- Utility Menu
- Questions about Expos?
- Writing Support for Instructors
- Strategies for Essay Writing: Downloadable PDFs
Strategies for Essay Writing: PDFs
Strategies for essay writing--complete.
- Tips for Reading an Assignment Prompt
- Asking Analytical Questions
- What Do Introductions Across the Disciplines Have in Common?
Anatomy Of a Body Paragraph
- Tips for Organizing Your Essay
- Anatomy of a Body Paragraph
- Brief Guides to Writing in the Disciplines
- Schedule an Appointment
- English Grammar and Language Tutor
- Drop-in hours
- Harvard Guide to Using Sources
- Departmental Writing Fellows
- Writing Advice: The Harvard Writing Tutor Blog
Have a language expert improve your writing
Run a free plagiarism check in 10 minutes, generate accurate citations for free.
- Knowledge Base
- How to structure an essay: Templates and tips
How to Structure an Essay | Tips & Templates
Published on September 18, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on July 23, 2023.
The basic structure of an essay always consists of an introduction , a body , and a conclusion . But for many students, the most difficult part of structuring an essay is deciding how to organize information within the body.
Table of contents
The basics of essay structure, chronological structure, compare-and-contrast structure, problems-methods-solutions structure, signposting to clarify your structure, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about essay structure.
There are two main things to keep in mind when working on your essay structure: making sure to include the right information in each part, and deciding how you’ll organize the information within the body.
Parts of an essay
The three parts that make up all essays are described in the table below.
Order of information
You’ll also have to consider how to present information within the body. There are a few general principles that can guide you here.
The first is that your argument should move from the simplest claim to the most complex . The body of a good argumentative essay often begins with simple and widely accepted claims, and then moves towards more complex and contentious ones.
For example, you might begin by describing a generally accepted philosophical concept, and then apply it to a new topic. The grounding in the general concept will allow the reader to understand your unique application of it.
The second principle is that background information should appear towards the beginning of your essay . General background is presented in the introduction. If you have additional background to present, this information will usually come at the start of the body.
The third principle is that everything in your essay should be relevant to the thesis . Ask yourself whether each piece of information advances your argument or provides necessary background. And make sure that the text clearly expresses each piece of information’s relevance.
The sections below present several organizational templates for essays: the chronological approach, the compare-and-contrast approach, and the problems-methods-solutions approach.
Here's why students love Scribbr's proofreading services
Discover proofreading & editing
The chronological approach (sometimes called the cause-and-effect approach) is probably the simplest way to structure an essay. It just means discussing events in the order in which they occurred, discussing how they are related (i.e. the cause and effect involved) as you go.
A chronological approach can be useful when your essay is about a series of events. Don’t rule out other approaches, though—even when the chronological approach is the obvious one, you might be able to bring out more with a different structure.
Explore the tabs below to see a general template and a specific example outline from an essay on the invention of the printing press.
- Thesis statement
- Discussion of event/period
- Importance of topic
- Strong closing statement
- Claim that the printing press marks the end of the Middle Ages
- Background on the low levels of literacy before the printing press
- Thesis statement: The invention of the printing press increased circulation of information in Europe, paving the way for the Reformation
- High levels of illiteracy in medieval Europe
- Literacy and thus knowledge and education were mainly the domain of religious and political elites
- Consequence: this discouraged political and religious change
- Invention of the printing press in 1440 by Johannes Gutenberg
- Implications of the new technology for book production
- Consequence: Rapid spread of the technology and the printing of the Gutenberg Bible
- Trend for translating the Bible into vernacular languages during the years following the printing press’s invention
- Luther’s own translation of the Bible during the Reformation
- Consequence: The large-scale effects the Reformation would have on religion and politics
- Summarize the history described
- Stress the significance of the printing press to the events of this period
Essays with two or more main subjects are often structured around comparing and contrasting . For example, a literary analysis essay might compare two different texts, and an argumentative essay might compare the strengths of different arguments.
There are two main ways of structuring a compare-and-contrast essay: the alternating method, and the block method.
In the alternating method, each paragraph compares your subjects in terms of a specific point of comparison. These points of comparison are therefore what defines each paragraph.
The tabs below show a general template for this structure, and a specific example for an essay comparing and contrasting distance learning with traditional classroom learning.
- Synthesis of arguments
- Topical relevance of distance learning in lockdown
- Increasing prevalence of distance learning over the last decade
- Thesis statement: While distance learning has certain advantages, it introduces multiple new accessibility issues that must be addressed for it to be as effective as classroom learning
- Classroom learning: Ease of identifying difficulties and privately discussing them
- Distance learning: Difficulty of noticing and unobtrusively helping
- Classroom learning: Difficulties accessing the classroom (disability, distance travelled from home)
- Distance learning: Difficulties with online work (lack of tech literacy, unreliable connection, distractions)
- Classroom learning: Tends to encourage personal engagement among students and with teacher, more relaxed social environment
- Distance learning: Greater ability to reach out to teacher privately
- Sum up, emphasize that distance learning introduces more difficulties than it solves
- Stress the importance of addressing issues with distance learning as it becomes increasingly common
- Distance learning may prove to be the future, but it still has a long way to go
In the block method, each subject is covered all in one go, potentially across multiple paragraphs. For example, you might write two paragraphs about your first subject and then two about your second subject, making comparisons back to the first.
The tabs again show a general template, followed by another essay on distance learning, this time with the body structured in blocks.
- Point 1 (compare)
- Point 2 (compare)
- Point 3 (compare)
- Point 4 (compare)
- Advantages: Flexibility, accessibility
- Disadvantages: Discomfort, challenges for those with poor internet or tech literacy
- Advantages: Potential for teacher to discuss issues with a student in a separate private call
- Disadvantages: Difficulty of identifying struggling students and aiding them unobtrusively, lack of personal interaction among students
- Advantages: More accessible to those with low tech literacy, equality of all sharing one learning environment
- Disadvantages: Students must live close enough to attend, commutes may vary, classrooms not always accessible for disabled students
- Advantages: Ease of picking up on signs a student is struggling, more personal interaction among students
- Disadvantages: May be harder for students to approach teacher privately in person to raise issues
An essay that concerns a specific problem (practical or theoretical) may be structured according to the problems-methods-solutions approach.
This is just what it sounds like: You define the problem, characterize a method or theory that may solve it, and finally analyze the problem, using this method or theory to arrive at a solution. If the problem is theoretical, the solution might be the analysis you present in the essay itself; otherwise, you might just present a proposed solution.
The tabs below show a template for this structure and an example outline for an essay about the problem of fake news.
- Introduce the problem
- Provide background
- Describe your approach to solving it
- Define the problem precisely
- Describe why it’s important
- Indicate previous approaches to the problem
- Present your new approach, and why it’s better
- Apply the new method or theory to the problem
- Indicate the solution you arrive at by doing so
- Assess (potential or actual) effectiveness of solution
- Describe the implications
- Problem: The growth of “fake news” online
- Prevalence of polarized/conspiracy-focused news sources online
- Thesis statement: Rather than attempting to stamp out online fake news through social media moderation, an effective approach to combating it must work with educational institutions to improve media literacy
- Definition: Deliberate disinformation designed to spread virally online
- Popularization of the term, growth of the phenomenon
- Previous approaches: Labeling and moderation on social media platforms
- Critique: This approach feeds conspiracies; the real solution is to improve media literacy so users can better identify fake news
- Greater emphasis should be placed on media literacy education in schools
- This allows people to assess news sources independently, rather than just being told which ones to trust
- This is a long-term solution but could be highly effective
- It would require significant organization and investment, but would equip people to judge news sources more effectively
- Rather than trying to contain the spread of fake news, we must teach the next generation not to fall for it
The only proofreading tool specialized in correcting academic writing
The academic proofreading tool has been trained on 1000s of academic texts and by native English editors. It's the most accurate and reliable proofreading tool for students.
Correct my document
Signposting means guiding the reader through your essay with language that describes or hints at the structure of what follows. It can help you clarify your structure for yourself as well as helping your reader follow your ideas.
The essay overview
In longer essays whose body is split into multiple named sections, the introduction often ends with an overview of the rest of the essay. This gives a brief description of the main idea or argument of each section.
The overview allows the reader to immediately understand what will be covered in the essay and in what order. Though it describes what comes later in the text, it is generally written in the present tense . The following example is from a literary analysis essay on Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein .
Transition words and phrases are used throughout all good essays to link together different ideas. They help guide the reader through your text, and an essay that uses them effectively will be much easier to follow.
Various different relationships can be expressed by transition words, as shown in this example.
Because Hitler failed to respond to the British ultimatum, France and the UK declared war on Germany. Although it was an outcome the Allies had hoped to avoid, they were prepared to back up their ultimatum in order to combat the existential threat posed by the Third Reich.
Transition sentences may be included to transition between different paragraphs or sections of an essay. A good transition sentence moves the reader on to the next topic while indicating how it relates to the previous one.
… Distance learning, then, seems to improve accessibility in some ways while representing a step backwards in others.
However , considering the issue of personal interaction among students presents a different picture.
If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!
- Ad hominem fallacy
- Post hoc fallacy
- Appeal to authority fallacy
- False cause fallacy
- Sunk cost fallacy
- Choosing Essay Topic
- Write a College Essay
- Write a Diversity Essay
- College Essay Format & Structure
- Comparing and Contrasting in an Essay
- Grammar Checker
- Paraphrasing Tool
- Text Summarizer
- AI Detector
- Plagiarism Checker
- Citation Generator
The structure of an essay is divided into an introduction that presents your topic and thesis statement , a body containing your in-depth analysis and arguments, and a conclusion wrapping up your ideas.
The structure of the body is flexible, but you should always spend some time thinking about how you can organize your essay to best serve your ideas.
An essay isn’t just a loose collection of facts and ideas. Instead, it should be centered on an overarching argument (summarized in your thesis statement ) that every part of the essay relates to.
The way you structure your essay is crucial to presenting your argument coherently. A well-structured essay helps your reader follow the logic of your ideas and understand your overall point.
Comparisons in essays are generally structured in one of two ways:
- The alternating method, where you compare your subjects side by side according to one specific aspect at a time.
- The block method, where you cover each subject separately in its entirety.
It’s also possible to combine both methods, for example by writing a full paragraph on each of your topics and then a final paragraph contrasting the two according to a specific metric.
You should try to follow your outline as you write your essay . However, if your ideas change or it becomes clear that your structure could be better, it’s okay to depart from your essay outline . Just make sure you know why you’re doing so.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2023, July 23). How to Structure an Essay | Tips & Templates. Scribbr. Retrieved January 2, 2024, from https://www.scribbr.com/academic-essay/essay-structure/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, comparing and contrasting in an essay | tips & examples, how to write the body of an essay | drafting & redrafting, transition sentences | tips & examples for clear writing, what is your plagiarism score.
- Campus Library Info.
- ARC Homepage
- Library Resources
- Articles & Databases
- Books & Ebooks
Baker College Research Guides
- Research Guides
- General Education
Baker College Writing Guide
- Key Components of an Essay
- Writing Process
Starting an Essay
Essay structure, writing a thesis statement, introduction paragraphs, body paragraphs, conclusions.
- Paragraph Structure
- Finding and Using Scholarly Research
- Using Bias-Free Language
- Writing Genres
- Sentence Structure
- Punctuation and Grammar
- Revision, Editing, and Proofreading
Almost every course you will encounter in college will include writing assignments. One of the most common writing assignments is known as an essay. While the content and style of essay projects will vary across the disciplines, there are a number of key components that all good essays include. This section of the guide walks you through some of the basic components of the essay genre. Here are some general thoughts before you get started.
- A good essay is well-organized and structured. Good essays have a clear introduction, thesis, and conclusion. Body paragraphs in the essay connect back to the thesis.
- In college, we are no longer tied to a five-paragraph essay (unless an instructor specifically asks for this). Our essays in college can range in length. Some projects may be more than 10 pages, so it would be impossible to use only 5 paragraphs for an essay of this length.
- Because we are no longer tied to a 5-paragraph essay, we do not have to include "three points" in our thesis statement as we may have done in other courses.
- Essays should be cohesive and have a good flow. We can create this flow by using transition words and phrases to connect one point to the next.
- Remember to the review the directions before you start. One can produce a wonderfully-written essay, but if it does not meet the project's parameters, it will not usually receive a passing grade.
- Schedule a meeting with your instructor or tutor before you begin. Visit http://baker.mywconline.com/ to schedule a meeting with a professional tutor.
- Parts of an Essay This handout breaks down an essay into it core parts. This short video will provide you with essay structure help.
- Creating a Strong Thesis Statement Here are some brief tips about how to write a strong thesis statement for your college writing project.
- How to Write an Excellent Introduction This handout leads you through a number of successful strategies to garner reader interest and transition into your thesis statement.
- Creating Body Paragraphs This resource walks you through paragraph creation including how to implement good topic sentences, proper organization, and excellent development.
- Crafting a Strong Conclusion We often focus on creating a strong introduction, but crafting a well-written conclusion is just as important.
- << Previous: Writing Process
- Next: Paragraph Structure >>
- Last Updated: Oct 9, 2023 11:35 AM
- URL: https://guides.baker.edu/writing
- Search this Guide Search
- Food & Beverages
- Marketing Examples
33+ Essay Examples in PDF
Essay Examples In Pdf
Sample essay plan, free simple essay plan template, free essay writing plan template, essay plan example, college essay, argumentative essay, persuasive essay, expository essay, narrative essay, scholarship essay, synthesis essay, comparative essay, classification essay, forgiveness essay, informative essay, interview essay, leadership essay, literacy essay, observation essay, transfer essay sample, what is an essay, how to write an essay, what are the kinds of essays, why is it important to create an outline for writing an essay, what is the importance of an essay.
- Google Docs
- Editable PDF
- Apple Pages
College Essay Outline Template
Research Paper For College Essay Template
College Narrative Essay Template
Narrative Essay Outline For College Template
College Application Example
Argumentative Essay Format Template
Argumentative Essay Writing Middle School Template
Social Media Argumentative Essay Template
5-Paragraph Argumentative Essay Template
Argumentative Essay Writing Template
Argumentative Essay Outline Template
Argumentative Essay Graphic Organizer Template
- Google Slides
Persuasive Essay Outline
Short Essay Example
Narrative Essay Outline Template
Personal Narrative Essay Template
Narrative Essay Template
Narrative Photo Sample
Nursing Scholarship Example
College Essay Sample
Comparative Essay Plan Template
Comparative Format Example
Permitative Classification Essay
Forgiveness Short Sample
Informative Essay Template
Short Informative Example
Student Essay Example
Financial Essay Sample
Child Observation Example
Travel Essay Example
Step 1: Follow the Essay Outline Format
Step 2: focus on your topic, step 3: set some examples and opinions on the topic you chose, step 4: remember to proofread your work, more design, 6+ self-introduction essay examples & samples, 6+ analytical essay examples, 5+ persuasive essay examples & samples, 3+ effective ways and examples to start your essay, what are the parts of an essay, tips for writing an effective essay, argumentative essay examples, steps for writing contest-winning essays, 9+ reference essay examples, 10+ scholarship essay examples & samples.
- id; ?>)" rel="noopener" role="button" tabindex="0" aria-label="postclick">22+ Free Essay Examples
- id; ?>)" rel="noopener" role="button" tabindex="0" aria-label="postclick">26+ Examples of Essay Outlines
Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.
To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser .
Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.
- We're Hiring!
- Help Center
components of an essay
In this discourse, the paper is going to discuss the components of an essay, the importance of intext-citation and bibliography, and then a conclusion shall be drawn to sum up the up the entire discussion.
This qualitative study reports features of drafting, revising and strategies to write an English essay. The study was done in State Islamic Instute (IAIN) Surakarta, Indonesia on January to April 2015, assigning 30 students as the research subject. The study revealed that in drafting and revising process in writing were differently produced by lower, middle and upper groups. Lower group did not write outline and produced first draft without planning. Thesis statement, topic sentence and concluding paragraph did not appear. The middle gruop was able to produce thesis stetament, body paragraphs and conclusion, but they focused less on revising and proofreading. The upper group exhibitted by performing all aspects of an essay in each rhetorical patterns. Drafting and revising were used appropriately. All groups asserted literal translation to develop ideas and overcome problems on diction.
Universal Journal of Educational Research
This paper examines different factors which affect the academic performance of students of the Bachelor of Arts (Honours) in Accounting and Finance (BAAF) at Kolej Poly-Tech Mara, Bangi. The study provides insights into the association between different entry qualifications and academic outcomes, complementing the evidence that advocates the implementation of academic merit for admission. This paper expands this evidence base by examining relationships between entry qualification, a pre-degree academic performance used for admission, and performance at the BAAF programme conducted in Malaysia. Regression results showed that the student’s CGPA for entry, English proficiency (MUET) and entry qualification were significant factors for the academic performance in the BAAF programme at the 1% level. Comparing the academic performance of two different entry qualifications, the result of independent t-test shows that students who enter with Diploma from UiTM performed better than the students who graduated with a Diploma from Kolej Poly-Tech MARA. This study only focuses on BAAF students at Kolej Poly-Tech Mara, Bangi. Thus, the findings are specific to the conditions at this college and are not generalisable. A similar study could be done at other colleges and universities so that comparisons and generalisations could be derived. The results of this study have several implications for university administrators and policymakers. It justifies setting the requirement for entry. The results show that the same minimum point system of entry can be unfair to students from different entry qualifications. Furthermore, the minimum grade point required (min CGPA) for entry must consider the entire curriculum of the qualification used for entry.
Jena Economic Research Papers
Abstract: We use a two-person public goods experiment to distinguish between efficiency and fairness as possible motivations for cooperative behavior. Asymmetric marginal per capita returns allow only the high-productivity player to increase group payouts when contributing positive amounts. Asymmetric contributions, however, yield unequal individual payouts. To assess a priori cooperative preferences, we measure individual'value-orientations' by means of the decomposed game technique.
Physical Review Letters
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
Evgeny N Nikolaev
Fundus autofluorescence mostly originates from bisretinoid fluorophores in lipofuscin granules, which accumulate in retinal-pigment-epithelium cells with age. The dynamics of accumulation, photo-oxidation, and photodegradation of bisretinoids during aging or in the presence of pathology have been insufficiently investigated. Changes in spectral properties and composition of human lipofuscin-granule fluorophores with age and pathology have now been investigated by a high-performance liquid chromatography method using spectrophotometric and fluorescent detectors connected in series. It was found that: (i) N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) fluorescence intensity is not predominant in the chloroform extract of human-cadaver-eye retinal pigment epithelium studied; bisretinoid photo-oxidation and photodegradation products have much higher fluorescent properties; (ii) the relative emission maximum in the fluorescence spectrum of suspended retinal-pigment-epithelium cells obtained ...
Hormones such as fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and glucocorticoids (GCs) play crucial roles in coordinating the adaptive starvation response. Here we examine the interplay between these hormones. It was previously shown that FGF21 induces corticosterone levels in mice by acting on the brain. We now show that this induces the expression of genes required for GC synthesis in the adrenal gland. FGF21 also increases corticosterone secretion from the adrenal in response to ACTH. We further show that the relationship between FGF21 and GCs is bidirectional. GCs induce Fgf21 expression in the liver by acting on the GC receptor (GR). The GR binds in a ligand-dependent manner to a noncanonical GR response element located approximately 4.4 kb upstream of the Fgf21 transcription start site. The GR cooperates with the nuclear fatty acid receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, to stimulate Fgf21 transcription. GR and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α ligands have ...
European Journal of Immunology
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology
Latin Grammars in Transition, 1200 - 1600
Journal of Physics: Conference Series
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Norwegian Journal of Geology
Anatomy, Posture, Prevalence, Pain, Treatment and Interventions of Musculoskeletal Disorders
QED: A Journal in GLBTQ Worldmaking
Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry
National census of university student accommodation providers 2014
Journal of Clinical Oncology
Culture, Practice & Europeanization
Journal of Neuroscience Research
Hirokazu Ohtaki , Hana Inoue
NDT & E International
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
- We're Hiring!
- Help Center
- Find new research papers in:
- Health Sciences
- Earth Sciences
- Cognitive Science
- Computer Science
- Academia ©2024