiment, you collect clues in the form of data – numbers, measurements, observations. It’s like gathering puzzle pieces.

Step 5: The “Aha!” Moment

When you analyze your data, patterns start to emerge. You connect those puzzle pieces until you have a clear picture. Does your data support your guess (hypothesis), or do you need to rethink things?

Step 6: Sharing Your Discovery

Scientists don’t keep their findings to themselves. They share them with the world. Your SIP report or presentation is your chance to do just that. You explain what you did, what you found, and why it matters.

So, why do SIPs matter? They’re not just school projects. They’re your chance to think like a scientist, ask questions like a detective, and discover like an explorer. They’re where you become the expert, the innovator, the problem-solver.

From the mysteries of biology to the wonders of chemistry and the enigmas of physics, SIPs open doors to countless adventures in science. So, what question will you ask? What mystery will you solve? Your SIP journey awaits – embrace it, and you might just uncover something amazing.

Choosing the Right SIP Topic

Choosing the right Science Investigatory Project (SIP) topic is like selecting a path for your scientific adventure. It’s a critical decision, and here’s how to make it count:

Follow Your Passion

Your SIP topic should resonate with your interests. Pick something you’re genuinely curious about. When you’re passionate, the research becomes a thrilling quest, not a chore.

Real-World Relevance

Consider how your topic connects to the real world. Can your research shed light on a problem or offer solutions? SIPs are a chance to make a tangible impact.

Feasibility

Be realistic about the resources at your disposal. Choose a topic that you can explore within your time frame and access to equipment. Avoid overly ambitious projects that might overwhelm you.

Originality Matters

While it’s okay to explore well-trodden paths, strive for a unique angle. What can you add to the existing knowledge? Innovative ideas often lead to exciting discoveries.

Mentor Guidance

If you’re feeling uncertain, don’t hesitate to seek guidance from teachers or mentors. They can help you refine your ideas and offer valuable insights.

Remember, your SIP topic is the compass for your scientific journey. It should excite your curiosity, have real-world significance, and be feasible within your means. So, choose wisely, and let your scientific adventure begin!

Popular Science Investigatory Project Topics

Now that we’ve established the criteria for selecting a SIP topic, let’s explore some captivating ideas across various scientific domains.

  • Investigating the Effects of Various Soil Types on Plant Growth
  • The Impact of Different Water pH Levels on Aquatic Life
  • Studying the Behavior of Insects in Response to Environmental Changes
  • Analyzing the Effect of Different Light Intensities on Photosynthesis
  • Exploring the Microbial Diversity in Different Soil Samples
  • Investigating the Antioxidant Properties of Various Fruit Extracts
  • Studying the Growth Patterns of Mold on Different Types of Food
  • Analyzing the Effects of Temperature on Enzyme Activity
  • Investigating the Impact of Pollution on the Health of Local Wildlife
  • Exploring the Relationship Between Diet and Gut Microbiota Composition
  • Developing Eco-Friendly Cleaning Products from Household Ingredients
  • Investigating the Chemical Composition of Common Food Preservatives
  • Analyzing the Effects of Different Chemical Reactions on Metal Corrosion
  • Studying the Factors Affecting the Rate of Vitamin C Degradation in Fruit Juices
  • Exploring the Chemistry Behind the Colors of Fireworks
  • Investigating the Efficiency of Various Household Water Softeners
  • Synthesizing Biodegradable Polymers from Natural Sources
  • Studying the Chemical Reactions Involved in Baking Soda and Vinegar Reactions
  • Analyzing the Impact of Acids and Bases on Tooth Enamel
  • Investigating the Chemical Composition of Different Brands of Shampoos
  • Designing and Testing a Solar-Powered Water Heater
  • Investigating the Factors Affecting the Bounce Height of Balls
  • Studying the Relationship Between Temperature and Electrical Conductivity in Materials
  • Analyzing the Efficiency of Different Insulating Materials
  • Exploring the Effects of Magnetism on Plant Growth
  • Investigating the Behavior of Sound Waves in Different Environments
  • Studying the Impact of Projectile Launch Angles on Distance
  • Analyzing the Factors Affecting the Speed of Falling Objects
  • Investigating the Reflection and Refraction of Light in Different Media
  • Exploring the Relationship Between the Length of a Pendulum and Its Period

Environmental Science

  • Analyzing the Effects of Urban Green Spaces on Air Quality
  • Investigating the Impact of Microplastics on Marine Life
  • Studying the Relationship Between Temperature and Ocean Acidification
  • Exploring the Effects of Deforestation on Local Ecosystems
  • Investigating the Factors Contributing to Soil Erosion in a Watershed
  • Analyzing the Impact of Noise Pollution on Wildlife Behavior
  • Studying the Relationship Between Temperature and Ice Melt Rates
  • Investigating the Effect of Urbanization on Local Bird Populations
  • Exploring the Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health in Urban Areas
  • Analyzing the Biodiversity of Insects in Urban vs. Rural Environments

Social Sciences

  • Analyzing the Impact of Social Media Use on Teenagers’ Mental Health
  • Investigating the Factors Influencing Online Shopping Behavior
  • Studying the Effects of Different Teaching Methods on Student Engagement
  • Analyzing the Impact of Parenting Styles on Children’s Academic Performance
  • Investigating the Relationship Between Music Preferences and Stress Levels
  • Exploring the Factors Contributing to Workplace Stress and Burnout
  • Studying the Effects of Socioeconomic Status on Access to Healthcare
  • Analyzing the Factors Influencing Voting Behavior in Local Elections
  • Investigating the Impact of Advertising on Consumer Purchasing Decisions
  • Exploring the Effects of Cultural Diversity on Team Performance in the Workplace

These SIP topics offer a wide range of research opportunities for students in biology, chemistry, physics, and environmental science. Students can choose topics that align with their interests and contribute to their understanding of the natural world.

Conducting Your SIP

So, you’ve picked an exciting Science Investigatory Project (SIP) topic and you’re all set to dive into the world of scientific exploration. But how do you go from a brilliant idea to conducting your own experiments? Let’s break it down into easy steps:

Step 1: Dive into Research

Before you start mixing chemicals or setting up experiments, it’s time for some detective work. Dive into research! What’s already out there about your topic? Books, articles, websites – explore them all. This background study gives you the superpower of knowledge before you even start.

Step 2: Hypothesize Away!

With all that newfound wisdom, formulate a hypothesis. Don your scientist’s hat and make an educated guess about what you think will happen during your experiments. It’s like making a bet with science itself!

Step 3: Time for Action

Now comes the fun part. Design your experiments. What materials do you need? What steps should you follow? Imagine you’re a mad scientist with a plan! Then, go ahead and conduct your experiments. Be precise, follow your plan, and observe like Sherlock.

Step 4: Collect That Data

During your experiments, be a data ninja. Record everything. Measurements, observations, weird surprises – they’re all clues! The more detailed your notes, the better.

Step 5: Decode Your Findings

Time to put on your detective’s hat again. What do your data and observations tell you? Look for patterns, anomalies, and secrets your experiments are revealing. This is where the real magic happens.

Step 6: The Big Reveal

Now, reveal the grand finale – your conclusions! Did your experiments support your hypothesis, or did they throw you a curveball? Discuss what your findings mean and why they matter. It’s like solving the mystery in a thrilling novel.

Step 7: Your SIP Report

Finally, put it all together in your SIP report. Think of it as your scientific storybook. Share your journey with the world. Start with the introduction, add in your methodology, sprinkle your results and discussions, and wrap it up with a conclusion that leaves your readers in awe.

Remember, this isn’t just about science; it’s about your adventure in discovering the unknown. Have fun, be curious, and let your inner scientist shine!

What is a good topic for an investigatory project?

A good topic for an investigatory project depends on your interests and the resources available to you. Here are some broad categories and potential topics to consider:

  • The Impact of Different Fertilizers on Plant Growth
  • Investigating the Effect of Air Pollution on Local Plant Life
  • Analyzing the Quality of Drinking Water from Various Sources
  • Studying the Growth of Microorganisms in Different Water Types
  • Creating Biodegradable Plastics from Natural Materials
  • Investigating the Chemical Composition of Household Cleaning Products
  • Analyzing the Effects of Different Cooking Oils on Food Nutrition
  • Testing the pH Levels of Various Household Substances
  • Studying the Behavior of Ants in Response to Different Food Types
  • Investigating the Impact of Light Exposure on Seed Germination
  • Analyzing the Effects of Different Music Types on Plant Growth
  • Designing and Testing a Simple Wind Turbine
  • Investigating the Relationship Between Temperature and Electrical Conductivity in Materials
  • Studying the Behavior of Different Types of Pendulums
  • Analyzing the Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Solar Panels
  • Analyzing the Impact of Social Media Use on Teenagers’ Sleep Patterns
  • Investigating the Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior in Online Shopping
  • Studying the Effects of Different Teaching Methods on Student Learning
  • Analyzing the Relationship Between Music Preferences and Mood

Computer Science and Technology

  • Developing a Smartphone App for Personal Productivity
  • Investigating the Factors Affecting Wi-Fi Signal Strength in Different Locations
  • Analyzing the Impact of Screen Time on Productivity and Well-being
  • Studying the Efficiency of Different Coding Languages in Software Development

When choosing a topic, consider your interests, available resources, and the potential impact of your project. It’s essential to select a topic that excites you and allows you to conduct meaningful research.

Additionally, check with your school or instructor for any specific guidelines or requirements for your investigatory project.

:

What should I do in a science investigatory project?

So, you’re all set to embark on a thrilling adventure known as a Science Investigatory Project (SIP). But where do you start, and what should you be doing? Here’s your guide to diving headfirst into the world of scientific exploration:

Choose a Topic That Sparks Your Interest

Begin by picking a topic that genuinely excites you. It should be something you’re curious about, like “Why do plants grow towards the light?” or “How does pollution affect local water quality?”

Unleash Your Inner Detective with Background Research

Dive into the world of books, articles, and online resources. Learn everything you can about your chosen topic. It’s like gathering clues to solve a mystery.

Craft Your Hypothesis – Your Educated Guess

Formulate a hypothesis. Think of it as your scientific prediction. What do you think will happen when you investigate your question? Make an educated guess and write it down.

Plan Your Scientific Experiments

Now, let’s get hands-on! Plan your experiments. What materials will you need? What steps will you follow? Imagine you’re a mad scientist with a plan to uncover the secrets of the universe!

Collect Data – Be a Data Ninja

During your experiments, be a data ninja! Record everything meticulously. Measurements, observations, quirky surprises – they’re all part of your data treasure trove.

Decode Your Findings – Be a Scientific Sleuth

Time to decode the clues! Analyze your data like a scientific sleuth. Look for patterns, unexpected twists, and, most importantly, what your experiments are trying to tell you.

Share Your Scientific Tale: The SIP Report

It’s time to tell your scientific tale. Create your SIP report – your storybook of science. Start with the introduction, add in your experiments, sprinkle with results, and wrap it up with a conclusion that leaves your readers in awe.

Share Your Discoveries with the World

If you can, share your SIP findings. Present your work to your classmates, at science fairs, or anywhere you can. Share your excitement about science with the world!

Remember, SIP isn’t just about following steps; it’s about your adventure in discovering the mysteries of the universe. So, stay curious, have fun, and let your inner scientist shine!

What are the best topics for investigatory project chemistry class 12?

Hey there, future chemists! It’s time to explore the fascinating world of Chemistry with some class 12 investigatory project ideas that will not only challenge your scientific skills but also pique your curiosity:

Water Wizardry

Dive into the world of H2O and analyze water samples from different sources – tap water, well water, and that bottled stuff. Let’s uncover the secrets of your hydration!

Biodiesel Bonanza

Ever wondered if you could turn cooking oil into fuel? Investigate the synthesis of biodiesel from everyday vegetable oils, and let’s see if we can power the future with French fries!

Vitamin C Showdown

Put on your lab coat and determine the vitamin C content in various fruit juices. Is your morning OJ really packed with vitamin C? Let’s find out!

Race Against Time – The Iodine Clock

Get ready to race time itself! Study the kinetics of the iodine clock reaction and see how factors like concentration and temperature affect this chemistry marvel.

Shampoo Chemistry

Let’s turn your shower into a science lab! Test the pH levels of different shampoos – are they gentle or are they acidic? Your hair deserves the best!

Heavy Metal Detectives

Investigate soils for heavy metals. Are there hidden dangers lurking beneath our feet? Let’s discover the truth and protect the environment.

Metal Makeover

Ever dreamed of turning ordinary objects into shimmering treasures? Electroplate items like coins or jewelry with various metals and unveil their magical transformations!

The Dye Chronicles

Explore the vibrant world of food dyes used in your favorite treats. What’s really behind those bright colors? Let’s uncover the secrets of our rainbow foods!

Solubility Sleuths

Unravel the mysteries of solubility! How does temperature impact the solubility of common salts? Let’s dissolve some science questions.

Perfume Alchemy

Dive into the world of fragrances! Analyze the chemical components in different perfumes and discover the magic behind your favorite scents.

Remember, the best project is one that not only challenges you but also stirs your scientific curiosity. Choose a topic that excites you, and let your chemistry adventure begin!

What are good science experiment ideas?

  • Light Dance with Plants: Imagine plants swaying to the rhythm of light! Explore how different types of light affect plant growth – from disco-like colorful LEDs to the soothing glow of natural sunlight.
  • Kitchen Warriors: Don your lab coat and investigate everyday kitchen items like garlic, honey, and vinegar as germ-fighting superheroes. Who knew your kitchen could be a battleground for bacteria?
  • Animal Extravaganza: Dive into the world of critters! Observe and report on the curious behaviors of your chosen animal buddies. It’s like being a wildlife detective in your own backyard.
  • Fizz, Pop, and Bang: Get ready for some explosive fun! Experiment with classic chemical reactions that sizzle and explode, like the volcanic eruption of baking soda and vinegar.
  • Titration Showdown: Become a master of precision with acid-base titration. Unlock the secrets of unknown solutions, like a chemistry detective solving mysteries.
  • Crystal Kingdom: Step into the magical world of crystals. Grow your own dazzling crystals and reveal how factors like temperature and concentration influence their growth.
  • Swingin’ Pendulums: Swing into action with pendulums! Investigate how factors like pendulum length and mass affect the way they sway. It’s like dancing with physics.
  • Machine Marvels: Enter the world of simple machines. Uncover the mechanical magic behind levers, pulleys, and inclined planes as you lift heavy objects with ease.
  • Electromagnet Madness: Get electrified! Build your own electromagnet and experiment with coils and currents to see how they shape magnetic fields.
  • Water Adventure: Dive into water quality testing. Collect samples from different sources and become a water detective, searching for clues about pollution and health.
  • Air Expedition: Take to the skies with your own air quality station. Discover what’s floating in the air around you, from tiny particles to invisible gases.
  • Climate Crusaders: Join the battle against climate change. Investigate how shifts in temperature and precipitation patterns impact your local ecosystem.

Earth Science

  • Rock Detectives: Grab your magnifying glass and investigate rocks and fossils in your area. It’s like traveling through time to uncover Earth’s ancient secrets.
  • Weather Watchers: Become a meteorologist with your own weather station. Predict the weather and marvel at how the atmosphere behaves around you.
  • Volcano Eruption Spectacle: Get ready for volcanic eruptions without the lava! Create a stunning volcano model and watch it come to life with your own eruptions.
  • Starry Nights: Explore the cosmos with a telescope and discover celestial wonders, from the rings of Saturn to the galaxies far, far away.
  • Moon Phases Odyssey: Join the lunar calendar club! Track the Moon’s different faces over weeks and become an expert on lunar phases.
  • Solar Eclipse Spectacle: Witness the sky’s ultimate blockbuster – a solar eclipse! Safely observe this cosmic dance with eclipse glasses and telescopes.

These science experiments are not just about learning; they’re about unleashing your inner scientist and having a blast along the way! So, pick your favorite, put on your lab coat, and let the science adventures begin!

In wrapping up our exploration of Science Investigatory Project (SIP) topics, it’s clear that we’ve uncovered a treasure trove of possibilities. These topics are more than just words on a page; they’re gateways to adventure, inquiry, and understanding.

We’ve ventured into diverse realms of science, from the secrets of plant life to the hidden chemistry of everyday items. We’ve danced with the laws of physics, delved into environmental enigmas, and probed the complexities of human behavior. These topics aren’t just ideas; they’re invitations to explore the wonders of our world.

So, as you consider your own SIP journey, let your curiosity be your compass. Pick a topic that truly intrigues you, one that keeps you awake at night with questions. Embrace the process – the experiments, the surprises, and the “Aha!” moments.

Remember, it’s not just about reaching a conclusion; it’s about the exhilarating path you take to get there. SIPs are your chance to be a scientist, an explorer, and a storyteller all at once. So, go ahead, choose your topic, embark on your adventure, and share your discoveries with the world. Science is waiting for your curiosity to light the way!

Frequently Asked Questions

1. how long does it typically take to complete a science investigatory project, the duration of an sip varies, but it generally spans a few months to a year, depending on the complexity of the topic and available resources., 2. can i work on an sip alone, or is it better to collaborate with classmates, you can choose to work on an sip individually or in a group. both approaches have their advantages, so it depends on your preference and the project’s requirements., 3. are there any age restrictions for participating in sips, sips are typically undertaken by students in middle school and high school, but there are no strict age restrictions. anyone with a passion for scientific inquiry can engage in an sip., 4. how can i find a mentor or advisor for my sip, you can seek guidance from science teachers, professors, or professionals in your chosen field. they can provide valuable insights and support throughout your sip journey., 5. where can i showcase my sip findings, you can present your sip findings at science fairs, school exhibitions, or even submit them to relevant scientific journals or conferences for broader recognition..

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Computer Science > Computation and Language

Title: what do language models learn in context the structured task hypothesis.

Abstract: Large language models (LLMs) exhibit an intriguing ability to learn a novel task from in-context examples presented in a demonstration, termed in-context learning (ICL). Understandably, a swath of research has been dedicated to uncovering the theories underpinning ICL. One popular hypothesis explains ICL by task selection. LLMs identify the task based on the demonstration and generalize it to the prompt. Another popular hypothesis is that ICL is a form of meta-learning, i.e., the models learn a learning algorithm at pre-training time and apply it to the demonstration. Finally, a third hypothesis argues that LLMs use the demonstration to select a composition of tasks learned during pre-training to perform ICL. In this paper, we empirically explore these three hypotheses that explain LLMs' ability to learn in context with a suite of experiments derived from common text classification tasks. We invalidate the first two hypotheses with counterexamples and provide evidence in support of the last hypothesis. Our results suggest an LLM could learn a novel task in context via composing tasks learned during pre-training.
Comments: This work is published in ACL 2024
Subjects: Computation and Language (cs.CL); Machine Learning (cs.LG)
Cite as: [cs.CL]
  (or [cs.CL] for this version)
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  4. Parts of the Science Investigatory Project

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    hypothesis example in science investigatory project

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  1. Computer Science Investigatory Project

  2. Science Investigatory Project Vlog

  3. WHAT IS A HYPOTHESIS?| INVESTIGATORY PROJECT| TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS

  4. Proportion Hypothesis Testing, example 2

  5. What is Hypothesis? Example of Hypothesis [#shorts] [#statistics

  6. Two-Sample Hypothesis Testing: Dependent Sample

COMMENTS

  1. Writing a Hypothesis for Your Science Fair Project

    A hypothesis is a tentative, testable answer to a scientific question. Once a scientist has a scientific question she is interested in, the scientist reads up to find out what is already known on the topic. Then she uses that information to form a tentative answer to her scientific question. Sometimes people refer to the tentative answer as "an ...

  2. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

    Developing a hypothesis (with example) Step 1. Ask a question. Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project. Example: Research question.

  3. Hypothesis Examples

    Here are some research hypothesis examples: If you leave the lights on, then it takes longer for people to fall asleep. If you refrigerate apples, they last longer before going bad. If you keep the curtains closed, then you need less electricity to heat or cool the house (the electric bill is lower). If you leave a bucket of water uncovered ...

  4. Writing a Hypothesis for Your Science Fair Project

    The goal of a science project is not to prove your hypothesis right or wrong. The goal is to learn more about how the natural world works. Even in a science fair, judges can be impressed by a project that started with a bad hypothesis. What matters is that you understood your project, did a good experiment, and have ideas for how to make it better.

  5. What are the parts of a scientific investigatory project (SIP)?

    Science Investigatory Project. ... It is recommended to use null hypothesis in your research project. 4. Significance of the Study. ... It includes the period of research, the materials and equipment to be used, the subject of the study or the sample of the study, the procedure and the statistical treatment to be used. ...

  6. How to Do a Science Investigatory Project: 12 Steps

    A Science Investigatory Project (SIP) uses the scientific method to study and test an idea about how something works. It involves researching a topic, formulating a working theory (or hypothesis) that can be tested, conducting the experiment, and recording and reporting the results.

  7. Scientific Hypothesis Examples

    Scientific Hypothesis Examples . Hypothesis: All forks have three tines. This would be disproven if you find any fork with a different number of tines. Hypothesis: There is no relationship between smoking and lung cancer.While it is difficult to establish cause and effect in health issues, you can apply statistics to data to discredit or support this hypothesis.

  8. Subject Guides: Scientific Method: Step 3: HYPOTHESIS

    Now it's time to state your hypothesis. The hypothesis is an educated guess as to what will happen during your experiment. The hypothesis is often written using the words "IF" and "THEN." For example, "If I do not study, then I will fail the test." The "if' and "then" statements reflect your independent and dependent variables.

  9. Hypothesis Examples: Different Types in Science and Research

    To form a solid theory, the vital first step is creating a hypothesis. See the various types of hypotheses and how they can lead you on the path to discovery.

  10. Writing an Introduction for a Scientific Paper

    Dr. Michelle Harris, Dr. Janet Batzli,Biocore. This section provides guidelines on how to construct a solid introduction to a scientific paper including background information, study question, biological rationale, hypothesis, and general approach. If the Introduction is done well, there should be no question in the reader's mind why and on ...

  11. 4. Creating a Hypothesis for Research-Based Capstone Projects

    Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis. A good hypothesis is based on a good guiding question (refer to Chapter 3). The hypothesis is developed from the guiding question and also from the main elements of a research-based capstone project: sampling strategy, intervention, comparison (if applicable), and outcomes.

  12. PDF investigatory prject work

    Reporting/Writing of Project. format, such as given below, can be followed. Title of the investigatory project: Write the title of the project, for example, 'Inheritance pattern of eye colour'. Objectives: Express as clearly as possible the effect of one variable that the experiment is designed to investigate.

  13. What is a Science Investigatory Project?

    A science investigatory project is a science-based research project or study that is performed by school children in a classroom, exhibition or science fair. ... The null hypothesis for the above example could be 'sedimentation is not able to purify used cooking oil'.

  14. Sample Conclusions

    Conclusions. My hypothesis was that Energizer would last the longest in all of the devices tested. My results do support my hypothesis. I think the tests I did went smoothly and I had no problems, except for the fact that the batteries recover some of their voltage if they are not running in something. Therefore, I had to take the measurements ...

  15. How to Formulate a Null Hypothesis (With Examples)

    To distinguish it from other hypotheses, the null hypothesis is written as H 0 (which is read as "H-nought," "H-null," or "H-zero"). A significance test is used to determine the likelihood that the results supporting the null hypothesis are not due to chance. A confidence level of 95% or 99% is common. Keep in mind, even if the confidence level is high, there is still a small chance the ...

  16. Science Investigatory Project 2019

    This document provides guidance on the components and structure of a Science Investigatory Project (SIP). It explains that a SIP uses the scientific method to study an idea through researching, developing a hypothesis, experimentation, and reporting results. The document then outlines each section of a SIP, including the title, statement of problems, hypothesis, methodology, presentation of ...

  17. The Best Investigatory Projects in Science: 16 Fun & Easy Ideas to

    An investigatory project is basically any science experiment where you start with an issue or problem and conduct research or an investigation to decide what you think the outcome will be. After you've created your hypothesis or proposal, you can conduct a controlled experiment using the scientific method to arrive at a conclusion.

  18. 70 Best High School Science Fair Projects in Every Subject

    Remove the air in a DIY vacuum chamber. Instructables. Difficulty: Medium / Materials: Medium. You can use a vacuum chamber to do lots of cool high school science fair projects, but a ready-made one can be expensive. Try this project to make your own with basic supplies. Learn more: Vacuum Chamber at Instructables.

  19. 23+ Science Investigatory Project Topics for Curious Minds

    Here in this section, we will tell you the top 23+ science investigatory project topics for curious minds: 1. Investigating the effects of caffeine on plant growth. This project involves growing plants in different concentrations of caffeine and measuring their growth over time. 2.

  20. 110+ Best Science Investigatory Project Topics: Dive into Science

    Whether you're mixing chemicals, observing insects, or measuring temperature, you're the scientist in charge. Step 4: Clues and Evidence. As you experiment, you collect clues in the form of data - numbers, measurements, observations. It's like gathering puzzle pieces. Step 5: The "Aha!".

  21. (PDF) Science Investigatory Project Instruction: The ...

    Abstract Science investigatory projects (SIPs) are. authentic tasks that Science teachers implement in science. curriculum. With this, the study investigated the journey. of the secondary schools ...

  22. Environmental Science Science Projects

    Environmental Science Science Projects. (57 results) As humans we are part of the environment. With over 7.5 billion of us on Earth, our combined actions also have a big impact on the environment. As long as we are aware of the impact, we can do things as individuals, and working together as groups, to lessen the detrimental impact of billions ...

  23. Science Investigatory Project

    sample research first place winner regional science fair competition regional office deped, candahug, palo, leyte october 2-3, 2010. extraction of ethanol from corn ( zea maize) stalks. a research paper presented to regiseptember 11-12, 2010onal science fair 2010 deped, candahug, palo, leyte. janelle s. sarvida, ii-mg researcher september 2010 ...

  24. What Do Language Models Learn in Context? The Structured Task Hypothesis

    Large language models (LLMs) exhibit an intriguing ability to learn a novel task from in-context examples presented in a demonstration, termed in-context learning (ICL). Understandably, a swath of research has been dedicated to uncovering the theories underpinning ICL. One popular hypothesis explains ICL by task selection. LLMs identify the task based on the demonstration and generalize it to ...